Question 1. What Is Waste Management?
Waste management is the collection, transportation and disposal of waste materials.
Question 2. What Are The Rules And Regulations Guiding Waste Management In India?
- Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000: regulate the management and handling of the municipal solid wastes and are applicable to every municipal authority responsible for collection, segregation, storage, transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid wastes
- BioMedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998: regulate the management and handling of bio-medical waste and are applicable to all persons who generate, collect, receive, store, transport, treat, dispose, or handle bio medical waste in any form.
- E-Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2010 :regulate the management and handling of electrical and electronic waste and is applicable to every producer, consumer involved in manufacture, sale, purchase and processing of these equipments or its components.
Question 3. What Are The Common Methods Of Waste Disposal?
The commonly practiced technologies for SWM can be grouped under three major categories, i.e., bio-processing, thermal processing and sanitary landfill. The bio-processing method includes aerobic and anaerobic composting. Thermal methods are incineration and pyrolysis. Sanitary landfill is generally used to dispose off the final rejects coming out of the biological and thermal waste processing units.
Question 4. What Is Aerobic Composting?
Aerobic composting is the creation of fertilizing compost using bacteria that thrive in an oxygen-rich environment. Aerobic composting is considered the fastest method of composting, but involves more work interms of rotating the organic material periodically.
Question 5. What Is Anaerobic Composting?
Anaerobic composting is the creation of fertilising compost using bacteria that cannot thrive in the presence of oxygen. Anaerobic composting is known to work slowly, but also requires lesser work.
Question 6. What Is Incineration?
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials. Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat. In some cases, the heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power.
Question 7. What Is A Sanitary Landfill?
A sanitary landfill is a low-lying area that is filled with waste rejects. It has a liner at the bottom to prevent the groundwater from contaminating with the mix of the liquid that oozes from the waste that is buried called the leachate. Waste is buried in-between layers of soil and is compacted nicely to make it a hard surface. When the landfill is completed, it is capped with a layer of clay or a synthetic liner in order to prevent water from entering. A final topsoil cover is placed, compacted and graded, and various forms of vegetation may be planted in order to reclaim the otherwise useless land.
Question 8. How Do I Practice Waste Management At Home?
- Keep separate containers for dry and wet waste in the kitchen.
- Keep two bags for dry waste collection- paper and plastic, for the rest of the household waste.
- Keep plastic from the kitchen clean and dry and drop into the dry waste bin. Keep glass /plastic containers rinsed of food matter.
- Keep a paper bag for throwing sanitary waste.
Question 9. What Are The First Few Steps To Initiate A Waste Management Programme In Your Apartment Complex?
- Form a group with like-minded people.
- Explain waste segregation to your family / neighbours in your apartment building.
- Get the staff in the apartment building to also understand its importance.
- Get separate storage drums for storing dry and wet waste.
- Have the dry waste picked up by the dry waste collection centre or your local scrap dealer.
Question 10. What Are The Different Types Of Waste?
- Wet waste:Wet waste consists of kitchen waste – including vegetable and fruit peels and pieces, tea leaves, coffee grounds, eggshells, bones and entrails, fish scales, as well as cooked food (both veg and non-veg).
- Dry Waste:Paper, plastics, metal, glass, rubber, thermocol, styrofoam, fabric, leather, rexine, wood – anything that can be kept for an extended period without decomposing is classified as dry waste.
- Hazardous waste:Household hazardous waste or HHW include three sub-categories – E-waste; toxic substances such as paints, cleaning agents, solvents, insecticides and their containers, other chemicals; and biomedical waste.
- E-waste:E-waste or electronic waste consists of batteries, computer parts, wires, electrical equipment of any kind, electrical and electronic toys, remotes, watches, cell phones, bulbs, tube lights and CFLs.
- Biomedical waste:This includes used menstrual cloth, sanitary napkins, disposable diapers, bandages and any material that is contaminated with blood or other body fluids.
Question 11. What Are Ways Of Storing The Waste At Homes?
- Dry waste:Store it in a bag in the utility area after cleaning and drying till it is picked up. No food residue must be left in the bottles and packets. Clean them as you would to reuse them. If clothes are totally unusable, or very damaged, they are categorized as dry waste. If clothes are soiled with body fluids, they become sanitary waste. If they are soiled with paint, or any chemicals, they are HHW (household hazardous waste).
- E-waste:Store them in separate container which is kept closed, away from moisture and in which nothing else is put.
Question 12. How Do I Dispose My Waste?
Compost your wet waste at home:Home composting can easily be done in any aerated container. Get more details on composting and begin composting today!
Compost your wet waste at the community level:If you live in a large apartment building, a community composting system like tank composting could be set up for all the wet waste from the residents. If not, the wet waste can be given out every day to your Municipality collection system.
Biomedical waste has to be wrapped separately in a newspaper and handed over to the municipality waste collection system. Expired medicines and injections, used syringes also have to be disposed in the same manner.
Paint and other hazardous waste like cosmetics, mosquito repellents, tube lights etc have to be stored separately and handed over to the Municipal collection system.
Question 13. How Can I Dispose Of My Old, Used Tires?
Waste tires must be dropped off at a solid waste facility permitted to accept waste tires. There are many permitted facilities around the state where waste tires are accepted for temporary storage and then transported to processing or disposal facilities.
Question 14. Is A Solid Waste Permit Required For The Disposal Or Management Of Waste Tires?
A solid waste permit is required whenever tire wastes are stored, buried, or partially buried.
Question 15. My Business Generates Hazardous Waste. Do We Have To Notify Of Hazardous Waste Generation?
A business must notify of hazardous waste generation if any of the following apply:
- The business generates 220 pounds or more of hazardous waste in a calendar month;
- The business generates 2.2 pounds or more of an “acute” hazardous waste per calendar month;
- The business stores 2.2 pounds or more of an “acute” hazardous waste at any one time; or
- The business stores 2,200 pounds or more of hazardous waste at any one time
Question 16. My Company Generates Hazardous Waste. Do We Have To Submit A Biennial Hazardous Waste Report?
A business is required to complete and file a hazardous waste biennial report if the site was a Large Quantity Generator during the past odd numbered year (for example the years 2011 or 2013) and/or if the company was/is permitted to treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste during the past odd numbered year.
Question 17. Can I Burn Used Oil In My Shop Stove?
Yes. As long as you burn used oil generated on-site or accepted from homeowners; use a space heater manufactured for the burning of used oil; use a space heater with a capacity of no more than 0.5 million Btu per hour; and vent exhaust gases to the outdoors.
Question 18. What Guidelines Have To Be Followed During Building Demolition Or Renovation?
When you perform a building demolition or renovation job at any institutional, commercial, public, or industrial building, you are subject to notification requirements and emission control requirements. In addition, inspections may be conducted. Residential buildings having four or fewer dwelling units including houses, duplexes, barns, and other outbuildings, are not required to meet these requirements.
Question 19. What Are The Requirements For Removing Asbestos Floor Tile And Asphalt Roofing Material?
There are a number of requirements that need to be followed. They pertain to type and quantity of material and to the removal process.
Question 20. Can I Dispose Of My Household Generated Medical Waste With My Household Garbage?
Your household medical waste, generally consisting of syringes and needles, can be disposed in your garbage. Prior to placement in the garbage, it is highly recommended that the medical waste be rendered noninfectious, placed in a rigid container, and labeled appropriately.
Question 21. What Are The Common Recyclable Materials That I Can Recycle From My Household Garbage? What Type Of Recycling Facilities Are Located In The Area I Live In?
The common recyclable materials found in household garbage are: aluminum cans, steel/tin cans, plastic, paper, magazines, newspapers, and cardboard
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