Question 1. What Is Cmm?
- CMM stands for Capability Maturity Model.
- CMM is a method to evaluate and measure the maturity of the software development process of an organization.
- CMM measures the maturity of the software development process on a scale of 1 to 5.
Question 2. When And Where Cmm V1.0 Developed?
CMM v1.0 was developed by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, USA.
Question 3. What Is Maturity?
Definitions vary but mature processes are generally thought to be:
Well-defined, Repeatable, Measured, Analyzed, Improved, and Effective.Poor but mature processes are just as bad as no maturity at all!
CMM helps to solve the maturity problem by defining a set of practices and providing a general framework for improving them. The focus of CMM is on identifying key process areas and the exemplary practices that may comprise a disciplined software process.
Question 4. What Are The Characteristics Of A Mature Organization?
The characteristics of a mature organization are as follows:
- Inter-group communication and coordination.
- Work accomplished according to plan.
- Practices consistent with processes.
- Processes updated as necessary.
- Well-defined roles/responsibilities.
- Management formally commits.
Question 5. What Are The Characteristics Of A Immature Organization?
An immature organization would have the following characteristics:
- Process improvised during project.
- Approved processes being ignored.
- Reactive, not proactive.
- Unrealistic budget and schedule.
- Quality sacrificed for schedule.
- No objective measure of quality.
Question 6. What Is Cmmi?
CMM Integration project was formed to sort out the problem of using multiple CMMs. CMMI product team’s mission was to combine three Source Models into a single improvement framework for the organizations pursuing enterprise-wide process improvement.
Question 7. What Are The Source Models In Cmmi?
There three source models and These three Source Models are:
- Capability Maturity Model for Software (SW-CMM) – v2.0 Draft C.
- Electronic Industries Alliance Interim Standard (EIA/IS) – 731 Systems Engineering.
- Integrated Product Development Capability Maturity Model (IPD-CMM) v0.98.
Question 8. What Is Cmm Integration?
- Builds an initial set of integrated models.
- Improves best practices from source models based on lessons learned.
- Establishes a framework to enable integration of future models.
Question 9. What Is The Difference Between Cmm And Cmmi?
CMM is a reference model of matured practices in a specified discipline like Systems Engineering CMM, Software CMM, People CMM, Software Acquisition CMM etc., but they were difficult to integrate as and when needed.
CMMI is the successor of the CMM and evolved as a more matured set of guidelines and was built combining the best components of individual disciplines of CMM(Software CMM, People CMM, etc.). It can be applied to product manufacturing, people management, software development, etc.
CMM describes about the software engineering alone where as CMM Integrated describes both software and system engineering. CMMI also incorporates the Integrated Process and Product Development and the supplier sourcing.
Question 10. What Are The Business Objectives Of Cmmi?
CMMI and Business Objectives :
Produce quality products or services : The process-improvement concept in CMMI models evolved out of the Deming, Juran, and Crosby quality paradigm: Quality products are a result of quality processes. CMMI has a strong focus on quality-related activities including requirements management, quality assurance, verification, and validation.
Create value for the stockholders : Mature organizations are more likely to make better cost and revenue estimates than those with less maturity, and then perform in line with those estimates. CMMI supports quality products, predictable schedules, and effective measurement to support the management in making accurate and defensible forecasts. This process maturity can guard against project performance problems that could weaken the value of the organization in the eyes of investors.
Enhance customer satisfaction : Meeting cost and schedule targets with high-quality products that are validated against customer needs is a good formula for customer satisfaction. CMMI addresses all of these ingredients through its emphasis on planning, monitoring, and measuring, and the improved predictability that comes with more capable processes.
Increase market share : Market share is a result of many factors, including quality products and services, name identification, pricing, and image. Customers like to deal with suppliers who have a reputation for meeting their commitments.
Gain an industry-wide recognition for excellence : The best way to develop a reputation for excellence is to consistently perform well on projects, delivering quality products and services within cost and schedule parameters. Having processes that conform to CMMI requirements can enhance that reputation.
Question 11. What Is The Disciplines Of Sei Cmmi Models?
The CMM Integration is a model that has integrated several disciplines / bodies of knowledge. Currently there are four bodies of knowledge available to you when selecting a CMMI model.
- Systems Engineering.
- Software Engineering.
- Integrated Product and Process Development.
- Supplier Sourcing.
Question 12. How Is Supplier Sourcing?
As work efforts become more complex, project managers may use suppliers to perform functions or add modifications to products that are specifically needed by the project. When those activities are critical, the project benefits from enhanced source analysis and from monitoring supplier activities before product delivery. Under these circumstances, the supplier sourcing discipline covers the acquisition of products from suppliers.
Question 13. What Is Integrated Product And Process Development?
Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) is a systematic approach that achieves a timely collaboration of relevant stakeholders throughout the life of the product to better satisfy customer needs, expectations, and requirements. The processes to support an IPPD approach are integrated with the other processes in the organization.
If a project or organization chooses IPPD, it performs the IPPD best practices concurrently with other best practices used to produce products (e.g., those related to systems engineering). That is, if an organization or project wishes to use IPPD, it must select one or more disciplines in addition to IPPD.
Question 14. How To Select A Discipline In Cmmi?
Selecting a discipline may be a difficult step and depends on what an organization wants to improve.
If you are improving your systems engineering processes, like Configuration Management, Measurement and Analysis, Organizational Process Focus, Project Monitoring and Control, Process and Product Quality Assurance, Risk Management, Supplier Agreement Management etc., then you should select Systems engineering (SE) discipline. The discipline amplifications for systems engineering receive special emphasis.
If you are improving your integrated product and process development processes like Integrated Teaming, Organizational Environment for Integration, then you should select IPPD. The discipline amplifications for IPPD receive special emphasis.
If you are improving your source selection processes like Integrated Supplier Management then you should select Supplier sourcing (SS). The discipline amplifications for supplier sourcing receive special emphasis.
If you are improving multiple disciplines, then you need to work on all the areas related to those disciplines and pay attention to all of the discipline amplifications for those disciplines.
Question 15. What Is Cmmi Staged Representation?
The staged representation is the approach used in the Software CMM. It is an approach that uses predefined sets of process areas to define an improvement path for an organization. This improvement path is described by a model component called a Maturity Level. A maturity level is a well-defined evolutionary plateau towards achieving improved organizational processes.
- Provides a proven sequence of improvements, each serving as a foundation for the next.
- Permits comparisons across and among organizations by the use of maturity levels.
- Provides an easy migration from the SW-CMM to CMMI.
- Provides a single rating that summarizes appraisal results and allows comparisons among organizations.
- Thus Staged Representation provides a pre-defined roadmap for organizational improvement based on proven grouping and ordering of processes and associated organizational relationships. You cannot divert from the sequence of steps.
Question 16. What Is Cmmi Continuous Representation?
Continuous representation is the approach used in the SECM and the IPD-CMM. This approach allows an organization to select a specific process area and make improvements based on it. The continuous representation uses Capability Levels to characterize improvement relative to an individual process area.
- Allows you to select the order of improvement that best meets your organization’s business objectives and mitigates your organization’s areas of risk.
- Enables comparisons across and among organizations on a process-area-by-process-area basis.
- Provides an easy migration from EIA 731 (and other models with a continuous representation) to CMMI.
Thus Continuous Representation provides flexibility to organizations to choose the processes for improvement, as well as the amount of improvement required.
Question 17. Difference Between Continuous And Staged Representations?
Continuous Representation :
- Process areas are organized by process area categories.
- Improvement is measured using capability levels. Capability levels measure the maturity of a particular process across an organization; it ranges from 0 through 5.
- There are two types of specific practices: base and advanced. All specific practices appear in the continuous representation.
- Capability levels are used to organize the generic practices.
- All generic practices are included in each process area.
- Equivalent staging allows determination of a maturity level from an organization’s achievement profile.
Staged Representation :
- Process areas are organized by maturity levels.
- Improvement is measured using maturity levels. Maturity levels measure the maturity of a set of processes across an organization: it ranges from 1 through 5.
- There is only one type of specific practice. The concepts of base and advanced practices are not used. All specific practices appear in the staged representation except when a related base-advanced pair of practices appears in the continuous representation, in which case only the advanced practice appears in the staged representation.
- Common features are used to organize generic practices.
- Only the level 2 and level 3 generic practices are included.
- There is no need for an equivalence mechanism to back the continuous representation because each organization can choose what to improve and how much to improve using the staged representation.
Question 18. What Is Maturity Level?
Maturity levels consist of a predefined set of process areas. The maturity levels are measured by the achievement of the specific and generic goals that apply to each predefined set of process areas.There are five maturity levels.
- Maturity Level 1 Initial.
- Maturity Level 2 Managed.
- Maturity Level 3 Defined.
- Maturity Level 4 Quantitatively Managed.
- Maturity Level 5 Optimizing.
Question 19. Explain Maturity Level 1 Initial?
At maturity level 1, processes are usually ad hoc and chaotic. The organization usually does not provide a stable environment. Success in these organizations depend on the competence and heroics of the people in the organization and not on the use of proven processes.
Maturity level 1 organizations often produce products and services that work; however, they frequently exceed the budget and schedule of their projects.
Maturity level 1 organizations are characterized by a tendency to over commit, abandon processes in the time of crisis, and not be able to repeat their past successes.
Question 20. Explain Maturity Level 2 Managed?
At maturity level 2, an organization has achieved all the specific and generic goals of the maturity level 2 process areas. In other words, the projects of the organization have ensured that requirements are managed and that processes are planned, performed, measured, and controlled.
The process discipline reflected by maturity level 2 helps to ensure that existing practices are retained during times of stress. When these practices are in place, projects are performed and managed according to their documented plans.
At maturity level 2, requirements, processes, work products, and services are managed. The status of the work products and the delivery of services are visible to management at defined points.
Commitments are established among relevant stakeholders and are revised as needed. Work products are reviewed with stakeholders and are controlled.
The work products and services satisfy their specified requirements, standards, and objectives.
Question 21. Explain Maturity Level 3 Defined?
At maturity level 3, an organization has achieved all the specific and generic goals of the process areas assigned to maturity levels 2 and 3.
At maturity level 3, processes are well characterized and understood, and are described in standards, procedures, tools, and methods.
A critical distinction between maturity level 2 and maturity level 3 is the scope of standards, process descriptions, and procedures. At maturity level 2, the standards, process descriptions, and procedures may be quite different in each specific instance of the process (for example, on a particular project).
At maturity level 3, the standards, process descriptions, and procedures for a project are tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes to suit a particular project or organizational unit. The organization’s set of standard processes includes the processes addressed at maturity level 2 and maturity level 3. As a result, the processes that are performed across the organization are consistent except for the differences allowed by the tailoring guidelines.
Another critical distinction is that at maturity level 3, processes are typically described in more detail and more rigorously than at maturity level 2. At maturity level 3, processes are managed more proactively using an understanding of the interrelationships of the process activities and detailed measures of the process, its work products, and its services.
Question 22. Explain Maturity Level 4 Quantitatively Managed?
At maturity level 4, an organization has achieved all the specific goals of the process areas assigned to maturity levels 2, 3, and 4 and the generic goals assigned to maturity levels 2 and 3.
At maturity level 4, sub-processes are selected that significantly contribute to the overall process performance. These selected sub-processes are controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques.
Quantitative objectives for quality and process performance are established and used as criteria in managing the processes. Quantitative objectives are based on the needs of the customer, end users, organization, and process implementers. Quality and process performance are understood in statistical terms and are managed throughout the life of the processes.
For these processes, detailed measures of process performance are collected and statistically analyzed. Special causes of process variation are identified and, where appropriate, the sources of special causes are corrected to prevent future occurrences.
Quality and process performance measures are incorporated into the organization’s measurement repository to support fact-based decision making in the future.
A critical distinction between maturity level 3 and maturity level 4 is the predictability of process performance. At maturity level 4, the performance of processes is controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques, and is quantitatively predictable. At maturity level 3, processes are only qualitatively predictable.
Question 23. Explain Maturity Level 5 Optimizing?
At maturity level 5, an organization has achieved all the specific goalsof the process areas assigned to maturity levels 2, 3, 4, and 5 and the generic goals assigned to maturity levels 2 and 3.
Processes are continually improved based on a quantitative understanding of the common causes of variation inherent in processes.
This level focuses on continually improving process performance through both incremental and innovative technological improvements.
The quantitative process-improvement objectives for the organization are established, continually revised to reflect changing business objectives, and used as criteria in managing process improvement.
The effects of deployed process improvements are measured and evaluated against the quantitative process-improvement objectives. Both the defined processes and the organization’s set of standard processes are targets of measurable improvement activities.
Optimizing processes that are agile and innovative, depends on the participation of an empowered workforce aligned with the business values and objectives of the organization. The organization’s ability to rapidly respond to changes and opportunities is enhanced by finding ways to accelerate and share learning. Improvement of the processes is inherently a role that everybody has to play, resulting in a cycle of continual improvement.
Question 24. What Are The Capability Levels Of Cmmi?
A capability level is a well-defined evolutionary plateau describing the organization’s capability relative to a process area. A capability level consists of related specific and generic practices for a process area that can improve the organization’s processes associated with that process area. Each level is a layer in the foundation for continuous process improvement.
Thus, capability levels are cumulative, i.e., a higher capability level includes the attributes of the lower levels.
In CMMI models with a continuous representation, there are six capability levels designated by the numbers 0 through 5.
- 0 – Incomplete.
- 1 – Performed.
- 2 – Managed.
- 3 – Defined.
- 4 – Quantitatively Managed.
- 5 – Optimizing.
Question 25. Define The Short Description Of Capability Levels In Cmmi?
A short description of each capability level is as follows:
Capability Level 0: Incomplete : An “incomplete process” is a process that is either not performed or partially performed. One or more of the specific goals of the process area are not satisfied and no generic goals exist for this level since there is no reason to institutionalize a partially performed process.This is tantamount to Maturity Level 1 in the staged representation.
Capability Level 1: Performed : A Capability Level 1 process is a process that is expected to perform all of the Capability Level 1 specific and generic practices. Performance may not be stable and may not meet specific objectives such as quality, cost, and schedule, but useful work can be done. This is only a start, or baby-step, in process improvement. It means that you are doing something but you cannot prove that it is really working for you.
Capability Level 2: Managed : A managed process is planned, performed, monitored, and controlled for individual projects, groups, or stand-alone processes to achieve a given purpose. Managing the process achieves both the model objectives for the process as well as other objectives, such as cost, schedule, and quality. As the title of this level indicates, you are actively managing the way things are done in your organization. You have some metrics that are consistently collected and applied to your management approach.
Note : metrics are collected and used at all levels of the CMMI, in both the staged and continuous representations. It is a bitter fallacy to think that an organization can wait until Capability Level 4 to use the metrics.
Capability Level 3: Defined : A capability level 3 process is characterized as a “defined process.” A defined process is a managed (capability level 2) process that is tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes according to the organization’s tailoring guidelines, and contributes work products, measures, and other process-improvement information to the organizational process assets.
Capability Level 4: Quantitatively Managed : A capability level 4 process is characterized as a “quantitatively managed process.” A quantitatively managed process is a defined (capability level 3) process that is controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques. Quantitative objectives for quality and process performance are established and used as criteria in managing the process. Quality and process performance is understood in statistical terms and is managed throughout the life of the process.
Capability Level 5: Optimizing : An optimizing process is a quantitatively managed process that is improved, based on an understanding of the common causes of process variation inherent to the process. It focuses on continually improving process performance through both incremental and innovative improvements. Both the defined processes and the organization’s set of standard processes are the targets of improvement activities.
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