Vibration analysis and ultra sonic testing Interview Questions & Answers

  1. Question 1. What Is Ultrasonic Testing?

    Answer :

    Ultrasonic nondestructive testing, also known as ultrasonic NDT or simply UT, is a method of characterizing the thickness or internal structure of a test piece through the use of high frequency sound waves. The frequencies, or pitch, used for ultrasonic testing are many times higher than the limit of human hearing, most commonly in the range from 500 KHz to 20 MHz.

  2. Question 2. How Does Ultra Sonic Testing Work?

    Answer :

    High frequency sound waves are very directional, and they will travel through a medium (like a piece of steel or plastic) until they encounter a boundary with another medium (like air), at which point they reflect back to their source. By analyzing these reflections it is possible to measure the thickness of a test piece, or find evidence of cracks or other hidden internal flaws.

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  4. Question 3. What Sort Of Materials Can Be Tested?

    Answer :

    In industrial applications, ultrasonic testing is widely used on metals, plastics, composites, and ceramics. The only common engineering materials that are not suitable for ultrasonic testing with conventional equipment are wood and paper products. Ultrasonic technology is also widely used in the biomedical field for diagnostic imaging and medical research.

  5. Question 4. What Are The Advantages Of Ultrasonic Testing?

    Answer :

    Ultrasonic testing is completely nondestructive. The test piece does not have to be cut, sectioned, or exposed to damaging chemicals. Access to only one side is required, unlike measurement with mechanical thickness tools like calipers and micrometers. There are no potential health hazards associated with ultrasonic testing, unlike radiography. When a test has been properly set up, results are highly repeatable and reliable.

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  7. Question 5. What Are The Potential Limitations Of Ultrasonic Testing?

    Answer :

    Ultrasonic flaw detection requires a trained operator who can set up a test with the aid of appropriate reference standards and properly interpret the results. Inspection of some complex geometries may be challenging. Ultrasonic thickness gages must be calibrated with respect to the material being measured, and applications requiring a wide range of thickness measurement or measurement of acoustically diverse materials may require multiple setups. Ultrasonic thickness gages are more expensive than mechanical measurement devices.

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  9. Question 6. What Is An Ultrasonic Transducer?

    Answer :

    A transducer is any device that converts one form of energy into another. An ultrasonic transducer converts electrical energy into mechanical vibrations (sound waves), and sound waves into electrical energy. Typically, they are small, hand-held assemblies that come in a wide variety of frequencies and style to accommodate specific test needs.

  10. Question 7. What Is An Ultrasonic Thickness Gage?

    Answer :

    An ultrasonic thickness gage is an instrument that generates sound pulses in a test piece and very precisely measures the time interval until echoes are received. Having been programmed with the speed of sound in the test material, the gage utilizes that sound velocity information and the measured time interval to calculate thickness via the simple relationship [distance] equals [velocity] multiplied by [time].

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  12. Question 8. How Accurate Is Ultrasonic Thickness Gaging?

    Answer :

    Under optimum conditions, commercial ultrasonic gages can achieve accuracies as high as +/- 0.001 mm (0.00004″), with accuracies of +/- 0.025 mm (0.001″) or better possible in most common engineering materials. Factors affecting accuracy include the uniformity of sound velocity the test material, the degree of sound scattering or absorption, the surface condition, and the accuracy and care with which the instrument has been calibrated for the application at hand.

  13. Question 9. Who Uses Ultrasonic Gages?

    Answer :

    A major use for ultrasonic gages is the measurement of remaining wall thickness in corroded pipes and tanks. The measurement can be made quickly and easily without needing access to the inside or requiring the pipe or tank to be emptied. Other important applications include measuring the thickness of molded plastic bottles and similar containers, turbine blades and other precision machined or cast parts, small diameter medical tubing, rubber tires and conveyor belts, fiberglass boat hulls, and even contact lenses.

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  15. Question 10. What Is An Ultrasonic Flaw Detector?

    Answer :

    Sound waves traveling through a material will reflect in predictable ways off of flaws such as cracks and voids. An ultrasonic flaw detector is an instrument that generates and processes ultrasonic signals to create a waveform display that can be used by a trained operator to identify hidden flaws in a test piece. The operator identifies the characteristic reflection pattern from a good part, and then looks for changes in that reflection pattern that may indicate flaws.

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  17. Question 11. What Kind Of Flaws Can You Find With One?

    Answer :

    A wide variety of cracks, voids, disbonds, inclusions, and similar problems that affect structural integrity can all be located and measured with ultrasonic flaw detectors. The minimum detectable flaw size in a given application will depend on the type of material being tested and the type of flaw under consideration.

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  19. Question 12. Who Uses Ultrasonic Flaw Detectors?

    Answer :

    Ultrasonic flaw detectors are widely used in critical safety-related and quality-related applications involving structural welds, steel beams, forgings, pipelines and tanks, aircraft engines and frames, automobile frames, railroad rails, power turbines and other heavy machinery, ship hulls, castings, and many other important applications.

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  21. Question 13. What Other Types Of Instruments Are Available?

    Answer :

    Ultrasonic imaging systems are used to generate highly detailed pictures similar to x-rays, mapping the internal structure of a part with sound waves. Phased array technology originally developed for medical diagnostic imaging is used in industrial situations to create cross-sectional pictures. Large scanning systems are used by the aerospace industry and metalworking suppliers to check for hidden flaws in both raw materials and finished parts. Ultrasonic pulser/receivers and signal analyzers are used in a variety of materials research applications.

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  23. Question 14. What Is Vibration Analysis?

    Answer :

    Vibration Analysis (VA), applied in an industrial or maintenance environment aims to reduce maintenance costs and equipment downtime by detecting equipment faults. VA is a key component of a Condition Monitoring (CM) program, and is often referred to as Predictive Maintenance (PdM).

  24. Question 15. What Is The Unit Of Vibration?

    Answer :

    Important parameters relating to vibration pickups/vibrometers are described below: (1) Vibration frequency Unit: Hz (Hertz) Symbol: f Refers to the number of times a vibrating object vibrates per second. The inverse of a vibration frequency is referred to as the period (T), T=1/f.

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  26. Question 16. How Do You Measure Vibration?

    Answer :

    The vibration velocity, acceleration, and expansion in a frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 kHz can be measured. The cables of the vibration sensors are 1.2 m long, so the vibration measuring device is able to record vibrations at different points of the component to be tested.

  27. Question 17. What Instrument Is Used To Measure Vibration?

    Answer :

    Accelerometers are instruments for measuring, displaying, and analyzing acceleration and vibration. Vibration sensors cover sensors and other instruments used for measuring vibration and acceleration.

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  29. Question 18. What Is A Vibrometer?

    Answer :

    A vibrometer is generally a two beam laser interferometer that measures the frequency (or phase) difference between an internal reference beam and a test beam. The most common type of laser in an LDV is the helium–neon laser, although laser diodes, fiber lasers, and Nd:YAG lasers are also used.

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  31. Question 19. What Is Ips In Vibration?

    Answer :

    The vibration amplitude is commonly expressed in one of three units of measure – displacement (mils or microns), velocity (inches per second (ips) or mm/s), and acceleration (ips^2 or mm/s^2). Each type of measurement is used for a specific purpose.

  32. Question 20. What Is Resonance In Vibration?

    Answer :

    Resonance is the result of an external force vibrating at the same frequency as the natural frequency of a system. Natural frequency is a characteristic of every machine, structure and even animals. Often, resonance can be confused with the natural frequency or critical frequency.

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  34. Question 21. What Is A Vibration Sensor?

    Answer :

    Vibration sensors are sensors for measuring, displaying, and analyzing linear velocity, displacement and proximity, or acceleration. Vibration — however subtle and unnoticed by human senses — is a telltale sign of machine condition.

  35. Question 22. What Is Vibration?

    Answer :

    Vibration is defined as the motion  of the equipment or its part to and from its rest(static) condition.

  36. Question 23. How Often Should Vibration Analysis Be Performed?

    Answer :

    Several factors such as equipment runtime, criticality, running environment conditions, etc. help determine how often vibration needs to be performed.  On equipment that runs year round, quarterly vibration analysis is recommended as a minimum frequency. However, many manufacturing environments require monthly vibration analysis on critical machinery.

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  38. Question 24. What Issues Can Be Found With Vibration Analysis?

    Answer :

    Vibration analysis can help diagnose many issues ranging from improper lubrication to electrical defects. Some of the most common issues found are: Roller bearing defects, Equipment imbalance, Coupling misalignment, Looseness, Resonance, Gear defects, etc.

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  40. Question 25. The Equipment I Need To Monitor Is In A Difficult To Access Location, How Can Vibration Readings Be Taken?

    Answer :

    For equipment that is difficult to access while it is in operation, MTI can either temporarily or permanently mount sensors to easily take readings on the equipment. 

  41. Question 26. What Vibration Amplitudes Would Be Considered Excessive?

    Answer :

    The amplitude of the vibration that causes concern can vary depending on the type of equipment, speed, load, frequency of the vibration and history. While MTI does have default alert/alarm levels based on industry standards and 20+ years of experience, each piece of equipment and its function should be taken into account when making an assessment.

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