**Question 1. What Is Variance Analysis?****Answer :**Variance analysis is the quantitative investigation of the difference between actual and planned behavior. This analysis is used to maintain control over a business. For example, if you budget for sales to be $10,000 and actual sales are $8,000, variance analysis yields a difference of $2,000.

Variance analysis is especially effective when you review the amount of a variance on a trend line, so that sudden changes in the variance level from month to month are more readily apparent.

Variance analysis also involves the investigation of these differences, so that the outcome is a statement of the difference from expectations, and an interpretation of why the variance occurred. To continue with the example, a complete analysis of the sales variance would be:

“Sales during the month were $2,000 lower than the budget of $10,000. This variance was primarily caused by the loss of ABC customer at the end of the preceding month, which usually buys $1,800 per month from the company. We lost ABC customer because we had several instances of late deliveries to it over the past few months.”

This level of detailed variance analysis allows management to understand why fluctuations occur in its business, and what it can do to change the situation.

**Question 2. What Are The Most Commonly-derived Variances Used In Variance Analysis?****Answer :**Here are the most commonly-derived variances used in variance analysis:

- Purchase price variance.
- Labor rate variance
- Variable overhead spending variance
- Fixed overhead spending variance
- Selling price variance
- Material yield variance
- Labor efficiency variance
- Variable overhead efficiency variance

**Question 3. What Is Purchase Price Variance?****Answer :****Purchase price variance:**The actual price paid for materials used in the production process, minus the standard cost, multiplied by the number of units used.**Question 4. What Is Labor Rate Variance?****Answer :****Labor rate variance:**The actual price paid for the direct labor used in the production process, minus its standard cost, multiplied by the number of units used.**Question 5. What Is Variable Overhead Spending Variance?****Answer :****Variable overhead spending variance:**Subtract the standard variable overhead cost per unit from the actual cost incurred and multiply the remainder by the total unit quantity of output.**Question 6. What Is Fixed Overhead Spending Variance?****Answer :****Fixed overhead spending variance:**The total amount by which fixed overhead costs exceed their total standard cost for the reporting period.**Question 7. What Is Selling Price Variance?****Answer :****Selling price variance:**The actual selling price, minus the standard selling price, multiplied by the number of units sold.**Question 8. What Is Material Yield Variance?****Answer :****Material yield variance:**Subtract the total standard quantity of materials that are supposed to be used from the actual level of use and multiply the remainder by the standard price per unit.**Question 9. What Is Labor Efficiency Variance?****Answer :****Labor efficiency variance:**Subtract the standard quantity of labor consumed from the actual amount and multiply the remainder by the standard labor rate per hour.**Question 10. What Is Variable Overhead Efficiency Variance?****Answer :****Variable overhead efficiency variance:**Subtract the budgeted units of activity on which the variable overhead is charged from the actual units of activity, multiplied by the standard variable overhead cost per unit.**Question 11. Is It Necessary To Track All Of The Preceding Variances?****Answer :**It is not necessary to track all of the preceding variances. In many organizations, it may be sufficient to review just one or two variances. For example, a services organization (such as a consulting business) might be solely concerned with the labor efficiency variance, while a manufacturing business in a highly competitive market might be mostly concerned with the purchase price variance. In other words, put most of the variance analysis effort into those variances that make the most difference to the company if the underlying issues can be rectified.

**Question 12. What Are The Problems With Variance Analysis?****Answer :**There are several problems with variance analysis that keep many companies from using it. They are:

**Time delay:**The accounting staff compiles the variances at the end of the month before issuing the results to the management team. In a fast-paced environment, management needs feedback much faster than once a month, and so tends to rely upon other measurements or warning flags that are generated on the spot (especially in the production area).**Variance source information:**Many of the reasons for variances are not located in the accounting records, so the accounting staff has to sort through such information as bills of material, labor routings, and overtime records to determine the causes of problems. The extra work is only cost-effective when management can actively correct problems based on this information.**Standard setting:**Variance analysis is essentially a comparison of actual results to an arbitrary standard that may have been derived from political bargaining. Consequently, the resulting variance may not yield any useful information.

**Question 13. What Is The Formula To Estimate Labour Mix Variance Is?****Answer :**The formula to estimate Labour Mix variance is:

(Standard rate per hour – Actual rate per hour) * Actual Hours

**Question 14. Which Variance Is Also Known As Gang Composition Variance?****Answer :**Labour mix variance is also known as Gang composition variance.

**Question 15. Given Standard Cost Specifications Time 5 Hours Per Unit And Cost Rs 5 Per Labour. Actual Performance In Cost Period Is Production Hours 10,400 And Idle Time 400 Hours. Payment Done Is Average Per Hour Rs 5.20 For 10,800 Hours. Determine Labour Rate Variance And Labour Efficiency Variance, Respectively?****Answer :**labour rate variance and labour efficiency variance is: 2,160 and Rs 2,000 both unfavorable.

**Question 16. What Is The Formula To Get To Labour Efficiency Variance?****Answer :**the formula to labour efficiency variance is:

(Standard time – Actual time) * Standard rate per hour

**Question 17. What Is The Formula Used For Calculation Of Labour Rate Variance Is?****Answer :**The formula used for calculation of labour rate variance is:

(Standard rate per hour – Actual rate per hour) * Actual Hours

**Question 18. How Labour Cost Variance Is Measured ?****Answer :**Labour cost variance is measured as:

Total standard labour cost of actual output – Total actual cost of actual output

**Question 19. How To Material Sub Usage Variance Is Measured By Using The Formula?****Answer :**Material sub usage variance is measured by using the formula is:

(Standard quantity – Revised standard quantity) * Standard price

**Question 20. When Material Sub Usage Variance Is Calculated?****Answer :**Material sub usage variance is calculated :

- When quantity of wastage is not given
- When quality of output is not given

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