Software testing Interview Questions & Answers

  1. Question 1. What Is The Main Benefit Of Designing Tests Early In The Life Cycle?

    Answer :

    It helps prevent defects from being introduced into the code.

  2. Question 2. What Is Risk-based Testing?

    Answer :

    Risk-based Testing is the term used for an approach to creating a test strategy that is based on prioritizing tests by risk. The basis of the approach is a detailed risk analysis and prioritizing of risks by risk level. Tests to address each risk are then specified, starting with the highest risk first.

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  4. Question 3. A Wholesaler Sells Printer Cartridges. The Minimum Order Quantity Is 5. There Is A 20% Discount For Orders Of 100 Or More Printer Cartridges. You Have Been Asked To Prepare Test Cases Using Various Values For The Number Of Printer Cartridges Ordered. Which Of The Following Groups Contain Three Test Inputs That Would Be Generated Using Boundary Value Analysis?

    Answer :

    4, 5, 99

  5. Question 4. What Is The Key Difference Between Preventative And Reactive Approaches To Testing?

    Answer :

    Preventative tests are designed early; reactive tests are designed after the software has been produced.

  6. Testing Tools Tutorial

  7. Question 5. What Is The Purpose Of Exit Criteria?

    Answer :

    The purpose of exit criteria is to define when a test level is completed.

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  9. Question 6. What Determines The Level Of Risk?

    Answer :

    The likelihood of an adverse event and the impact of the event determine the level of risk.

  10. Question 7. When Is Used Decision Table Testing?

    Answer :

    Decision table testing is used for testing systems for which the specification takes the form of rules or cause-effect combinations. In a decision table the inputs are listed in a column, with the outputs in the same column but below the inputs. The remainder of the table explores combinations of inputs to define the outputs produced.

  11. QTP Tutorial
    Manual Testing Interview Questions

  12. Question 8. What Is The Main Objective When Reviewing A Software Deliverable?

    Answer :

    To identify defects in any software work product.

  13. Question 9. Which Of The Following Defines The Expected Results Of A Test? Test Case Specification Or Test Design Specification.

    Answer :

    Test case specification defines the expected results of a test.

  14. Selenium Interview Questions

  15. Question 10. What Is The Benefit Of Test Independence?

    Answer :

    It avoids author bias in defining effective tests.

  16. Selenium Tutorial

  17. Question 11. As Part Of Which Test Process Do You Determine The Exit Criteria?

    Answer :

    The exit criteria is determined on the bases of ‘Test Planning’.

  18. Bugzilla Bug Tracking System Interview Questions

  19. Question 12. What Is Beta Testing?

    Answer :

    Testing performed by potential customers at their own locations.

  20. Testing Tools Interview Questions

  21. Question 13. Given The Following Fragment Of Code, How Many Tests Are Required For 100% Decision Coverage?

    If Width > Length

    Thenbiggest_dimension = Width

    If Height > Width

    Thenbiggest_dimension = Height

    End_if

    Elsebiggest_dimension = Length

    If Height > Length

    Thenbiggest_dimension = Height

    End_if

    End_if

    Answer :

    4

  22. Bugzilla Bug Tracking System Tutorial

  23. Question 14. You Have Designed Test Cases To Provide 100% Statement And 100% Decision Coverage For The Following Fragment Of Code. If Width > Length Then Biggest_dimension = Width Else Biggest_dimension = Length End_if The Following Has Been Added To The Bottom Of The Code Fragment Above. Print “biggest Dimension Is ” &biggest_dimensionprint “width: ” & Width Print “length: ” & Length How Many More Test Cases Are Required?

    Answer :

    None, existing test cases can be used.

  24. Question 15. Rapid Application Development?

    Answer :

    Rapid Application Development (RAD) is formally a parallel development of functions and subsequent integration. Components/functions are developed in parallel as if they were mini projects, the developments are time-boxed, delivered, and then assembled into a working prototype. This can very quickly give the customer something to see and use and to provide feedback regarding the delivery and their requirements.

    Rapid change and development of the product is possible using this methodology. However the product specification will need to be developed for the product at some point, and the project will need to be placed under more formal controls prior to going into production.

  25. Automation Testing Interview Questions

  26. Question 16. What Is The Difference Between Testing Techniques And Testing Tools?

    Answer :

    Testing technique: Is a process for ensuring that some aspects of the application system or unit functions properly there may be few techniques but many tools.

    Testing Tools: Is a vehicle for performing a test process. The tool is a resource to the tester, but itself is insufficient to conduct testing.

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  28. Question 17. We Use The Output Of The Requirement Analysis, The Requirement Specification As The Input For Writing…

    Answer :

    User Acceptance Test Cases.

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  30. Question 18. Repeated Testing Of An Already Tested Program, After Modification, To Discover Any Defects Introduced Or Uncovered As A Result Of The Changes In The Software Being Tested Or In Another Related Or Unrelated Software Component:

    Answer :

    Regression Testing

  31. QTP Interview Questions

  32. Question 19. What Is Component Testing?

    Answer :

    Component testing, also known as unit, module and program testing, searches for defects in, and verifies the functioning of software (e.g. modules, programs, objects, classes, etc.) that are separately testable. Component testing may be done in isolation from the rest of the system depending on the context of the development life cycle and the system. Most often stubs and drivers are used to replace the missing software and simulate the interface between the software components in a simple manner. A stub is called from the software component to be tested; a driver calls a component to be tested.

  33. Question 20. What Is Functional System Testing?

    Answer :

    Testing the end to end functionality of the system as a whole is defined as a functional system testing.

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  35. Question 21. What Are The Benefits Of Independent Testing?

    Answer :

    Independent testers are unbiased and identify different defects at the same time.

  36. Question 22. In A Reactive Approach To Testing When Would You Expect The Bulk Of The Test Design Work To Be Begun?

    Answer :

    The bulk of the test design work begun after the software or system has been produced.

  37. Question 23. What Are The Different Methodologies In Agile Development Model?

    Answer :

    There are currently seven different agile methodologies that I am aware of:

    1. Extreme Programming (XP)
    2. Scrum
    3. Lean Software Development
    4. Feature-Driven Development
    5. Agile Unified Process
    6. Crystal
    7. Dynamic Systems Development Model (DSDM)
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  39. Question 24. Which Activity In The Fundamental Test Process Includes Evaluation Of The Testability Of The Requirements And System?

    Answer :

    A ‘Test Analysis’ and ‘Design’ includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system.

  40. Manual Testing Interview Questions

  41. Question 25. What Is Typically The Most Important Reason To Use Risk To Drive Testing Efforts?

    Answer :

    Because testing everything is not feasible.

  42. Question 26. What Is Random/monkey Testing? When It Is Used?

    Answer :

    Random testing often known as monkey testing. In such type of testing data is generated randomly often using a tool or automated mechanism. With this randomly generated input the system is tested and results are analysed accordingly. These testing are less reliable; hence it is normally used by the beginners and to see whether the system will hold up under adverse effects.

  43. Mantis Bug Tracking Interview Questions

  44. Question 27. Which Of The Following Are Valid Objectives For Incident Reports?

    Answer :

    1. Provide developers and other parties with feedback about the problem to enable identification, isolation and correction as necessary.
    2. Provide ideas for test process improvement.
    3. Provide a vehicle for assessing tester competence.
    4. Provide testers with a means of tracking the quality of the system under test.
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  46. Question 28. Consider The Following Techniques. Which Are Static And Which Are Dynamic Techniques?

    Answer :

    1. Equivalence Partitioning.
    2. Use Case Testing.
    3. Data Flow Analysis.
    4. Exploratory Testing.
    5. Decision Testing.
    6. Inspections.

    Data Flow Analysis and Inspections are static; Equivalence Partitioning, Use Case Testing, Exploratory Testing and Decision Testing are dynamic.

  47. Question 29. Why Are Static Testing And Dynamic Testing Described As Complementary?

    Answer :

    Because they share the aim of identifying defects but differ in the types of defect they find.

  48. Test Plan Interview Questions

  49. Question 30. What Are The Phases Of A Formal Review?

    Answer :

    In contrast to informal reviews, formal reviews follow a formal process. A typical formal review process consists of six main steps:

    1. Planning
    2. Kick-off
    3. Preparation
    4. Review meeting
    5. Rework
    6. Follow-up.
  50. Question 31. What Is The Role Of Moderator In Review Process?

    Answer :

    The moderator (or review leader) leads the review process. He or she determines, in co-operation with the author, the type of review, approach and the composition of the review team. The moderator performs the entry check and the follow-up on the rework, in order to control the quality of the input and output of the review process. The moderator also schedules the meeting, disseminates documents before the meeting, coaches other team members, paces the meeting, leads possible discussions and stores the data that is collected.

  51. Question 32. What Is An Equivalence Partition (also Known As An Equivalence Class)?

    Answer :

    An input or output ranges of values such that only one value in the range becomes a test case.

  52. Question 33. When Should Configuration Management Procedures Be Implemented?

    Answer :

    During test planning.

  53. Bugzilla Bug Tracking System Interview Questions

  54. Question 34. A Type Of Functional Testing, Which Investigates The Functions Relating To Detection Of Threats, Such As Virus From Malicious Outsiders?

    Answer :

    Security Testing

  55. Question 35. Testing Where In We Subject The Target Of The Test , To Varying Workloads To Measure And Evaluate The Performance Behaviours And Ability Of The Target And Of The Test To Continue To Function Properly Under These Different Workloads?

    Answer :

    Load Testing

  56. Question 36. Testing Activity Which Is Performed To Expose Defects In The Interfaces And In The Interaction Between Integrated Components Is?

    Answer :

    Integration Level Testing

  57. Automation Testing Interview Questions

  58. Question 37. What Are The Structure-based (white-box) Testing Techniques?

    Answer :

    Structure-based testing techniques (which are also dynamic rather than static) use the internal structure of the software to derive test cases. They are commonly called ‘white-box’ or ‘glass-box’ techniques (implying you can see into the system) since they require knowledge of how the software is implemented, that is, how it works.

    For example; a structural technique may be concerned with exercising loops in the software. Different test cases may be derived to exercise the loop once, twice, and many times. This may be done regardless of the functionality of the software.

  59. Question 38. When “regression Testing” Should Be Performed?

    Answer :

    After the software has changed or when the environment has changed Regression testing should be performed.

  60. Question 39. What Is Negative And Positive Testing?

    Answer :

    A negative test is when you put in an invalid input and receives errors. While a positive testing, is when you put in a valid input and expect some action to be completed in accordance with the specification. 

  61. Question 40. What Is The Purpose Of A Test Completion Criterion?

    Answer :

    The purpose of test completion criterion is to determine when to stop testing.

  62. Selenium IDE Interview Questions

  63. Question 41. What Can Static Analysis Not Find?

    Answer :

    For example memory leaks.

  64. Question 42. What Is The Difference Between Re-testing And Regression Testing?

    Answer :

    Re-testing ensures the original fault has been removed; regression testing looks for unexpected side effects.

  65. Performance Testing Interview Questions

  66. Question 43. What Are The Experience-based Testing Techniques?

    Answer :

    In experience-based techniques, people’s knowledge, skills and background are a prime contributor to the test conditions and test cases. The experience of both technical and business people is important, as they bring different perspectives to the test analysis and design process. Due to previous experience with similar systems, they may have insights into what could go wrong, which is very useful for testing.

  67. Question 44. What Type Of Review Requires Formal Entry And Exit Criteria, Including Metrics?

    Answer :

    Inspection

  68. Question 45. Could Reviews Or Inspections Be Considered Part Of Testing?

    Answer :

    Yes, because both help detect faults and improve quality.

  69. Question 46. An Input Field Takes The Year Of Birth Between 1900 And 2004 What Are The Boundary Values For Testing This Field?

    Answer :

    1899,1900,2004,2005

  70. Question 47. To Test A Function, What Has To Write A Programmer, Which Calls The Function To Be Tested And Passes It Test Data.?

    Answer :

    Driver

  71. Question 48. What Is The One Key Reason Why Developers Have Difficulty Testing Their Own Work?

    Answer :

    Lack of Objectivity

  72. Question 49. “how Much Testing Is Enough?”

    Answer :

    The answer depends on the risk for your industry, contract and special requirements.

  73. Question 50. When Should Testing Be Stopped?

    Answer :

    It depends on the risks for the system being tested. There are some criteria bases on which you can stop testing.

    1. Deadlines (Testing, Release)
    2. Test budget has been depleted
    3. Bug rate fall below certain level
    4. Test cases completed with certain percentage passed
    5. Alpha or beta periods for testing ends
    6. Coverage of code, functionality or requirements are met to a specified point.
  74. Question 51. Which Of The Following Is The Main Purpose Of The Integration Strategy For Integration Testing In The Small?

    Answer :

    The main purpose of the integration strategy is to specify which modules to combine when and how many at once.

  75. Question 52. What Are Semi-random Test Cases?

    Answer :

    Semi-random test cases are nothing but when we perform random test cases and do equivalence partitioning to those test cases, it removes redundant test cases, thus giving us semi-random test cases.

  76. Question 53. Given The Following Code, Which Statement Is True About The Minimum Number Of Test Cases Required For Full Statement And Branch Coverage?

    Read P

    Read Q

    If P+q> 100

    Then Print “large”

    Endif

    If P > 50

    Then Print “p Large”

    Endif

    Answer :

    1 test for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage

  77. Question 54. What Is Black Box Testing? What Are The Different Black Box Testing Techniques?

    Answer :

    Black box testing is the software testing method which is used to test the software without knowing the internal structure of code or program. This testing is usually done to check the functionality of an application. The different black box testing techniques are

    1. Equivalence Partitioning
    2. Boundary value analysis
    3. Cause effect graphing
  78. Question 55. Which Review Is Normally Used To Evaluate A Product To Determine Its Suitability For Intended Use And To Identify Discrepancies?

    Answer :

    Technical Review.

  79. Question 56. Why We Use Decision Tables?

    Answer :

    The techniques of equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis are often applied to specific situations or inputs. However, if different combinations of inputs result in different actions being taken, this can be more difficult to show using equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis, which tend to be more focused on the user interface. The other two specification-based techniques, decision tables and state transition testing are more focused on business logic or business rules. A decision table is a good way to deal with combinations of things (e.g. inputs). This technique is sometimes also referred to as a ’cause-effect’ table. The reason for this is that there is an associated logic diagramming technique called ’cause-effect graphing’ which was sometimes used to help derive the decision table

  80. Question 57. Faults Found Should Be Originally Documented By Whom?

    Answer :

    By testers.

  81. Question 58. A Number Of Critical Bugs Are Fixed In Software. All The Bugs Are In One Module, Related To Reports. The Test Manager Decides To Do Regression Testing Only On The Reports Module.?

    Answer :

    Regression testing should be done on other modules as well because fixing one module may affect other modules.

  82. Question 59. Why Does The Boundary Value Analysis Provide Good Test Cases?

    Answer :

    Because errors are frequently made during programming of the different cases near the ‘edges’ of the range of values.

  83. Question 60. What Makes An Inspection Different From Other Review Types?

    Answer :

    It is led by a trained leader, uses formal entry and exit criteria and checklists.

  84. Question 61. Why Can Be Tester Dependent On Configuration Management?

    Answer :

    Because configuration management assures that we know the exact version of the testware and the test object.

  85. Question 62. What Is A V-model?

    Answer :

    A software development model that illustrates how testing activities integrate with software development phases.

  86. Question 63. What Is Maintenance Testing?

    Answer :

    Triggered by modifications, migration or retirement of existing software.

  87. Question 64. What Is Test Coverage?

    Answer :

    Test coverage measures in some specific way the amount of testing performed by a set of tests (derived in some other way, e.g. using specification-based techniques). Wherever we can count things and can tell whether or not each of those things has been tested by some test, then we can measure coverage.

  88. Question 65. Why Is Incremental Integration Preferred Over “big Bang” Integration?

    Answer :

    Because incremental integration has better early defects screening and isolation ability.

  89. Question 66. When Do We Prepare Rtm (requirement Traceability Matrix), Is It Before Test Case Designing Or After Test Case Designing?

    Answer :

    It would be before test case designing. Requirements should already be traceable from Review activities since you should have traceability in the Test Plan already.

    This question also would depend on the organisation. If the organisations do test after development started then requirements must be already traceable to their source. To make life simpler use a tool to manage requirements.

  90. Question 67. What Is Called The Process Starting With The Terminal Modules?

    Answer :

    Bottom-up integration

  91. Question 68. During Which Test Activity Could Faults Be Found Most Cost Effectively?

    Answer :

    During test planning

  92. Question 69. The Purpose Of Requirement Phase Is?

    Answer :

    To freeze requirements, to understand user needs, to define the scope of testing

  93. Question 70. Why We Split Testing Into Distinct Stages?

    Answer :

    We split testing into distinct stages because of following reasons:

    1. Each test stage has a different purpose
    2. It is easier to manage testing in stages
    3. We can run different test into different environments
    4. Performance and quality of the testing is improved using phased testing.
  94. Question 71. What Is Dre?

    Answer :

    To measure test effectiveness a powerful metric is used to measure test effectiveness known as DRE (Defect Removal Efficiency) From this metric we would know how many bugs we have found from the set of test cases.

    Formula for calculating DRE is:

    DRE=Number of bugs while testing  / number of bugs while testing + number of bugs found by user

  95. Question 72. How Would You Estimate The Amount Of Re-testing Likely To Be Required?

    Answer :

    Metrics from previous similar projects and discussions with the development team.

  96. Question 73. What Studies Data Flow Analysis?

    Answer :

    The use of data on paths through the code.

  97. Question 74. What Is Alpha Testing?

    Answer :

    Pre-release testing by end user representatives at the developer’s site.

  98. Question 75. What Is A Failure?

    Answer :

    Failure is a departure from specified behaviour.

  99. Question 76. Who Is Responsible For Document All The Issues, Problems And Open Point That Were Identified During The Review Meeting?

    Answer :

    Scribe

  100. Question 77. What Is The Main Purpose Of Informal Review?

    Answer :

    Inexpensive way to get some benefit.

  101. Question 78. What Is The Purpose Of Test Design Technique?

    Answer :

    Identifying test conditions and Identifying test cases.

  102. Question 79. When Testing A Grade Calculation System, A Tester Determines That All Scores From 90 To 100 Will Yield A Grade Of A, But Scores Below 90 Will Not. This Analysis Is Known As:

    Answer :

    Equivalence partitioning

  103. Question 80. During The Testing Of A Module Tester ‘x’ Finds A Bug And Assigned It To Developer. But Developer Rejects The Same, Saying That It’s Not A Bug. What ‘x’ Should Do?

    Answer :

    Send to the detailed information of the bug encountered and check the reproducibility.

  104. Question 81. A Type Of Integration Testing In Which Software Elements, Hardware Elements, Or Both Are Combined All At Once Into A Component Or An Overall System, Rather Than In Stages.?

    Answer :

    Big-Bang Testing

  105. Question 82. What Is Boundary Value Testing?

    Answer :

    Test boundary conditions on, below and above the edges of input and output equivalence classes. For instance, let say a bank application where you can withdraw maximum Rs.20,000 and a minimum of Rs.100, so in boundary value testing we test only the exact boundaries, rather than hitting in the middle.  That means we test above the maximum limit and below the minimum limit.

  106. Question 83. What Is Exploratory Testing?

    Answer :

    Exploratory testing is a hands-on approach in which testers are involved in minimum planning and maximum test execution. The planning involves the creation of a test charter, a short declaration of the scope of a short (1 to 2 hour) time-boxed test effort, the objectives and possible approaches to be used. The test design and test execution activities are performed in parallel typically without formally documenting the test conditions, test cases or test scripts. This does not mean that other, more formal testing techniques will not be used.

    For example: the tester may decide to use boundary value analysis but will think through and test the most important boundary values without necessarily writing them down. Some notes will be written during the exploratory-testing session, so that a report can be produced afterwards.

  107. Question 84. What Is “use Case Testing”?

    Answer :

    In order to identify and execute the functional requirement of an application from start to finish “use case” is used and the techniques used to do this is known as “Use Case Testing”.

  108. Question 85. What Is The Difference Between Stlc (software Testing Life Cycle) And Sdlc (software Development Life Cycle) ?

    Answer :

    SDLC deals with developement/coding of the software while STLC deales with validation and verification of the software.

  109. Question 86. What Is Traceability Matrix?

    Answer :

    The relationship between test cases and requirements is shown with the help of a document. This document is known as traceability matrix.

  110. Question 87. What Is Equivalence Partitioning Testing?

    Answer :

    Equivalence partitioning testing is a software testing technique which divides the application input test data into each partition at least once of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived.  By this testing method it reduces the time required for software testing.

  111. Question 88. What Is White Box Testing And List The Types Of White Box Testing?

    Answer :

    White box testing technique involves selection of test cases based on an analysis of the internal structure (Code coverage, branches coverage, paths coverage, condition coverage etc.)  of a component or system. It is also known as Code-Based testing or Structural testing.  

    Different types of white box testing are:

    1. Statement Coverage
    2. Decision Coverage
  112. Question 89. In White Box Testing What Do You Verify?

    Answer :

    In white box testing following steps are verified:

    1. Verify the security holes in the code
    2. Verify the incomplete or broken paths in the code
    3. Verify the flow of structure according to the document specification
    4. Verify the expected outputs
    5. Verify all conditional loops in the code to check the complete functionality of the application
    6. Verify the line by line coding and cover 100% testing
  113. Question 90. What Is The Difference Between Static And Dynamic Testing?

    Answer :

    Static testing: During Static testing method, the code is not executed and it is performed using the software documentation.

    Dynamic testing:  To perform this testing the code is required to be in an executable form.

  114. Question 91. What Is Verification And Validation?

    Answer :

    Verification is a process of evaluating software  at development phase and to decide whether the product of a given  application satisfies the specified requirements. Validation is the process of evaluating software at the end of the development process and to check whether it meets the customer requirements.

  115. Question 92. What Are Different Test Levels?

    Answer :

    There are four test levels:

    1. Unit/component/program/module testing
    2. Integration testing
    3. System testing
    4. Acceptance testing
  116. Question 93. What Is Integration Testing?

    Answer :

    Integration testing is a level of software testing process, where individual units of an application are combined and tested. It is usually performed after unit and functional testing.

  117. Question 94. What Are The Tables In Testplans?

    Answer :

    Test design, scope, test strategies , approach are various details that Test plan document consists of:

    1. Test case identifier
    2. Scope
    3. Features to be tested
    4. Features not to be tested
    5. Test strategy & Test approach
    6. Test deliverables
    7. Responsibilities
    8. Staffing and training
    9. Risk and Contingencies
  118. Question 95. What Is The Difference Between Uat (user Acceptance Testing) And System Testing?

    Answer :

    System Testing: System testing is finding defects when the system under goes testing as a whole, it is also known as end to end testing. In such type of testing, the application undergoes from beginning till the end.

    UAT: User Acceptance Testing (UAT) involves running a product through a series of specific  tests  which determines whether the product will meet the needs of its users.

  119. Question 96. Mention The Difference Between Data Driven Testing And Retesting?

    Answer :

    Retesting:  It is a process of checking bugs that are actioned by development team to verify that they are actually fixed.

    Data Driven Testing (DDT):  In data driven testing process, application is tested with multiple test data. Application is tested with different set of values.

  120. Question 97. What Are The Valuable Steps To Resolve Issues While Testing?

    Answer :

    Record : Log and handle any problems which has happened.

    Report: Report the issues to higher level manager.

    Control: Define the issue management process.

  121. Question 98. What Is Mutation Testing?

    Answer :

    Mutation testing is a technique to identify if a set of test data or test case is useful by intentionally introducing various code changes (bugs) and retesting with original test data/ cases to determine if the bugs are detected.

  122. Question 99. Explain What Is Test Deliverables?

    Answer :

    Test Deliverables are set of documents, tools and other components that has to be developed and maintained in support of testing.

    There are different test deliverables at every phase of the software development lifecycle:

    1. Before Testing
    2. During Testing
    3. After the Testing
  123. Question 100. What Is The Function Of Software Testing Tool “phantom”?

    Answer :

    Phantom is a freeware, and is used for windows GUI automation scripting language.  It allows to take control of windows and functions automatically.  It can simulate any combination of key strokes and mouse clicks as well as menus, lists and more.

  124. Question 101. What Is Latent Defect?

    Answer :

    Latent defect: This defect is an existing defect in the system which does not cause any failure as the exact set of conditions has never been met.