Sendmail Interview Questions & Answers

  1. Question 1. What Is Sendmail ?

    Answer :

    Sendmail is an MTA, meaning it accepts email messages sent to it using the SMTP proto- col and transports them to another MTA email server until the messages reach their destinations. It also accepts email for the local network and delivers them to local mail spools, one for each user.

  2. Question 2. How To Start Sendmail Server ?

    Answer :

    service sendmail restart

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  4. Question 3. On Which Ports Sendmail And Sendmail With Ssl Works?

    Answer :

    By default, Sendmail uses TCP and UDP port 25 for non-encrypted transfers. If the Sendmail server is configured to use SSL for encrypting email sent and received, it uses port 465.

  5. Question 4. Explain Use Of “trusted-users” File ?

    Answer :

    List of users that can send email as other users without a warning including system users such as apache for the Apache HTTP Server.

  6. Question 5. Explain The Use Of “local-host-names” File ?

    Answer :

    If the email server should be known by different hostnames, list the host- names in this file, one line per hostname. Any email sent to addresses at these hostnames is treated as local mail. The FEATURE(`use_cw_file’) option must be enabled in the sendmail.mc file for this file to be referenced.

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  8. Question 6. Explain The Use Of /etc/aliases File?

    Answer :

    /etc/aliases, can be used to redirect email from one user to another. By default, it includes redirects for system accounts to the root user. It can then be used to redirect all email for the root user to the user account for the system administrator.

  9. Question 7. Can We Use Ssl Encryption With Sendmail ?

    Answer :

    Yes, Sendmail can be configured to encrypt email sent and received using SSL (secure sockets layer).

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  11. Question 8. What Is The Role Of Mua ?

    Answer :

    An MUA (Mail User Agent) with access to the mailbox file, directly or through a network file system, can read messages from the disk and display them for the user. This is generally a console or webmail application running on the server.

  12. Question 9. Which Are The Important Configuration Files For Sendmail Server ?

    Answer :

    The /etc/mail/ directory contains all the Sendmail configuration files, with sendmail.cf and submit.cf being the main configuration files. The sendmail.cf file includes options for the mail transmission agent and accepts SMTP connections for sending email. The submit.cf file configures the mail submission program.

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  14. Question 10. How To Configure Sendmail To Accept Mail For Local Delivery That Is Addressed To Other Hosts?

    Answer :

    Create a /etc/mail/local-host-names file. Put into that file the hostnames and domain names for which sendmail should accept mail for local delivery. Enter the names with one hostname or domain name per line. And also make sure that Sendmail configuration file should contain “use_cw_file” option.

    dnl Load class $=w with other names for the local host

    FEATURE(`use_cw_file’)

  15. Question 11. When An Organization Stores Aliases On An Ldap Server, How You Will Configure Sendmail To Read Aliases From The Ldap Server?

    Answer :

    Use “sendmail -bt -d0” command to check the sendmail compiler options. If sendmail was not compiled with LDAP support, recompile and install sendmail.

    Add an ALIAS FILE define, containing the string ldap  to the sendmail configuration.

    # Set the LDAP cluster value

    define(`conf LDAP CLUSTER’, `wrotethebook.com’)

    # Tel sendmail that aliases are available via LDAP

    define(`ALIAS FILE’, `ldap:’)

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  17. Question 12. How To Forward Emails Of A Local User To External Address?

    Answer :

    Add an alias to the aliases file for each user whose mail must be forwarded to another system. The recipient field of the alias entry must be a full email address that includes the host part. After adding the desired aliases, rebuild the aliases database file with the newaliases command.

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  19. Question 13. You Have Been Asked To Create A Sendmail Configuration That Sends All Local Mail To A Mail Hub, While Directly Delivering Mail Addressed To External Systems.

    Answer :

    Create a sendmail configuration containing the MAIL_HUB define to identify the mail relay host for local mail. Use the LOCAL_USER command to exempt the root user’s mail from relaying.

    dnl Define a relay server for local mail

    define(`MAIL_HUB’, `smtp.test.com’)

    dnl Users whose mail is not passed to the mail hub

    LOCAL_USER(root)

    Rebuild and reinstall sendmail.cf, and then restart sendmail.

  20. Question 14. How To Configure Multiple Mail Queues?

    Answer :

    mkdir /var/spool/mqueue/queue.1

    mkdir /var/spool/mqueue/queue.2

    mkdir /var/spool/mqueue/queue.3

    chmod 700 /var/spool/mqueue/queue.1

    chmod 700 /var/spool/mqueue/queue.2

    chmod 700 /var/spool/mqueue/queue.3

    Add the QUEUE_DIR define to the sendmail configuration to use the new queue directories.

    dnl Declare the queue directory path

    define(`QUEUE_DIR’, `/var/spool/mqueue/queue.*’)

  21. Question 15. How To Disable Certain Smtp Commands?

    Answer :

    Add the confPRIVACY_FLAGS define to the sendmail configuration to set Privacy Options that disable unwanted, optional SMTP commands. Here we will disables the EXPN, VRFY, VERB, and ETRN commands.

    dnl Disable EXPN, VRFY, VERB and ETRN

    define(`confPRIVACY_FLAGS’, `noexpn,novrfy,noverb,noetrn’)

    Rebuild and reinstall sendmail.cf, and then restart sendmail.

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  23. Question 16. In Which Sendmail Configuration File We Have To Make Changes?

    Answer :

    we will make the changes only in the sendmail.mc file, and the changes will be moved into the sendmail.cf file for us.

  24. Question 17. When Sendmail Dispatches Your Email, It Places The Servers Hostname Behind Your Username, Which Becomes The “from Address” In The Email (ie. User@mail.test.com).but We Want To Use The Domain Name And Not The Hostname?

    Answer :

    define(`confDOMAIN_NAME’, `test.com’)dnl

    FEATURE(`relay_entire_domain’)dnl

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  26. Question 18. What Does /etc/mail/access File Contains?

    Answer :

    The access database (“/etc/mail/access”) is a list of IP addresses and domainnames of allowable connections.

    FEATURE(`access_db’,`hash -T -o /etc/mail/access.db’)dnl and cat  /etc/mail/access

    localhost.localdomain           RELAY

    localhost                              RELAY

    127.0.0.1                             RELAY

    192.168.0                            RELAY

    test.com                              RELAY

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  28. Question 19. How To Restrict Sendmail To Sending A Big File?

    Answer :

    define(`conf MAX_MESSAGE_SIZE’,`52428800′)dnl

    or If you are using a PHP based webmail application like SquirrelMail, you can adjust the max file size in php.ini file.

    vi php.ini

    post_max_size = 50M

    upload_max_filesize = 50M

    memory_limit = 64M

  29. Question 20. How To Set 25 Recipients For Each Email?

    Answer :

    define(`confMAX_RCPTS_PER_MESSAGE’,`50′)dnl

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  31. Question 21. Which Antivirus You Have Integrated With Sendmail ?

    Answer :

    ClamAV

  32. Question 22. What Is Clamav-milter?

    Answer :

    Clamav-Milter is a tool to integrate sendmail and clamAV antivirus.

  33. Question 23. Which Configuration Files Are Required To Integrate Sendmail And Claimav Antivirus?

    Answer :

    milter.conf and clamav-milter

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  35. Question 24. How To Test Sendmail Integration With Claimav?

    Answer :

    grep Milter /var/log/maillog

    You have to get following type of messages.

    sendmail: Milter add: header: X-Virus-Scanned: ClamAV version 0.88.2, clamav-milter version 0.88.2 on mail.test.com

    sendmail: Milter add: header: X-Virus-Status: Clean

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  37. Question 25. Which Tool You Have Used To Block Spamming?

    Answer :

    SpamAssassin

  38. Question 26. What Does “/etc/mail/” Directory Contains?

    Answer :

    The /etc/mail/ directory contain all the Sendmail configuration files, with sendmail.cf and submit.cf being the main configuration files.

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  40. Question 27. Explain The Use Of /etc/mail/relay-domains File?

    Answer :

    The /etc/mail/relay-domains file is used to determine domains from which it will relay mail. The contents of the relay-domains file should be limited to those domains that can be trusted not to originate spam.

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  42. Question 28. What Is The Name Of Spamassassin Configuration File?

    Answer :

    /etc/mail/spamassassin/local.cf

  43. Question 29. How To Check Mail Queue Of Sendmail?

    Answer :

    /usr/lib/sendmail -bp

    or

    mailq

  44. Question 30. How To Use M4 Macro Processor To Generate A New Sendmail.cf?

    Answer :

    m4 /etc/mail/sendmail.mc > /etc/mail/sendmail.cf