Question 1. What Are Offshore Installations?
Oil and gas offshore installations are industrial towns at sea, carrying the personnel and equipment needed to access reservoirs thousands of feet below the seabed, and maintain continuous hydrocarbon production. The most important functions are drilling, preparing water or gas for injection into the reservoir, processing the oil and gas before sending it ashore, and cleaning the produced water for disposal into the sea.
Big fixed platforms may have all these functions in one location, but smaller platforms may be dedicated to just one function, such as drilling or gas compression. Some installations can be moved from one location to another, for example mobile drilling rigs and production FPSOs.
Question 2. What Are Onshore Installations?
These are installations on land and usually close to the sea which receive oil and gas from offshore installations via pipeline (or in the case of oil sometimes by tanker). These installations prepare the liquid products for further refining – but they are not the refineries. They also take the natural gas and make it suitable for piping into the National Grid. At some installations gas liquids are processed.
Question 3. What Actually Happens Offshore?
- The popular image of offshore work often centers on a muddy drill floor, where wells are drilled to target the reservoirs of oil and gas below the surface – but this is only the beginning of the story.
- The top end of each production well sprouts a branching series of pipes, gauges and valves called the ‘Christmas tree’. At this point, crude oil is a hot, frothy, corrosive, high-pressure fluid containing gas, water and sand.
- After separation, the crude oil is metered and pumped into the pipeline, or stored until sent ashore by tanker.
- The gas separated from the oil may be used for fuel, or compressed and piped to shore or re-injected into the reservoir. Any gas that cannot be used is burnt in the platform’s flare, very little gas is now flared.
- Processing systems for the gas fields of the southern North Sea are relatively simple. The gas liquids are removed and then the gas is compressed, cooled, dehydrated and metered before being piped to shore.
- All production and drilling systems have to be monitored constantly for leaks, since oil and gas are hazardous and extremely flammable.
- There is no mains electricity offshore! Power has to be generated on the installation to drive production and drilling equipment, and to support life.
- In other words, offshore installations are packed with complex equipment and systems that need to be operated and maintained safely by highly skilled people who understand the technology and the processes involved, and who can work together in integrated teams.
Question 4. What Is The Purpose And Integration Feature Of Sap Oil And Gas?
SAP Oil & Gas (TSW – Trader’s and Scheduler’s Workbench)
Trader’s and Scheduler’s Workbench (TSW) provides functions for stock projection and for planning and scheduling bulk shipments using nominations. TSW provides the relevant master data to model the supply chain. The stock projection, planning, and nomination processes enable the scheduler to schedule bulk shipments while taking into account supply, demand, and available transportation.
To use the component TSW, you must activate TSW in the current system and client. To do this, in Customizing for Industry Solution Oil & Gas (Downstream) choose TSW (Trader’s and Scheduler’s Workbench) Specify TSW control parameters and select the TSW active indicator.
To ensure full integration with the SAP Oil & Gas solution, the underlying document flow of a scheduled goods movement is initiated by the TSW user. This involves the automatic creation of shipments using the Transportation and Distribution (TD) component, and the creation of all TD-relevant and subsequent material movement documents.
The Oil Quantity Conversion function provided in the SAP Oil & Gas solution is also integrated with TSW. In order for the Quantity Conversion Interface (QCI) to work properly in TSW, the necessary conversion data must be defined for the material, plant, storage location, and batch.
- Master Data
The following master data objects in the TSW application:
- Transport system (TS)
- Location (business location) and material
- Partner role
- Master data objects in the R/3 System, such as customer, vendor, or plant are linked to the locations and transport system using TSW partner roles.
- Processes and Functions
The following planning tools are provided by the TSW application:
- Planning (Replenishment Proposals and Safety/Target Stock Calculation)
- Stock Projection Worksheet (SPW)
- Location Balancing
The following scheduling tools are provided by the TSW application:
- Three-Way Pegging (3WP)
- Berth Planning Board (BPB)
The following sequence is recommended to properly model the supply chain using TSW master data objects:
- You define you transport system in the TSW master data transaction.
- You define locations or business locations in the TSW master data transaction.
- You assign materials to locations.
- You assign locations to the transport system.
- You create partner roles for the transport system and/or locations.
The following sequence is recommended to properly set up planning data:
- You generate the Stock Projection Worksheet.
- You use the Stock Projection Worksheet to perform stock projection.
- Generating the Stock Projection Worksheet is required, before using the Planning functions or Worklist for the first time.
- You generate the replenishment proposals based on the demand information from the Stock Projection Worksheet.
- You generate the Worklist.
The following sequence is an example of a scheduling scenario:
- You create a nomination and assign documents to nomination line items.
- You send the nomination to your partner, such as a carrier.
- You confirm or reject nomination line items, based on information from the carrier.
- You enter the ticket details based on the carrier ticket and physical goods movements.
- You validate the ticket against the nomination line items.
- The system automatically creates the underlying shipment documents and posts documents.
Question 5. How Sap Solution Integrates Upstream Oil & Gas Operations?
Upstream oil & gas production involves specific requirements and business processes that are unique to this industry. Unlike in the downstream sector, business processes in the upstream oil & gas sector are not well integrated. This is partially due to organizational issues and partially due to the fact that upstream organizations typically use a handful of best-in-breed applications and numerous Excel spreadsheets, rather than a well-integrated solution.
These business processes include work-over management, production planning and allocations, contractor management and maintenance scheduling, production reporting, and others. Without clear visibility into field variables and constraints, operations planners don’t have the information they need to make the best decisions. This often results in sub-optimal planning, inefficient use of both physical and human resources, higher costs, and increased risk.
As ARC Advisory Group learned in a recent briefing, SAP has targeted this problem by developing an Upstream Operations Management (UOM) solution that the company has integrated with other SAP products to provide interoperability across systems and processes and visibility into upstream operations, maintenance, engineering, and planning. The ultimate goal, of course, is to help maximize monetization of hydrocarbons.
Question 6. How Upstream Operations Works?
Upstream Operations Management:Gaining an overall picture of a global energy company’s upstream operations can be incredibly difficult. This is because each business line will tend to manage complex resources with a focus on its own information and performance goals. Nevertheless, to be able to optimize multiple (often interactive) variables, a company requires a master view.
Question 7. What Did Our Assets Produce? What Impact Will Specific Changes Have On Production?
To create the most accurate plans, upstream operators need complete visibility into all activities that impact delivery at the tailgate or custody transfer points. These include physical constraints, planned and unplanned logistic constraints, and planned maintenance and work-over’s. SAP UOM supports three core functions to facilitate workflow: field data capture, production allocation and planning, and operations performance analysis.
Field Data Capture:
Upstream oil & gas operating companies can complete upstream allocations using SAP MII to integrate and validate field data from process historians. Field measurements, well test downtime measurements, and production measurements from highly instrumented fields are captured via industry best practices. Well downtime information from a variety of sources can also be integrated into SAP Plant Maintenance (PM) to improve maintenance planning activities. Since many onshore fields will have limited automation systems, users can leverage the SAP mobility platform to capture data in the field.
Question 8. How Production Allocation And Planning Will Be Done?
Production allocation functions in SAP UOM take data from various sources and make it visible to production accountants via a simple-to-use work center interface. This interface makes it relatively easy for the production accountants to determine hydrocarbon and water volumes, masses, and energy content. The system is loaded into a user-defined network object via MII and rules applied to allocate oil, gas, water, and condensate. The production accountants can then complete custody transfer to transfer points or a target delivery system. Users can easily determine what was produced; what can be produced; and perform further analysis for longer range planning; plan vs. actual, and apply chemical analysis data to perform allocations at either the component or full product stream level.
Key production allocation-related capabilities include:
- Top-down and bottom-up allocation of hydrocarbons inclusive of oil, gas, water etc. Determining commingled well completion and intra-month structure.
- Handling through gathering systems/pipelines, as well as through the outlet of gas processing facilities.
- Chemical analysis as a method to capture gas components.
- Network modeling to replicate field configurations.
- Mass, energy, and volume dimension allocation.
- Determining capacity and planned vs. actual allocation.
Question 9. How To Use Upstream Operations Reporting And Analytics?
Upstream oil & gas enterprises can use SAP’s integrated analytics solution to address key business questions. Production engineers can determine the performance trend of the target gas and oil wells and better understand factors that impact production. The SAP UOM solution is also integrated with SAP Business Warehouse.
As an example of a typical query, a production engineer can launch a report from the SAP UOM Portal to determine and compare the daily production quantities of well completions across a network along with the relevant medium (hydrocarbons or water) and quantity. This report can also show associated details such as downtime, well tests, measurement data, and lifecycle status for a particular network on a particular production date.
Question 10. How In-memory Computing Supports In Transformation Of The Traditional It Stack?
SAP Business Information Warehouse (BW) is a core element to the UOM solution. SAP now uses a new in-memory computing technology called HANA. According to SAP, this has transformed the current BW IT stack to support reporting and analytics.
In today’s fast-paced environment, people expect instant response when searching for information on the Internet. Workers expect the same response from enterprise systems. The amount of enterprise data typically doubles every 18 months and, according to SAP, HANA technology is capable of providing 3,600 times faster analytics to allow deeper data interrogation. This can increase the number of times a user can analyze the data within a given time frame. In-memory computing moves the computing task from the computer disk drive to the local memory so that results of complex analysis and transactions are available at the user’s fingertips, either on his or her desktop or smartphone.
Recent improvements in hardware and the economics of memory have opened up new possibilities to create a shift in the computing architecture. In addition to creating hardware structures based on 8 x 8 cores per blade, software has also been redesigned to provide row and column store, compression, and insert only on delta. Microprocessors historically sit idle for long periods and data are not stored the way that business users ask questions. Eighty percent of the business system inquiries use only 20 percent of the data.
SAP currently has over 40 applications that support HANA technology, including SAP BW.
Question 11. How Integrated Data Architecture Drives Collaboration Across Processes And Operations Works?
- For well over a decade now, ARC has been closely following the debate over the relative benefits of employing fully integrated, enterprise-level information systems versus multiple best-in-breed software systems.
- While each approach has its pros and cons, the correct decision will involve a number of factors, including specific application requirements, a company’s installed base of software, internal IT and application support resources, and corporate standards.
Question 12. What Are The Different Kinds Of Oil Found Worldwide?
There are about 161 different types of Oil found worldwide. The different categories of Oil found worldwide is classified into different types of crude oil like Brent, Dubai Crude, West Texas, Intermediate, etc. Classification is done according to their sulphur content.
Question 13. What Are The Taxes That Have To Pay On Gasoline?
There are State taxes and Federal taxes that is levied on your gasoline, though taxes changes from one state to another. You are paying approx. 23% of state taxes per gallon of your gasoline that may vary to 40% depending upon the state. While, federal government excises tax is about 18 percent per gallon.
Question 14. Mention The Factors That Can Fluctuate Gasoline Prices?
The factors that can fluctuate the gasoline price are:
- Changes to the price of crude oil.
- Major supply disruption in any area of the country.
- Increased consumer demand.
- Expected or unexpected outages of any refinery.
- Activity on the commodities market.
Question 15. Mention The Requirements For Importing Natural Gas, Oil And Petroleum Into The Us?
For importing petroleum or petroleum products to U.S, you don’t need a license to import these items, but you need to file a form called EIA 814 with the EIA (Energy Information Administration).
Question 16. What Is Api Gravity?
API means American Petroleum Institute; it is the main association for the oil and natural gas industry in U.S. The API denotes about 400 corporations in the petroleum industry and helps to set the standard for production, refinement and distribution of petroleum product.
Question 17. Explain What Is Power Shares Db Energy Fund?
In the energy commodities, this fund is the most rounded investment in the energy commodities. This fund is invested in the energy futures contract like heating oil, Brent crude oil, RBOB gasoline and natural gas.
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