Question 1. What Is Sap?
SAP is the name of the company founded in 1972 under the German name (Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing) is the leading ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software package.
Question 2. What Is Erp?
ERP is a package with the techniques and concepts for the integrated management of business as a whole, for effective use of management resources, to improve the efficiency of an enterprise. Initially, ERP was targeted for manufacturing industry mainly for planning and managing core business like production and financial market. As the growth and merits of ERP package ERP software is designed for basic process of a company from manufacturing to small shops with a target of integrating information across the company.
Question 3. Different Types Of Erp?
SAP, BAAN, JD Edwards, Oracle Financials, Siebel, PeopleSoft. Among all the ERP’s most of the companies implemented or trying to implement SAP because of number of advantages over other ERP packages.
Question 4. Explain The Concept Of “business Content” In Sap Business Information Warehouse?
Business Content is a pre-configured set of role and task-relevant information models based on consistent Metadata in the SAP Business Information Warehouse. Business Content provides selected roles within a company with the information they need to carry out their tasks. These information models essentially contain roles, workbooks, queries, InfoSources, InfoCubes, key figures, characteristics, update rules and extractors for SAP R/3, mySAP.com Business Applications and other selected applications.
Question 5. Why Do You Usually Choose To Implement Sap?
There are number of technical reasons numbers of companies are planning to implement SAP. It’s highly configurable, highly secure data handling, min data redundancy, max data consistency, you can capitalize on economics of sales like purchasing, tight integration-cross function.
Question 6. Can Bw Run Without A Sap R/3 Implementation?
Certainly. You can run BW without R/3 implementation. You can use pre-defined business content in BW using your non-SAP data. Here you simply need to map the transfer structures associated with BW data sources (InfoCubes, ODS tables) to the inbound data files or use 3rd part tool to connect your flat files and other data sources and load data in BW. Several third party ETL products such as Acta, Infomatica, DataStage and others will have been certified to load data in BW.
Question 7. What Is Ides?
International Demonstration and Education System. A sample application provided for faster learning and implementation.
Question 8. What Is Wf And Its Importance?
Business Work Flow: Tool for automatic control and execution of cross-application processes. This involves coordinating the persons involved, the work steps required, the data, which needs to be processed (business objects). The main advantage is reduction in throughput times and the costs involved in managing business processes. Transparency and quality are enhanced by its use.
Question 9. What Is Sap R/3?
A third generation set of highly integrated software modules that performs common business function based on multinational leading practice. Takes care of any enterprise however diverse in operation, spread over the world. In R/3 system all the three servers like presentation, application server and database server are located at different system.
Question 10. What Are Presentation, Application And Database Servers In Sap R/3?
The application layer of an R/3 System is made up of the application servers and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 System are run on application servers. The application servers communicate with the presentation components, the database, and also with each other, using the message server. All the data are stored in a centralized server. This server is called database server.
Question 11. What Should Be The Approach For Writing A Bdc Program?
Convert the legacy system data to a flat file and convert flat file into internal table. Transfer the flat file into sap system called “sap data transfer”. Call transaction(Write the program explicitly) or create sessions (sessions are created and processed, if success data will transfer).
Question 12. Explain Open Sql Vs Native Sql?
ABAP Native SQL allows you to include database-specific SQL statements in an ABAP program. Most ABAP programs containing database-specific SQL statements do not run with different databases. If different databases are involved, use Open SQL. To execute ABAP Native SQL in an ABAP program, use the statement EXEC. Open SQL (Subset of standard SQL statements), allows you to access all database tables available in the R/3 System, regardless of the manufacturer. To avoid conflicts between database tables and to keep ABAP programs independent from the database system used, SAP has generated its own set of SQL statements known as Open SQL.
Question 13. What Are Datasets?
The sequential files (processed on application server) are called datasets. They are used for file handling in SAP.
Question 14. What Are Internal Tables Check Table, Value Table, And Transparent Table?
Internal table: It is a standard data type object, which exists only during the runtime of the program.
Check table: Check table will be at field level checking.
Value table: Value table will be at domain level checking ex: scarr table is check table for carrid.
Transparent table: – Exists with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in database exactly with the same data and fields.
Question 15. What Are The Major Benefits Of Reporting With Bw Over R/3?
Would it be sufficient just to Web-enable R/3 Reports? – Performance — Heavy reporting along with regular OLTP transactions can produce a lot of load both on the R/3 and the database (cpu, memory, disks, etc). Just take a look at the load put on your system during a month end, quarter end, or year-end — now imagine that occurring even more frequently. Data analysis — BW uses a Data Warehouse and OLAP concepts for storing and analyzing data, where R/3 was designed for transaction processing. With a lot of work you can get the same analysis out of R/3 but most likely would be easier from a BW.
Question 16. How Can An Erp Such As Sap Help A Business Owner Learn More About How Business Operates?
In order to use an ERP system, a business person must understand the business processes and how they work together from one functional area to the other. This knowledge gives the student a much deeper understanding of how a business operates. Using SAP as a tool to learn about ERP systems will require that the people understand the business processes and how they integrate.
Question 17. What Is The Difference Between Olap And Data Mining?
OLAP – On line Analytical processing is a reporting tool configured to understand your database schema, composition facts and dimensions . By simple point-n-clicking, a user can run any number of canned or user-designed reports without having to know anything of SQL or the schema. Because of that prior configuration, the OLAP engine “builds” and executes the appropriate SQL. Mining is to build the application to specifically look at detailed analyses, often algorithmic; even more often misappropriate called “reporting.
Question 18. What Is “extended Star Schema” And How Did It Emerge?
The Star Schema consists of the Dimension Tables and the Fact Table. The Master Data related tables are kept in separate tables, which has reference to the characteristics in the dimension table(s). These separate tables for master data is termed as the Extended Star Schema.
Question 19. Define Meta Data, Master Data And Transaction Data?
Meta Data: Data that describes the structure of data or MetaObjects is called Metadata. In other words data about data is known as Meta Data.
Master Data: Master data is data that remains unchanged over a long period of time. It contains information that is always needed in the same way. Characteristics can bear master data in BW. With master data you are dealing with attributes, texts or hierarchies.
Transaction data: Data relating to the day-to-day transactions is the Transaction data.
Question 20. Name Some Drawbacks Of Sap ?
Interfaces are huge problem, Determine where master data resides, Expensive, very complex, demands highly trained staff, lengthy implementation time.
Question 21. What Is Bex?
Bex stands for Business Explorer. Bex enables end user to locate reports, view reports, analyze information and can execute queries. The queries in workbook can be saved to there respective roles in the Bex browser. Bex has the following components: Bex Browser, Bex analyzer, Bex Map, Bex Web.
Question 22. What Are Variables?
Variables are parameters of a query that are set in the parameter query definition and are not filled with values until the queries are inserted into workbooks. There are different types of variables which are used in different application: Characteristics variables, Hierarchies and hierarchy node, Texts, Formulas, Processing types, User entry/Default type, Replacment Path.
Question 23. What Is Awb? What Is Its Purpose?
- AWB stands for Administrator WorkBench. AWB is a tool for controlling, monitoring and maintaining all the processes connected with data staging and processing in the business information whearhousing.
Question 24. What Is The Significance Of Ods In Biw?
An ODS Object serves to store consolidated and debugged transaction data on a document level (atomic level). It describes a consolidated dataset from one or more InfoSources. This dataset can be analyzed with a BEx Query or InfoSet Query. The data of an ODS Object can be updated with a delta update into InfoCubes and/or other ODS Objects in the same system or across systems. In contrast to multi-dimensional data storage with InfoCubes, the data in ODS Objects is stored in transparent, flat database tables.
Question 25. What Are The Different Types Of Source System?
SAP R/3 Source Systems, SAP BW, Flat Files and External Systems.
Question 26. What Is Extractor?
Extractors is a data retrieval mechanisms in the SAP source system. Which can fill the extract structure of a data source with the data from the SAP source system datasets. The extractor may be able to supply data to more fields than exist in the extract structure.
Question 27. What Is Internal And External Number Ranges?
Internal Number Ranges: Doc. No will be provided by the system automatically in serial order allotting the next available progressive number. The number must be in numerical.
External Number ranges: Doc. No will be given manually by the end user. System will not lock number automatically in this case. User can pick the number randomly. Number may be an alpha numeric.
Question 28. What Is Residual Payment And Part Payment?
Residual payment it clears original invoice with incoming amount and create new line item for remaining outstanding amount.
Partial payment it leaves the original invoice amount and creates new line item for incoming amount.
Question 29. What Is Open Line Item Management? What Do You Mean By Clearing Open Line Items?
Open item management is further reconciliation function. OIM allows you to display the open and cleared items and amounts in an account. OIM should be used if an offsetting entry is made for every line item posted in the account. The a/c is reconciled and cleared against another account. Ex. Salary clearing account and GR/IR Clearing account.
Question 30. What Are All The Segments In A Customer/vendor Master Record?
Segments in Customer Segments in Vendor• General Data segment. • General data segment.• Company code segment. • Company code segment.• Sales area segment. • Purchasing organization Segment.
Question 31. What Is Country And Operational Chart Of Account? Why Do You Use Group Chart Of Account?
Operational chart of account – Day to day activities It is mandatory.
Country COA – It’s used for legal specific requirement of each country. It’s additional and optional.
Group COA used for consolidation of Company codes. This is for group consolidation purpose.
Question 32. What Does Field Status Group Assigned To A Gl Master Record Controls?
It controls the account assignments that are made to the account. Specifically the field status group controls whether postings to cost centers, internal orders, profitability segments and so on are required, not allowed (suppressed), or optional.
Question 33. What Are The Segments Of Gl Master Record?
- COA Segment
Nature of account .
GL a/c long text .
Group Account Number.
- Company code segment
Reconciliation a/c for a/c type.
Question 34. How Do You Control Field Status Of Gl Master Records And From Where Do You Control?
Field status variant is maintained all FSGs.
Question 35. What Is Reconciliation Account; Can You Directly Enter Documents In That A/c?
When you post items to a subsidiary ledger, the system automatically posts the same data to the general ledger. Each subsidiary ledger has one or more reconciliation accounts in the general ledger. We can’t use reconciliation account for direct postings.
Question 36. Can One Coa Be Assigned To Several Companies?
yes. One COA can be assigned to several companies.
Question 37. What Does Definition Of A Chart Of Account Contains?
- chart of account key.
- Maintenance language.
- Length of the GL Account Number.
- Controlling Integration.
- Group chart of accounts (Consolidation).
- Block Indicator.
Question 38. What Is Chart Of Account And How Many Charts Of Accounts Can Be Assigned To A Company?
Chart of account is a list of all G/L accounts used by one or several company codes. For each G/L account, the chart of accounts contains the account number, account name, and the information that controls how an account functions and how a G/L account is created in a Company code.
You have to assign a chart of accounts to each company code. This chart of accounts is the Operating chart of accounts and is used for the daily postings in this company code. You have the following options when using multiple company codes.
You can use the same chart of accounts for all company codes If the company codes all have the same requirements for the chart of accounts set up, assign all of the individual company codes to the same chart of accounts. This could be the case if all company codes are in the same country.
In addition to the operating chart of accounts, you can use two additional charts of accounts If the individual company codes need different charts of accounts, you can assign up to two charts of accounts in addition to the operating chart of accounts. This could be the case if company codes lie in multiple countries.
The use of different charts of accounts has no effect on the balance sheet and profit and loss statement. When creating the balance sheet or the profit and loss statement, you can choose whether to balance the company codes which use different charts of accounts together or separately.
Question 39. What Is Field Status Group, What Does It Control?
FSG is mandatory field in GL Creation. You use this field to define which fields are displayed when you post business transactions to a G/L account.
A field may have one of the following statuses.
Question 40. What Is Posting Key And What Does It Control?
These are special classification keys. Two character numerical key it controls the entry of line items. Posting key determines Account type, Debit/credit posting, Field status of transaction.
Question 41. What Is Document Type, And What Does It Control? Examples?
Document type is nothing vouchers containing line items. Several business transactions can be identified within a particular document type.
- It controls the document number ranges.
- It controls the Header part of document.
- IT controls the line item level of the document.
- Helps filing of physical document.
Question 42. What Do You Enter In Company Code Global Settings?
- 4 digit Alphanumeric key.
- Name of the company.
Question 43. Where Do You Open And Close Periods?
PPV is used to open and close the periods based on a/c types considering GL Accounts. Tr. Code. OB52.
Question 44. How Many Normal And Special Periods Will Be There In Fiscal Year, Why Do You Use Special Periods?
12 Normal posting period and 4 special periods are in the fiscal year which can be used for posting tax and audit adjustments to a closed fiscal year.
Question 45. Tell Me About Fi Organizational Structure?
Controlling area1 Controlling Area 2
Co. Code 1 Co. Code 2
Bus area 1 Bus area2 Bus Area3 Bus Area 4
Question 46. In Gl Master We Have A Option “balance In Local Currency” And “account Currency”. What Does It Mean?
Account currency is that the GL account in which currency do you want to maintain. if you decided that you want maintain in company code currency, you can post any currency in that account. If not, you want to maintain separate currency for that GL then exchange rate difference will come because the conversion rate.
Balance in local currency – some GL account can’t be maintain on open item basis and can’t in foreign currency like clearing account and discount account etc., in such case you can assign this indicator to show the balance in local currency.
Question 47. How Skf Works .. Kindly Give Me T Codes Also?
You create & plan SKF.
Create using KK01 & PLAN the parameters of SKF in KP46.
Question 48. For Stat. Key Figure What Is The Significance Of Sender & Receiver Cost Elements & Cost Centers?
Stat key fig are not real account assignments. In simple traditional terms it is the base to allocate or define proportions with which the cost is allocated. SKFs are used to calculate the debit on a receiver object. These values can be used for assessing common costs which are used by all the other cost centers.
Question 49. Where To Assign Activity Type In Cost Centers? Or How To Link Cost Centers & Activity Types?
There is no direct assignment. You plan the output for a cost center first in kp26. Then you’ve to plan the value of that cost center which you budget for a period in kp06. Planned Activity expenditure / Planned Activity quantity gives you planned act rate which you can use to evaluate your activity confirmations in mfg orders. You can also define your own prices, but you have to run the price revaluation if you want to revaluate your actual activity prices.
Question 50. What Is A Transaction?
A transaction is dialog program that modify data objects in a consistent way.
Question 51. What Are The Necessities Of A Dialog Program Must Complete?
A dialog program should fulfill the following requirements.
- a user friendly user interface.
- Format and consistency checks for the data entered by the user.
- Easy alteration of input errors.
- Access to data by storing it in the data bases.
Question 52. What Are The Fundamental Components Of Dialog Program?
- Screens (Dynpros).
- Each dialog in an SAP system is controlled by dynpros. A dynpros consists of a screen And its flow logic and controls just one dialog step.
- ABAP/4 module Pool.
Each dynpro refers to exactly one ABAP/4 dialog program. Such a dialog program is also referred as module pool, since it consists of interactive modules.
Question 53. What Is Pbo And Pai Events?
PBO- Process Before Output-It find out the flow logic before displaying the screen.
PAI-Process After Input-It find out the flow logic after the display of the screen and after receiving inputs from the User.
Question 54. What Is Dynpro? What Are Its Components?
- A dynpro (Dynamic Program) consists of a screen and its flow logic and controls exactly one dialog steps.
The different components of the dynpro are :
Flow Logic: calls of the ABAP/4 modules for a screen .
Screen layout: Positions of the text, fields, pushbuttons and so on for a screen
Screen feature: Number of the screen, number of the subsequent screen and others
Fields aspects: Definition of the attributes of the individual fields on a screen.
Question 55. What Is A Abap/4 Module Pool?
Each dynpro refers to exactly one ABAP/4 dialog program. Such a dialog program is also refer as a module pool, since it consists on interactive modules.
Question 56. Can We Use Write Statements In Screen Fields If No Then How Is Data Relocate From Field Data To Screen Fields?
We cannot write field data to the screen using the WRITE statement. The system instead shift data by evaluating screen fields names with ABAP/4 variable names. If both names are the same, it transfers screen fields values to ABAP/4 programs fields and Vice Versa. This happens instantly after displaying the screen.
Question 57. Can We Make Use Of Flow Logic Control Key Words In Abap/4 And Vice-versa?
The flow control of a dynpro consists of a few statements that syntactically reassemble ABAP/4 statements. However, We cannot use flow control keywords in ABAP/4 and vice-versa.
Question 58. What Is Gui Standing? How To Create /edit Gui Status?
A GUI status is a subset of the interface elements used for a definite screen. The status comprises those elements that are at present needed by the transaction.The GUI status for a transaction may be composed of the following elements:
- Title bar.
- Menu bar.
- Application tool bar
- Push buttons.
To generate and edit GUI status and GUI title, we use the Menu Painter.
Question 59. How Does The Interface Between The Dynpro And The Abap/4 Modules Takes Place?
A transaction is a set of screens and ABAP/4 routines, controlled and carry out by a Dialog processor. The Dilaog processor processes screen after the screen, thus triggering the proper ABAP/4 processing of each screen. For each screen, the system process the flow logic that contains the equivalent ABAP/4 processing. The controls passes from screen flow logic to ABAP/4 code and back.
Question 60. How Does The Dialog Handle User Requests?
when an act is carried out, the system triggers the PROCESS AFTER INPUT event. The data passed includes field screen data filled by the user and a function code. A function code is a technical name that has been allocated in a screen Painter or Menu Painter to a menu entry, a push button, the ENTER key or a function Key of a screen. An internal work field(ok-code)in the PAI module weigh up the function code, and the suitable action is taken.
Question 61. What Is To Be Defined For A Push Button Fields In The Screen Attributes?
- A function code has to be defined in the screen attributes for the push buttons in a screen.
Question 62. How The Function Code Handles In Flow Logic?
When the User selects a function in a transaction, the system duplicate the function code into a specifically designated work field called OK_CODE. This field is Global in ABAP/4 Module Pool. The OK _CODE can then be calculated in the corresponding PAI module. The function code is always passed in exactly the same way, regardless of whether it comes from a screen’s pushbutton, a menu option, function key or other GUI element.
Question 63. What Controls The Screen Flow?
- The SET SCREEN and LEAVE SCREEN statements controls screen flow.
Question 64. The Function Code At Presently Active Is Determined By What Variable?
- The function code presently active in a Program can be determined from the SY-UCOMM Variable.
Question 65. What Are The “field” And “chain” Statements?
- The FIELD and CHAIN flow logic declaration let you Program Your own checks. FIELD and CHAIN tell the system which fields you are checking and Whether the System should carry out Checks in the flow logic or call an ABAP/4 Module.
Question 66. What Is An “on Input Filed” Statements?
The ABAP/4 module is called only if a field have the Value other than the initial Value. This first Value is determined by the field’s Data Type: blanks for character Fields, Zeroes for numeric. If the user modify the Fields Value back to its initial value, ON INPUT does not trigger a call.
Question 67. What Is An “on Request Field” Statement?
ON REQUEST: The ABAP/4 Module is called only if the client has entered the value in the field value since the last screen display. The Value counts as changed Even if the User simply types in the value that was previously there. In common, the ON REQUEST condition is triggered through any Form of” MANUAL INPUT’.
Question 68. What Does “sap Netweaver On Linux” Mean?
SAP is the market leader of inter-enterprise software solutions with the world’s largest enterprise software customer base. SAP has more than 10 million licensed users, more than 20,000 installations in more than 100 countries and supports 28 different languages. More than half of the world’s top 500 companies use SAP software! SAP supports the mySAP Business Suite in a productive environment under Linux. This also includes the database server (IBM DB2/UDB, Informix, Oracle and SAP DB) as well as the application server and the frontend. You can run SAP on Linux in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. The mySAP Business Suite is running upon the SAP NetWeaver, which includes components like the SAP Web Application Server or the SAP Enterprise Portal.
Question 69. Interested In Offering Your Software To Sap Customers So They Can Enhance Functionality Of Their Sap Servers Running Linux?
SAP is open to third party software and hardware products. As SAP only uses standard APIs provided by the Linux OS, third party software is usually transparent to us. Whereas we usually do not certify third party software, Linux Lab is open for joint development efforts.
Question 70. What Role Does Sap Play In The Open Source Scene?
We are supporting Open Source when it comes to Linux as an operating system or MaxDB (formerly Adabas/D or SAP DB) as a database. In fact, back in 1999, we were the first business software provider to support Linux as an operating system for running SAP solutions. We work closely with the Linux distributors and our partners to ensure our solutions work smoothly on Linux. Our main focus with SAP on Linux is helping our customers build the IT environment that is right for them. More and more customers are requesting help with SAP on Linux. And we are there to provide them with the high quality support they expect from SAP.
Question 71. What Is The Sap Linuxlab?
The SAP LinuxLab assists in the releasing of SAP software on Linux and drives the porting of SAP software to new platforms, like the Intel Itanium or IBM Power PC. Furthermore it helps other SAP departments with developing on and for the Linux platform and processes Linux-specific support problems – internal ones, as of external – or forwards them to the appropriate hardware or software partner. Currently, developers from Bull, Dell, Fujitsu-Siemens, HP, IBM, Intel, Novell/SUSE, RealTech, Red Hat, SAP, SUN and a number of temporary “guests” share the same rooms in the LinuxLab. Despite our hardware partners being competitors, the cooperation is excellent and we had a number of very successful projects. The LinuxLab also closely cooperates with (and is located directly next to) SAP’s Server Infrastructure department, which is responsible for the development of the SAP kernel, the basis layers on top of the native operating systems, which make SAP’s business applications platform independent.
Question 72. Why Does Sap Support Linux?
SAP’s goal is to be able to provide its customers the maximum of flexibility to create the best IT environment for their needs and be able to get the most value out of their business applications driving growth and profit. Openness, flexibility, and integrity of our products have always been part of our product strategy, putting customers in the position to decide what’s best for their IT environment. So the main reason is to offer you a free choice. Many SAP customers want to use Intel hardware and at the same time use their Unix know-how. Linux is growing with incredible speed and absolutely meets the quality standards of SAP. And thanks to the platform-independent SAP architecture, the port of the SAP kernel was fairly easy: none of the SAP business applications had to be modified.
Another reason is the number of Unix operating systems SAP has to support. Especially when you try to get maximum performance out of your hardware resources, there are significant differences between the different Unix flavors. SAP has to maintain, test and support each possible combination of OS, database, hardware and mySAP release. With Intel moving to 64 bit there is a high probability of even more Unix flavors.
A consolidation of these Unix derivatives would benefit both vendors and customers. From our point of view Linux has a realistic chance to become the unified Unix running on different hardware platforms. If Open Source continues like this, it is very important for a software company to adapt early to the new situation. We are very proud that SAP was the first software in the world that run mission-critical ERP operations on Linux. We expect Linux to be successful in low and high end installations and SAP, as Trusted Adviser, is helping customers to make the right decisions around SAP on Linux.
Question 73. Explain The Architecture Of Firstlogic’s Global Data Quality Connector For Sap Systems.
Integrated at the BASIS/WAS layer, Firstlogic has developed Business Add-Ins (BAdI’s) that can be leveraged with a single instantiation; allowing for all SAP modules that utilize SAP’s Business Address Services framework to leverage the compelling advantages of Firstlogic technology. Furthermore, Firstlogic’s Information Quality Suite has been developed as a Remote Function Call (RFC) Server: the most common integration component of SAP software. Utilizing SAP’s RFC interface, SAP makes calls to Firstlogic technology for address check, updates, duplicate checks, and error tolerant searches.
Question 74. How Does Firstlogic’s Global Data Quality Connector For Sap Systems Work?
Firstlogic’s Global Data Quality Connector is integrated at the BASIS layer and communicates with the SAP Applications via TCP/IP leveraging SAP’s Remote Function Call (RFC) interface. As users make postal validation inquiries in either batch or real-time, calls are made outside of the SAP Application to Firstlogic’s RFC Server. Once the customer’s address has been received by Firstlogic’s technology, our Information Quality Suite parses, standardizes, and corrects records according to configurable business rules and local postal authority standards.
To ensure your customer view is optimized, Firstlogic’s technology catches duplicates at the point of entry; not after redundant information has infected your SAP Environment. Before any customer, vendor, or business partner is committed to the database, Firstlogic’s Information Quality suite will immediately inspect the data upon input. The connector scans the entire database for duplicates and assigns a similarity match score to potential duplicates. At that point, the user can determine whether the entered record is unique or a duplicate that should be eliminated from the system. In addition, convenient Error Tolerant Searching is available for prompt and precise address recognition. This improves transaction processing, saves time locating records, and optimizes system efficiency.
Question 75. What Are The Benefits Of A Data Quality Solution?
The biggest benefit is the confidence you have that your data is accurate. A data quality solution also allows you to: Manage customer data in different formats initially residing in separate databases Build and maintain successful relationships Better understand and service your customers Enhance knowledge management and business intelligence initiatives with reliable and accurate information Deliver clean, reliable data throughout your expanding information supply chains to all varieties of operational and analytical applications throughout your enterprise.
Question 76. Will First Logic’s Global Data Quality Connector For Sap Manage My International Data?
Yes. Built on a global framework capable of validating address information for over 190 countries in a single processing pass, First logic’s Global Data Quality Connector for SAP allows you to identify country names, format and standardize addresses, correct missing address information, and assign postal codes for each respective country. Furthermore, First logic’s Easy IQ technology offers the ability to complete/populate addresses with minimal data or offer suggestions for possible matches. This easy address system is ideal in call centers or any transactional environment where data needs to be cleansed at the point-of-entry. The software improves real-time transactions for your call centers, sales, and support centers by providing accurate address data for your customer facing employees. How easy is it to maintain First logic’s Global Data Quality Connector for SAP after implementation? Ongoing maintenance should be minimal. Once the solution is implemented and configured, typically maintenance will only be required when you receive postal directory updates, upgrade to a new data quality release, or decide to change your application or business rules.
Question 77. Can I Integrate A Data Quality Solution Within Other Software Applications?
Data quality solutions can be fully integrated into CRM, ETL (Extract Transform Load), ERP, or BI solutions and have the advantage of being “seamless” to the end user – reducing the learning curve, as well as decreasing the implementation time frames. Your data process flow should not have to be modified to add a new data quality solution. Through integration and strategic partnerships you are assured that you are getting a best-of-breed solution. However, keep in mind it is not absolutely necessary for the solution to be fully integrated. First logic also provides tools that your organization can easily integrate on your own, and oftentimes stand-alone solutions may be more effective for specific projects.
Question 78. Is Linux Supported As A Frontend Platform?
The “SAPGUI for the Java Environment” can be downloaded from the SAP ftp servers. This project (formerly known as PlatinGUI – platform independent GUI) started in spring 1998 with the following objectives: build one GUI for all platforms (MacOS, Linux, OS/2, Win32, AIX, HP/UX, Solaris, Tru64 …) provide Control-Enabling with Java Beans create a new, flexible GUI-architecture support web browser integration.
Question 79. Which Server Configurations Of Mysap Business Suite Will Be Supported On Linux?
SAP supports mySAP Business Suite on Linux for database and application servers in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. Please get in contact with your hardware partner for system sizing and similar.
Question 80. Will A Customer Get Support When Recompiling The Linux Kernel Or Using 3rd-party Software That Modifies It?
Usually there should be no need for recompiling the Linux kernel when using SAP software on Linux, since the supported Linux distributors are shipping optimized kernels for the respective hardware architectures with revised and tested drivers. Any modification to the tested environment would furthermore make it nearly impossible for the Linux distributor to track a problem down. The same applies to 3rd party software that modifies the Linux kernel and is distributed only in a closed, binary-only, way. Therefore the following can’t be supported: Recompiling the Linux kernel, with or without source modifications Loading of 3rd party binary Linux kernel modules which have not been shipped by the Linux distributors Loading of any unsupported Linux kernel modules Loading of any closed source drivers.
Question 81. Which Databases Are Supported For Mysap Business Suite On Linux?
Supported databases for mySAP Business Suite on Linux are IBM DB2/UDB, Informix, Oracle and SAP DB/MaxDB.
Question 82. Which Releases Of Mysap Business Suite Are Supported On Linux?
mySAP Business Suite on Linux is generally available for use in a productive environment starting with release 4.0B.
Question 83. What Are The Main Reasons For Sap Customers Choosing Linux?
Each SAP customer has a unique set of reasons for running SAP on Linux, depending on the very specific customer’s SAP scenario. Among many reasons customers decide for Linux as the operating system of choice, because they seek increased Flexibility , Scalability with different sized commodity, or even large former Unix or mainframe systems , Freedom of choice for technology vendors , Replacing larger Unix-based SAP servers.
Question 84. Will Pricing Be Changed For Mysap Business Suite On Linux?
Standard pricing for mySAP Business Suite applies also to mySAP Business Suite on Linux.
Question 85. Where Can I Get Linux For Mysap Business Suite?
Linux distributors like Debian, Mandrake, Red Hat or SUSE offer Linux together with a set of other software packages, installation routines, documentation and support. Whereas there is a de-facto standard for the Linux kernel itself, the distributions differ in other areas, especially in the administration area.
Question 86. Where Can I Get The Mysap Business Suite On Linux?
You can order the mySAP Business Suite on Linux just like mySAP software on any other platform. If you are a SAP customer already, there will be no additional charges. From Release 4.6 onwards, the mySAP Business Suite on Linux is part of the standard delivery.
Question 87. Can I Execute User Exits? If Yes, How?
Yes you can. after finding the user exit, you need to use, goto CMOD add your user-exit to your project. Then activate the FM which you require. Now go into that function module there will be a Include program wit name ZX*. Double click on it, it will ask to create an object, answer it Yes and then write your code in it.
Question 88. How Do I Set A Flag For A Field In Any Table?
Create a char field of length 1. for example field STAS-LKENZ is Deletion Indicator. It means that if the value in the field is ‘X’ then that record has been deleted.
Question 89. What Are Table Buffers?
Table buffers reside locally on each application server in the system. The data of buffered tables can thus be accessed directly from the buffer of the application server. This avoids the time-consuming process of accessing the database. Buffering is useful if table needs to be accessed more number of times in a program.
Question 90. Can You Set Up Background Processing Using Call Transaction?
Yes,Using No Screen Mode.
Question 91. What Is The Use Of ‘for All Entries’?
To avoid nested select statements we use SELECT FOR ALL ENTRIES statement. If there are more than 10000 records SELECT FOR ALL ENTRIES is used. Performance wise SELECT FOR ALL ENTRIES is better to use.
Question 92. What Is The Use Of ‘table Index’?
Index is used for faster access of data base tables.
Question 93. When To Use Logical Database?
Advantage of Logical databases: less coding is required to retrieve data compared to normal internal tables. Tables used LDB are in hierarchical structure.
Question 94. What Is The Use Of ‘outerjoin’?
With the use of outer join you can join the tables even there is no entry in all the tables used in the view. In case of inner join there should be an entry in all the tables use in the view.
Question 95. How Can I Copy A Standard Table To Make My Own Z_table.
Go to transaction SE11. Then there is one option to copy table. Press that button. Enter the name of the standard table and in the Target table enter Z table name and press enter.
Question 96. Which Transaction Code Can I Used To Analyze The Performance Of Abap Program.
Question 97. How Do We Debug Sapscript?
Go to SE71 give lay set name, go to utilities select debugger mode on.
Question 98. Can We Create Field Without Data Element And How?
In SE11 one option is available above the fields strip. Data element/ direct type.
Question 99. When Top Of The Page Event Is Triggered?
After executing first write statement in start-of-selection event.
Question 100. How Do You Get Output From Idoc?
Data in IDOc is stored in segments, the output from Idoc is obtained by reading the data stored in its respective segments.
Question 101. In Selection Screen I Have Three Fields, Plant Mat Number And Material Group. If I Input Plant How Do I Get The Mat Number And Material Group Based On Plant Dynamically?
AT SELECTION-SCREEN ON VALUE-REQUEST FOR MATERIAL. CALL FUNCTION ‘F4IF_INT_TABLE_VALUE_REQUEST’ to get material and material group for the plant.
Question 102. On Which Event We Can Validate The Input Fields In Module Programs?
In PAI (Write field statement on field you want to validate, if you want to validate group of fields put in chain and End chain statement).
Question 103. What Are Client Dependant Objects In Abap/sap?
SAP Script layout, text element, and some DDIC objects.
Question 104. How Data Is Stored In Cluster Table?
Each field of cluster table behaves as tables which contains the number of entries.
Question 105. Among “move” And “move Corresponding”, Which Is Efficient One?
I guess, ‘move corresponding’ is very efficient then ‘move’ statement. Because usually we use this stamtent for internal table fields only…so if we give move corresponding. Those fields only moving to other place (what ever you want).
Question 106. What Is Pf-status?
Pf status is used in interactive report for enhancing the functionality. If we go to se41, we can get menus, items and different function keys, which we are using for secondary list in interactive report.
Question 107. What Is The Difference Between Clustered Tables And Pooled Tables?
A pooled table is used to combine several logical tables in the ABAP/4 dictionary. Pooled tables are logical tables that must be assigned to a table pool when they are defined. Cluster table are logical tables that must be assigned to a table cluster when they are defined. Cluster table can be used to store control data they can also used to store temporary data or text such as documentation.
Question 108. What Is The Table, Which Contain The Details Of All The Name Of The Programs And Forms?
Table contains vertical and horizontal lines. We can store the data in table as blocks. We can scroll depends upon your wish. And these all are stored in database (data dictionary).
Question 109. What Are The Difference Between Interactive And Drill Down Reports?
ABAP/4 provides some interactive events on lists such as AT LINE-SELECTION (double click) or AT USER-COMMAND (pressing a button). You can use these events to move through layers of information about individual items in a list. Drill down report is nothing but interactive report…drilldown means above paragraph only.
Question 110. Among The Call Transaction And Session Method, Which Is Faster?
Call transaction is faster then session method. But usually we use session method in real time…because we can transfer large amount of data from internal table to database and if any errors in a session. Process will not complete until session get correct.
Question 111. How Did You Test The Developed Objects?
I was testing a developed object. There are two types of testing – Negative testing – Positive testing In negative testing we will give negative data in input and we check any errors occurs. In positive testing we will give positive data in input for checking errors.
Question 112. What Is Runtime Analysis? Have You Used This?
It’s checks program execution time in microseconds. When you go to se30.if you give desired program name in performance file. It will take you to below screen. You can get how much past is your program.
Question 113. What Is Internal Recruitment ?
Internal recruitment is search for internal applicants. when you integrate with personal development, you can use profile match up which help to search for resources internally. Also In recruitment it is represented by ‘P’ as Person and ‘AP” as external person.
Question 114. Which Function Type Has To Be Used For Using “at Exit-command” ?
- To Use AT EXIT – COMMAND, We must allocate a function Type “E” to the applicable function in the MENU Painter OR Screen Painter.
Question 115. What Is Difference Between Set Screen And Call Screen ?
- With SET SCREEN the present screen only spell out the next screen in the chain, control branches to this next screen as soon as the present screen has been processed. Return from next screen to present screen is not automatic. It does not interrupt processing of the current screen. If we want to branch to the next screen without finishing the current one, use LEAVE SCREEN.
- With CALL SCREEN, the existing (calling) chain is suspended, and a next screen (screen chain) is called.The called can then return to the suspended chain with the statement LEAVE SCREEN TO SCREEN 0. Sometime we might want to let an user call a pop up screen from the main application screen to let him enter secondary information. After they have completed their entries, the users should be able to close the popup and return directly to the place where they left off in the main screen. Here comes CALL SCREEN into picture.This statement lets us insert such a sequence into the current one.
Question 116. What Assurance The Integration Of All Application Modules?
The R/3 basis system assurance the incorporation of all application modules. The R/3 basis s/w provides the run time setting for the R/3 applications ensures optimal integration, defines a stable architectural frame for system augmentation, and contains the administration tools for the entire system.One of the main tasks of the basis system is to guarantee the portability of the complete system.
Question 117. What Are The Central Crossing Points Of The R/3 System?
- Presentation Interface.
- Database Interface.
- Operating system Interface.
Question 118. Which Interface Controls What Is Shown On The P.c.?
Question 119. Which Interface Change Sql Requirements In The Sap Development System To Those Of The Database?
Question 120. What Is Sap Dispatcher?
SAP dispatcher is the control manager that manages the resources for the R/3 applications.
Question 121. What Are The Functions Of Dispatcher?
- Equal allocation of transaction load to the work processes.
- Management of buffer areas in main memory.
- Integration of the presentation levels.
- Organization of communication activities.
Question 122. What Is A Work Process?
A work process is where individual dialog steps are in reality processed and the work is done. Each work process handles one type of request.
Question 123. Name A Range Of Work Processes Of R/3 System?
Dialog or Online (processes only one request at a time).Background (Started at a specific time)Update (primary or secondary)Enque (Lock mechanism).Spool (generated online or during back ground processing for printing).
Question 124. Which Work Process Triggers Database Changes?
Update work process.
Question 125. Define Service (within R/3)?
A service is a process or group of processes that execute a specific system function and often provide an application-programming interface for other processes to call.
Question 126. What Are The Roll And Page Areas?
Roll and page areas are SAP R/3 buffers used to store user contexts (process requests). The SAP dispatcher allocates process requests to work processes as they are queued in the roll and page areas.Paging area holds data from the application programs.Roll area holds data from preceding dialog steps and data that characterize the user.
Question 127. What Are The Various Layers In R/3 System?
- Presentation Layer.
- Application Layer.
- Database Layer.
Question 128. What Are The Phases Of Background Processing?
- Job Scheduling.
- Job Processing.
- Job Overview.
Question 129. What Components Of The R/e System Begin The Start Of Background Jobs At The Specified Time?
The batch scheduler begins the start of background job. The dispatcher then sends this request to an accessible background work process for processing.
Question 130. Define Instance.
An instance is an administrative part in which components of an R/3 systems providing one or more services are assembled together. The services offered by an instance are ongoing and stopped at random. All components are parameterized using a joint instance profile. A central R/3 system consists of a single instance in which all-necessary SAP services are offered. Each instance uses separate buffer areas.
Question 131. What Are R/3 Basis Configurations?
A central system with centrally installed presentation software.Two-level client/server system with rolled out presentation software. Two-level client/server system. Presentation and Application run on the same computer. Three-level client / server system. Presentation, Application and database each run on separate computers.
Question 132. What Is A Service In Sap Terminology?
A service implies to something offered by a s/w component.
Question 133. What Is Server In Sap Terminology?
A component can consist of one process or a group and is then called the server for the respective service.
Question 134. What Is A Client In Sap Terminology?
A S/W component that uses the service (offered by a s/w component) is name a Client. At the same time these clients may also be servers for other services.
Question 135. What Is A Sap System?
The union of all s/w components that are allocated to the same databases is called as a SAP system.
Question 136. What Is The Means Of Communications Between R/3 And External Applications?
The means of communication between R/2,R/3 and external applications is via the CPI-C handler or SAP Gateway, using the CPI-C Protocol.
Question 137. What Is The Protocol Used By Sap Gateway Process?
The SAP Gateway process communicates with the clients based on the TCP/IP Protocol.
Question 138. What Is A Spool Request?
Spool requests are produce during dialog or background processing and placed in the spool database with information about the printer and print format. The real data is places in the Tem Se (Temporary Sequential objects).
Question 139. What Are Special Types Of Log Records?
V1 and V2. V1 must be processed before V2. But, we can have more than one V2 logs.
Question 140. What Are The Categories Of Update Requests?
An update request can be separated into one primary (V1) and several Secondary update components (V2). Time-critical operations are placed in V1 component and those whose timing is less critical are placed in V2 components. If a V1 update fails, V2 components will not be processed.
Question 141. Explain What A Transaction In Sap Terms.
In SAP terms, a transaction is series of logically connected dialog steps.
Question 142. Explain How Sap Gui Handles Output Screen For The User.
The SAP front-end software can either run on the similar computer or on different computers provided for that purpose. User terminal input is established by the SAP terminal program SAP GUI, converted to SAP proprietary format and sent to the SAP dispatcher. The dispatcher organizes the information exchange between the SAP GUI’s and the work processes. The dispatcher first places the processing request in request queues, which it then processes. The dispatcher dispatches the requests one after another, to the accessible work process. The actual processing takes place in the work process. When processing is done, the product of a work process is returned via the dispatcher to the SAP GUI. The SAP GUI read the received data and generates the output screen for the user.
Question 143. What Is A Company Code And What Are The Basic Organizational
Assignments To A Company Code?
Company Code is a legal entity for which financial statements like Profit and Loss and Balance Sheets are generated. Plants are assigned to the company code, Purchasing organization is assigned to the company code, and Sales organization is assigned to the company code.
Question 144. How Many Chart Of Accounts Can A Company Code Have?
A single Company code can have only one Chart of Account assigned to it. The Chart of Accounts is nothing but the list of General Ledger Accounts.
Question 145. What Are The Options In Sap When It Comes To Fiscal Years?
Fiscal year is nothing but the way financial data is stored in the system. SAP provides you with the combination of 12 normal periods and also four special periods. These periods are stored in what is called the fiscal year variant.
There are two types of Fiscal Year Variant
- Calendar Year – e.g. Jan-Dec
- Year Dependent Fiscal Year .
Question 146. What Is A Year Dependent Fiscal Year Variant ?
In a year dependent fiscal year variant the number of days in a month are not as per the calendar month. Let us take an example:- For the year 2005 the period January ends on 29th, Feb ends on 27th, March ends on 29. For the year 2006 January ends on 30th, Feb ends on 26th, March ends on 30th. This is applicable to many countries especially USA. Ever year this fiscal year variant needs to be configured in such a case.
Question 147. How Does Posting Happen In Mm (materials Management) During Special Periods?
There is no posting which happens from MM in special periods. Special periods are only applicable for the FI module. They are required for making any additional posting such as closing entries, provisions, which happen during quarter end or year end.
Question 148. How Many Currencies Can Be Configured For A Company Code?
A company code can have 3 currencies in total. They are local currency ie company code currency and 2 parallel currencies. This gives the company the flexibility to report in the different currencies.
Question 149. Do You Require To Configure Additional Ledger For Parallel Currencies?
Where only 2 currencies are configured (Company code currency and a parallel currency) there is no need for an additional ledger. In case the third parallel currency is also configured and if it is different than the second currency type, you would then need to configure additional ledger.
Question 150. How Can The Default Settings Be Maintained For Cost Elements Per
The default settings can be maintained in transaction OKB9. Here we can specify for a company code, cost element which is the cost center to be defaulted or whether profitability segment is to be automatically derived. Further we can also maintain whether business area is mandatory or profit center is mandatory and can maintain the default business areas and profit centers.
Question 151. Should Secondary Cost Elements Be Maintained In The 3keh Table?
No. Since here we maintain only those accounts for which the value should flow from FI to PCA. Secondary cost elements are already defined in the controlling module which will reflect in the postings in PCA also.
Question 152. What Are The Precautions To Be Taken While Maintaining The 3keh
Table For Profit Center Accounting?
You should not maintain the customer and vendor reconciliation accounts in the 3KEH table. Further you should also not maintain the special GL accounts in this table. Since we are transferring the customer and vendor balances to profit center module through separate month end programs. If the reconciliation’s accounts are maintained here it will result in double posting in the profit center module.
Question 153. Statistical Key Figures Are Created In The Cost Center Accounting
Module. Now The Same Statistical Key Figures Are Required In The
Profit Center Accounting Module. Is It Required To Maintain The
Statistical Key Figure In Pca Module?
No. Since the statistical key figures are created in a controlling area. Profit center is a sub module within controlling area. The statistical key figure is created for the controlling area and as such is available in profit center accounting module.
Question 154. What Is The Basic Purpose Of Creating A Profit Center?
The basic purpose of creating a Profit Center is to analyse the revenues and costs for a particular product line, or a plant or a business unit. Though you can generate balance sheets and profit and loss accounts per Profit Center still a profit center should basically be used as a tool only for internal reporting purposes. If legally one has to produce the Balance sheets and Profit and Loss Accounts for a profit center then it is advisable to create it as a company code instead of a profit center.
Question 155. What Is The Difference Between Profitability Analysis And Profit Center Accounting?
Profitability analysis lets you analyze the profitability of segments of your market according to products, customers, regions, division. It provides your sales, marketing, planning and management organizations with decision support from a market oriented view point.
Profit center accounting lets you analyze profit and loss for profit centers. It makes it possible to evaluate different areas or units within your company. Profit center can be structured according to region, plants, functions or products (product ranges).
Question 156. Is There Any Additional Configuration Required For Account Based
Profitability Analysis As Compared To Costing Based Profitability
No. There are no special configurations required except for activating the account based profitability analysis while maintaining the operating concern.
Question 157. What Is The Advantage Of Configuring Both The Type Of Profitability
The advantage of activating account based profitability analysis along with costing based PA is that you can easily reconcile costing based profitability analysis to account based profitability analysis, which means indirectly reconciling with Financial accounting.
Question 158. Can Both Account Based And Costing Based Profitability Analysis Be
Configured At The Same Time?
Yes. It is possible to configure both types of costing based profitability analysis at the same time.
Question 159. What Is The Difference Between Account Based Profitability Analysis And Costing Based Profitability Analysis?
Account based Profitability analysis is a form of Profitability analysis (PA) that uses accounts as its base and has an account based approach. It uses costs and revenue elements.
Costing based Profitability Analysis is a form of profitability analysis that groups costs and revenues according to value fields and costing based valuation approaches. The cost and revenues are shown in value fields.
Question 160. What Is The Basic Difference In Customizing In Profitability Analysis
As Compared To Other Modules?
In PA when we configure the system i.e. creating operating concern, maintain structures no customizing request is generated. The configuration needs to be transported through a different transaction called as KE3I.
Question 161. What Is Characteristic Derivation In Profitability Analysis Module?
Characteristic Derivation is usually used when you want to derive the characteristics . An example of this could be say you want to derive the first two characteristics of product hierarchy.
In such cases you define characteristic derivation where you maintain the rules, which contain the table names of the product hierarchy fields and the number of characters to be extracted, and it also specifies the target characteristic field in PA.
Question 162. Once You Have Captured All The Costs And Revenues How Do You
The costs and revenues which we have captured in the above manner are then analysed by writing reports using the Report Painter Functionality in SAP.
Question 163. How Do You Configure The Assignment Of Variances From Product
Costing To Copa Module?
The variance categories from product costing along with cost element is to be assigned to the value fields in COPA
Question 164. What Are Characteristics And Value Fields?
In the operating concern two things are basically defined
b) Value Fields
Characteristics are nothing but those aspects on which we want to break down the profit logically such as customer, region product, product hierarchy, sales person etc.
Value Fields are nothing but the values associated with these characteristics., Eg Sales, Raw Material Cost, Labour Cost, Overheads etc Once you define the characteristics and value fields these values are updated in the table.
Question 165. What Happens When The Revaluation Is Done In Actual Costing Run For
The Previous Period?
When revaluation is performed in actual costing for the previous period the price control in the material master is changed from S to V and the periodic price is updated as the valuation price for the previous period.
Question 166. What Happens In An Actual Costing Run?
In actual costing run there is a process of single level price determination and multi level price determination. The production price difference variances are collected on the material ledger for each of the finished goods and semi finished goods.
During single level price determination the price difference collected on a single finished product is allocated to consumption. This allocation to the consumption is not individually allocated to the good issues.
In multi level price determination the price difference is allocated to individual goods issue. The price differences are passed on to the next level of consumption. The system calculates a weighted average price for the finished goods and semi finished goods. This weighted average price is called as the periodic unit price.
Question 167. What Are The Steps To Be Taken Before You Execute An Actual Costing Run?
The following are the steps to be taken:
- Execute all the allocation cycles in the cost center accounting module.
- Execute actual activity price calculation.
- Revalue all the production orders with the actual activity prices. The under or over absorbed cost on cost centers are passed on to the production order through this step of revaluation of production orders.
- Calculate overheads, do a variance calculation and finally settle the production order.
- Finally execute the actual costing run.
Question 168. What Is The Configuration Setting To Be Done For Posting The Accrual
In The Actual Costing Run?
In transaction code OBYC select transaction key LKW and maintain the balance sheet account for accrual.
Question 169. What Are The Options Available While Performing Revaluation In An Actual Costing Run?
There are 2 options available:-
Revaluation: You can revalue the finished goods stock
Accrual : You can accrue the revaluation gain or loss without actually changing the price in the material master.
Question 170. What Are The Problems Faced When A Material Ledger Is Activated?
When a material ledger is activated it is imperative that actual costing run has to be done every month. Actual costing run needs to be done immediately after the new month roll over. After the actual costing run you cannot post any MM(Materials Management) entry to the previous period.
Question 171. How Do You Go About Configuring Material Ledger?
The following are the steps:-
- Activate Valuation Areas for Material Ledger.
- Assign Currency Types to Material Ledger Type.
- Assign Material Ledger Types to Valuation Area.
- Maintain Number Ranges for Material Ledger Documents.
- Activate Actual costing (whether activity update relevant for price determination).
- Activate Actual cost component split.
- Customizing settings in OBYC.
Question 172. Why Does The System Not Calculate Variance For The 500 Kgs Which
Has Been Delivered?
In the product cost by order component the system does not calculate a variance for partially delivered stock on the production order. Whatever is the balance on the production order is considered as WIP. In the product cost by period component, system will calculate WIP as well as variance provided.
Question 173. How Does Sap Calculate Work In Process (wip) In Product Cost By
The system first runs through all the production order for the month and checks for the status of each production order. If the status of the production order is REL (Released) or PREL (Partially released) and if costs are incurred for that order system calculates WIP for the production order.
The system cancels the WIP for the production order when the status of the order becomes DLV (delivered) or TECO (Technically complete).
Question 174. What Is The Basic Difference In Wip Calculation In Product Cost By Order And Product Cost By Period (repetitive Manufacturing)?
Generally in product cost by order, WIP is calculated at actual costs and in product cost by period WIP is calculated at target costs.
Question 175. In Period 1 There Is A Wip Posted Of 22000 Usd In Period 2 Some Further Goods Issue Are Done To The Extent Of 15000 Usd . How Will System Calculate Wip For Period 2?
System will post a delta WIP of 15000 USD in period 2.
Question 176. How Is It Possible To Apply 2 Different Overhead Rates For 2 Different
It is possible through overhead groups. You configure 2 overhead keys. Define rates for each of this overhead key. These two overhead keys is then assigned to the two overhead groups. These overhead groups are attached in the costing view of the finished goods material master.
Question 177. How Do You Prevent The System From Calculating The Cost Estimate
For Raw And Packing Material When You Run A Standard Cost Estimate
For The Finished Goods?
To prevent the system from calculating cost estimates for raw and packing material, you need to select the “No costing” checkbox in the costing view of the material master.
Question 178. When A Standard Cost Estimate Is Run For A Finished Good Does Sap Calculate Cost Estimate For Its Components Such As Raw And Packing Material?
Yes. SAP calculates the cost estimate even for raw and packing material and stores it in the standard price field for information purposes.
Question 179. What Are The Steps Involved Before You Run A Cost Estimate For A Split Valuated Material?
The following are the steps:-
- Create procurement alternatives based on the valuation types for the material.
- Maintain Mixing ratios for the procurement alternatives.
Question 180. What Is The Configuration Required For Additive Costs?
To include additive costs in the material cost estimate you need to set the indicator “Incl. additive costs” for each valuation strategy in the valuation variant. Further you also need to set in the costing variant to include additive costs.
Question 181. What Is The Meaning Of Additive Costs In Sap And Why Is It Required?
Additive costs are used to add costs manually to a material cost estimate when it cannot be calculated by the system. Examples of such costs are freight charges, insurance costs and stock transfer costs.
Question 182. What Are The Implications If The Operation Scrap Is Maintained In The Routing And If It Maintained In The Bom?
If the operation scrap is maintained only in the routing, the costing lot size is reduced by this percentage.
If the operation scrap is maintained in the BOM, the planned input (not the output quantity) is increased and any assembly scrap is reduced.
Question 183. What Do You Mean By Operation Scrap And How Is It Maintained In
Operation scrap is a scrap that is expected to occur during production. Operation scrap is used to reduce the planned input quantities in follow up operations and to calculate the precise amount of assembly scrap. Operation scrap can be maintained in % in the routing and in the BOM.
Question 184. What Do You Mean By Component Scrap And How Is It Maintained In
Component scrap is the scrap of a material that is expected to occur during production. When an assembly is produced with this component, the system has to increase the component quantity to enable to reach the required lot size. The component scrap can be entered in the BOM item or in the MRP 4 view of the material master.
Question 185. How Are Scrap Variances Calculated?
Scrap variance are calculated by valuating the scrap quantities with the amount of the actual costs less the planned scrap costs.
Question 186. How Are Scrap Costs Shows In The Standard Cost Estimate?
Scrap costs are assigned to the relevant cost component and can be shown separately for a material in the costed multilevel BOM.
Question 187. What Do You Mean By Assembly Scrap And How Is It Maintained In
Assembly scrap is scrap that is expected to occur during the production of a material which is used as an assembly. If a certain amount of scrap always occurs during the production of an assembly, the quantities and activities used must be increased by the system so that the required lot size can be produced. To increase the lot size of an assembly you can enter a percentage, flatrate assembly scrap in the MRP 1 view of the material master record. This assembly scrap is reflected in all the subordinate components. The system increases the quantity to be produced by the calculated scrap quantity. This increases both the materials consumed and the activities consumed and consequently the cost.
Question 188. How Do You Configure That The Results Of The Standard Cost Estimate
Are Updated In Other Fields Other Than The Standard Price?
The price update in the material master is defined in Costing type. This costing type is attached to the costing variant.
Question 189. Is It Possible To Update The Results Of The Standard Cost Estimate To
Other Fields Such As Commercial Price, Tax Price Fields In The
Yes. It is possible to update the standard cost estimate to other fields such as commercial price etc. in accounting view.
Question 190. Why Is Preliminary Cost Estimate Required?
The preliminary cost estimate is required for the following:-
- Confirm the actual activity quantities.
- Valuate work in process.
- Calculate production variances in variance calculation.
- Valuate the unplanned scrap in variance calculation.
Question 191. What Is The Meaning Of Preliminary Cost Estimate For Product Cost
Preliminary costing in the product cost by period component calculates the costs for the product cost collector. In repetitive manufacturing you can create cost estimate for specific production version.
Question 192. What Is The Difference Between A Product Cost Collector And Production Order?
Both of these are cost objects which collect production costs for manufactured product. Product cost collector is a single order created for a material. All the costs during the month for that material is debited to single product cost collector. No costing by lot size is required in case of product cost collector.
The latter is where there are many production orders for a single material during the month. Costs are collected on each of this production order. Costing by lot size is the main requirement in case of production orders.
Question 193. Is It Possible To Calculate Standard Cost Estimate For A Past Date?
No. It is not possible to calculate standard cost estimate for a past date.
Question 194. How Do You Got About Defining Co-product Functionality In
In the Repetitive manufacturing you need to use the Costing BOM for the other co-product. Through arithmetical calculation you need to maintain the quantities in the costing BOM. This co-product will be shown as a negative item in the leading co-product.
Question 195. Is It Possible To Use Standard Sap Co-product Functionality In
No. It is not possible to use the Standard Co-product functionality in repetitive manufacturing.
Question 196. How Do You Define A Co-product In Sap?
A Co-product (primary product or by-product) is indicated by a tick in the costing view of the material master. In the BOM all the primary products are represented as an item with negative quantity. A primary product is also indicated as a co-product in the BOM of the leading coproduct. For primary products the costs are calculated using the apportionment method, while for by-products the net realizable value method applies.
Question 197. How Do You Calculate The Cost For A By-product In Sap?
The cost for the By-product is the net realizable value. This is manually maintained in the system for the by-product through transaction code MR21 Price change.
Question 198. There Are Result Analysis Categories In Wip (work In Process). What
Do You Mean By The Result Analysis Category Reserves For Unrealized
If you are calculating the work in process at actual costs, the system will create reserves for unrealized costs if the credit for the production order based on goods receipts is greater than the debit of the order with actual costs incurred. The Result analysis category RUCR (Reserves for unrealized cost) would need to be maintained. Normally this is not maintained in most of the companies.
Question 199. Lets Say For A Product There Exists Three Production Versions. Explain The Process How You Would Go About Creating A Mixed Cost Estimate?
The process of creating a Mixed cost estimate would be as follows:-
- Create procurement alternatives for each of the production version.
- Define Mixing ratios for the procurement alternatives.
- Select the configured quantity structure type and execute a material cost estimate based on the costing version.
Question 200. What Configuration Needs To Done For Using Mixed Costing?
Quantity Structure type for mixed costing must be configured. Here we specify the time dependency of the structure type . The following options exist
- You have no time dependency.
- It is based on fiscal year.
- It is based on period.
This quantity structure type is then assigned to the costing version.
Question 201. How Do Primary Costs Get Picked Up From Cost Center Into The Cost
This is possible when you do a plan activity price calculation from SAP. The primary cost component structure is assigned to the plan version 0 in Controlling .
Question 202. How Does Sap Go About Costing A Product Having Multiple Bill Of
Materials Within It?
SAP first costs the lowest level product, arrives at the cost and then goes and cost the next highest level and finally arrives at the cost of the final product.
Question 203. How Can You Default Certain Items While Creation Of Internal Order
You can do so by creating a model order and then update the fields which you want to default in this model order. Finally attach this model order in the internal order type in the field reference order. Once the above is done whenever you create an internal order for this order type the field entries will get copied from the model order.
Question 204. You Want To Revalue The Production Orders Using Actual Activity
Prices. Is There Any Configuration Setting?
Yes. There is a configuration setting to be done.
Question 205. Where Is The Configuration Setting To Be Done For Carrying Out
Revaluation Of Planned Activity Prices In Various Cost Objects?
The configuration setting is to be done in the cost center accounting version maintenance for fiscal year. This has to be maintained for version 0. You need to select revalue option either using own business transaction or original business transaction.
Question 206. Explain The Process Of Calculating The Planned Activity Output
Through Long Term Planning?
In Long term planning process the planned production quantities are entered for the planning year in a particular scenario. The Long term planning is executed for the scenario. This generates the planned activity requirements taking the activity quantities from the routing and multiplying with the planned production. The activity requirements are then transferred to the controlling module as scheduled activity quantities. Thereafter you execute a plan activity reconciliation which will reconcile the schedule activity and the activity you have planned manually. The reconciliation program updates the scheduled activity quantity as the planned activity in the controlling module.
Question 207. Is It Possible To Calculate The Planned Activity Output Through
Yes. It is possible to calculate the planned activity output through system by using Long term Planning process in PP module.
Question 208. What Is Required To Be Done If Activity Price Is To Be Shown Both
Fixed And Variable?
In this case you need to plan both activity independent cost which are shown as fixed costs and activity dependent costs which are shown as variable costs.
Question 209. What Is The Difference Between Distribution And Assessment?
Distribution uses the original cost element for allocating cost to the sender cost center. Thus on the receiving cost center we can see the original cost element from the sender cost center. Distribution only allocates primary cost.
Assessment uses assessment cost element No 43 defined above to allocate cost. Thus various costs are summarized under a single assessment cost element. In receiver cost center the original cost breakup from sender is not available. Assessment allocates both primary as well as secondary cost.
Question 210. What Is A Cost Center Group?
In a similar line the cost center group is also a group of cost centers which help one to track and control the cost of a department more effectively. You can make as many number of cost centers as you feel necessary by combining various logical cost centers Infact you can use various combinations of cost center group with the cost element group to track and control your costs per department or across departments.
Question 211. What Is A Cost Element Group?
Cost element group is nothing but a group of cost elements which help one to track and control cost more effectively. You can make as many number of cost element groups as you feel necessary by combining various logical cost elements.
Question 212. How Is Cost Center Accounting Related To Profit Center?
In the master data of the Cost Center there is a provision to enter the profit center. This way all costs which flow to the cost center are also captured in the profit center.
Cost centers are basically created to capture costs e.g. admin cost center, canteen cost center etc.
Profit centers are created to capture cost and revenue for a particular plant, business unit or product line.
Question 213. Explain The Organizational Assignment In The Controlling Module?
Company codes are assigned to the controlling area. A controlling area is assigned to the operating concern. Controlling Area is the umbrella under which all controlling activities of Cost Center Accounting, Product costing, Profitability Analysis and Profit Center are stored. Operating Concern is the highest node in Profitability Analysis.
Question 214. What Is A Account Group And Where Is It Used?
An Account group controls the data that needs to be entered at the time of creation of a master record. Account groups exist for the definition of a GL account, Vendor and Customer master. It basically controls the fields which pop up during master data creation in SAP.
Question 215. What Is The Purpose Of A “document Type” In Sap?
A Document type is specified at the Header level during transaction entry and serves the following purposes:
- It defines the Number range for documents.
- It controls the type of accounts that can be posted to eg Assets, Vendor, Customer, Normal GL account.
- Document type to be used for reversal of entries.
- Whether it can be used only for Batch input sessions.
Document Type is created for differentiating business transactions. Eg Vendor Invoice, Credit Memo, Accrual Entries, Customer Invoice. It is a two digit character.
Question 216. What Is A Financial Statement Version?
A FSV (Financial Statement Version) is a reporting tool and can be used to depict the manner in which the financial accounts like Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet needs to be extracted from SAP. It is freely definable and multiple FSV’s can be defined for generating the output for various external agencies like Banks and other Statutory authorities.
Question 217. How Are Input And Output Taxes Taken Care Of In Sap?
A tax procedure is defined for each country and tax codes are defined within this. There is flexibility to either expense out the Tax amounts or Capitalize the same to Stocks.
Question 218. What Are Validations And Substitutions?
Validations/Substitutions in SAP are defined for each functional area e.g. FI-GL, Assets, Controlling etc at the following levels
- Document level
- Line item level
These need to be specifically activated and setting them up are complex and done only when it is really needed. Often help of the technical team is taken to do that.
Question 219. Is It Possible To Maintain Plant Wise Different Gl Codes?
Yes. To be able to do so the valuation group code should be activated. The valuation grouping code is maintained per plant and is configured in the MM module. Account codes should be maintained per valuation grouping code after doing this configuration.
Question 220. Is Business Area At Company Code Level?
No. Business area is at client level. What this means is that other company codes can also post to the same business area.
Question 221. What Are The Problems Faced When A Business Area Is Configured?
The problem of splitting of account balance is more pertinent in case of tax accounts.
Question 222. Which Is The Default Exchange Rate Type Which Is Picked Up For All
The default exchange rate type picked up for all SAP transactions is M (average rate).
Question 223. Is It Possible To Configure The System To Pick Up A Different Exchange
Rate Type For A Particular Transaction?
Yes it is possible. In the document type definition of GL, you need to attach a different exchange rate type.
Question 224. What Are The Master Data Pre-requisites For Document Clearing?
The Gl Account must be managed as an ‘open item management’ . This checkbox is there in the General Ledger Master Record called Open Item Management. It helps you to manage your accounts in terms of cleared and uncleared items. A typical example would be GR/IR Account in SAP (Goods Received/Invoice Received Account).
Question 225. How Many Numbers Of Line Items In One Single Entry You Can Have?
The number of line items in one document you can accommodate is 999 lines.
Question 226. A Finance Document Usually Has An Assignment Field. This Field Automatically Gets Populated During Data Entry. Where Does It Get Its Value?
This value comes from the Sort key entered in the Gl master record.
Question 227. How Do You Maintain The Number Range In Production Environment?
Do You Directly Create It In The Production Box Or Do You Do It By
Means Of Transport?
Number range is to be created in the production client. You can transport it also by way of request but creating in the production client is more advisable.
Question 228. In Customizing “company Code Productive” Means What? What Does
Once the company code is live(real time transactions have started) this check box helps prevents deletion of many programs accidentally. This check box is activated just before go live.
Question 229. What Is Done By Gr/ir Regrouping Program?
The balance in a GR/IR account is basically because of 2 main types of transactions:-
Goods delivered but invoice not received: Here the Goods receipt is made but no invoice has yet been received from the vendor. In such a scenario GR/IR account will have a credit balance.
Invoiced received but goods not delivered : Here the Invoice is received from the vendor and accounted for, but goods have not been received. In such a scenario GR/IR account will have a debit balance. The GR/IR account would contain the net value of the above two types of transactions. The GR/IR regrouping program analyses the above transactions and regroups them to the correct adjustment account. The balance on account of first transactions will be regrouped to another liability account and the balance on account of second transactions will be regrouped to an asset account.
Question 230. What Are The Functionalities Available In The Financial Statement
In the financial statement version the most important functionality available is the debit credit shift. This is more important in case of Bank overdraft accounts which can have a debit balance or a credit balance. Thus in case of a debit balance you would require the overdraft account to be shown on the Asset side. In case of credit balance you would require the account to be shown on the Liability side.
Question 231. Is It Possible To Print The Financial Statement Version On A Sapscript
Yes. It is possible to print the financial statement version on a SAPscript form.
Question 232. Is It Possible To Generate A Financial Statement Form Automatically?
Yes. It is possible to generate a form automatically.
Question 233. Is It Possible To Keep The Fi Posting Period Open Only For Certain Gl
Yes. It is possible to keep open the FI posting period only for certain GL codes.
Question 234. How Do You Keep The Fi Posting Period Open Only For Certain Gl
In transaction code OB52 click on new entries and maintain an interval or a single GL code for the account type S with the posting period variant. If the GL codes are not in sequence then you need to maintain further entries for the posting period variant and account type S.
Question 235. Can Posting Period Variant Be Assigned To More Than 1 Company
Yes. Posting period variant can be assigned to more than one company code.
Question 236. Where Do You Attach The Check Payment Form?
It is attached to the payment method per company code.
Question 237. Where Are Payment Terms For Customer Master Maintained?
Payment terms for customer master can be maintained at two places i.e. in the accounting view and the sales view of the vendor master record.
Question 238. Which Is The Payment Term Which Actually Gets Defaulted When The
Transaction Is Posted For The Customer (accounting View Or The Sales
The payment term in the accounting view of the customer master comes into picture if the transaction originates from the FI module. If an FI invoice is posted (FB70) to the customer, then the payment terms is defaulted from the accounting view of the customer master. The payment term in the sales view of the customer master comes into picture if the transaction originates from the SD module. A sales order is created in the SD module. The payment terms are defaulted in the sales order from the sales view of the customer master.
Question 239. Where Are Payment Terms For Vendor Master Maintained?
Payment terms for Vendor master can be maintained at two places i.e. in the accounting view and the purchasing view.
Question 240. Can We Change The Reconciliation Account In The Vendor Master?
Yes. Reconciliation account can be changed in the vendor master provided that the authority to change has been configured. Normally we should not change the reconciliation account.
Question 241. What Is The Impact On The Old Balance When The Reconciliation
Account In The Vendor Master Is Changed?
Any change you make to the reconciliation account is prospective and not retrospective. The old items and balances do not reflect the new account only the new transactions reflect the account.
Question 242. There Is An Advance Given By The Customer Which Lies In A Special Gl
Account Indicator A. Will This Advance Amount Be Considered For
It depends on the configuration setting in the special GL indicator A. If the “Relevant to credit limit” indicator is switched on in the Special GL indicator A the advances will be relevant for credit check, otherwise it will not be relevant.
Question 243. In Payment Term Configuration What Are The Options Available For Setting A Default Baseline Date?
There are 4 options available:-
- No default.
- Posting date.
- Document date.
- Entry date.
Question 244. What Is Generally Configured In The Payment Term As A Default For
Generally document date is configured in the payment term as a default for base line date.
Question 245. How Is Bank Reconciliation Handled In Sap?
The bank reco typically follows the below procedure:
First, the payment made to a Vendor is posted to an interim bank clearing account. Subsequently, while performing reconciliation, an entry is posted to the Main Bank account. You can do bank reconciliation either manually or electronically.
Question 246. How Do You Configure Check Deposit?
The following are the steps for configuring check deposit:-
Step1: Create account symbols for the main bank and incoming check account.
Step2: Assign accounts to account symbols.
Step3: Create keys for posting rules.
Step4: Define posting rules.
Step5: Create business transactions and assign posting rule.
Step6: Define variant for check deposit.
Question 247. What Is The Clearing Basis For Check Deposit?
In the variant for check deposit we need to set up the following
a) fields document number ( which is the invoice number).
c) Short description of the customer.
The document number and the invoice amount acts as the clearing basis.
Question 248. How Do You Configure Manual Bank Statement?
The following are the steps for configuring manual bank statement:-
Step1: Create account symbols for the main bank and the sub accounts.
Step2: Assign accounts to account symbols.
Step3: Create keys for posting rules.
Step4: Define posting rules.
Step5: Create business transaction and assign posting rule.
Step6: Define variant for Manual Bank statement.
Question 249. How Do You Configure Electronic Bank Statement?
The steps for Electronic Bank Statement are the same except for couple of more additional steps which you will see down below.
Step1: Create account symbols for the main bank and the sub accounts.
Step2: Assign accounts to account symbols.
Step3: Create keys for posting rules.
Step4: Define posting rules.
Step5: Create transaction type.
Step6: Assign external transaction type to posting rules.
Step7: Assign Bank accounts to Transaction types.
Question 250. What Are The Organizational Assignments In Asset Accounting?
Chart of depreciation is the highest node in Asset Accounting and this is assigned to the company code. Under the Chart of depreciation all the depreciation calculations are stored.
Question 251. How Can You Link Customer And Vendor Master Records And What Is The Purpose Of Doing So ?
On the customer master there is a field “vendor” and likewise on the vendor master there is a field “customer”. By entering these master data numbers, a link can be created between the AP/AR subledgers for use in the payment program, dunning routine and the clearing of open items.
For example in the payment program, if a specific business partner is your vendor but also your customer, linking their master records together will allow the open AR invoices to be offset against the outstanding AP invoices.
Question 252. What Are Terms Of Payments And Where Are They Stored ?
Payment terms are created in configuration and determine the payment due date for customer/vendor invoices.
They are stored on the customer/vendor master record and are pulled through onto the customer/ vendor invoice postings. The due date derived via the payment can be changed on each individual invoice if required.
Question 253. What Is Meant By A “baseline Date” In Sap Ar And Ap ?
The baseline date is the date from which the payment terms (specified in IMG transaction OBB) apply Usually this is the document date on the invoice but can also be the date of entry or posting date from the ledger.
Question 254. What Are One-time Vendors ?
In certain industries (especially where there are a high volume of cash transactions), it is not practical to create new master records for every vendor trading partner.
One-time vendors allow for a dummy vendor code to be used on invoice entry and the information which is normally stored in the vendor master (payment terms, address etc) , is keyed on the invoice itself.
Question 255. Name The Standard Stages Of The Sap Payment Run?
The following steps are usually performed during the payment run
- Entering of parameters (company codes, payment methods, vendor accounts etc).
- Proposal Scheduling – the system proposes list of invoices to be paid.
- Payment booking – the booking of the actual payments into the ledger.
- Printing of payment forms (cheques etc).
Variations on the above may be found in different SAP customers, but the interviewer will be looking for the basis steps above.
Question 256. Explain Briefly How You Can Import Electronic Bank Statements Into Sap?
A text file is received from the bank which is then uploaded into the SAP system. The file contains details of the company’s bank movements e.g. cheques, bank interest, bank charges, cash receipts etc. Depending on the system configuration SAP will attempt to book these transactions automatically to the correct accounts to avoid the need for manual entries by SAP users.
Any postings which the system cannot derive automatically can be booked through “post-processing”.
Question 257. What Is “dunning” In Sap ?
Dunning is the process by which payment chasing letters are issued to customers. SAP can determine which customers should receive the letters and for which overdue items.
Different letters can be printed in SAP depending on how far overdue the payment is from a simple reminder to a legal letter.
The dunning level on the customer master indicates which letter has been issued to the customer.
Question 258. What Are “reason Codes” Used For In The Accounts Receivable Module And What Are The Factors To Be Considered In Their Configuration?
Reason codes are tags which can be assigned to explain under/overpayments during the allocation of incoming customer payments. They should not be confused with ‘void reason codes’ used when outgoing checks are generated.
During configuration the following are determined
- Whether the items booked with these reason codes are to be flagged as disputed items for the purposes of credit management (disputed items do not increase a customer credit exposure.
- The type of correspondence (if any) to be generated for this reason code as a result of the under/over payment.
- Whether a separate line item should be created to charge off the payment differences to a separate G/L account.
Question 259. What Are Exchange Rate “factors” ?
Exchange Rate factors are the relationships between one currency and another to which an exchange rate is applied.
For example you may define the Indonesia Rupiah to US$ factor as 10000 : 1.
Combined with an exchange rate of 0.95 this would equate to 9500 IDR to 1 USD.
Question 260. What Is Document Parking And Why Is It Important When Consideration Internal Control Procedures And “segregation Of Duties” ?
Parking is a SAP term which means a posting (AP/AR/GL) can be temporarily saved (possibly with incomplete information) without hitting the affected ledger(s). A separate person can then release the posting to the ledger when required.
This is useful for example if junior staff are to initially enter the invoices, before their supervisor checks it and books it to the ledger.
Another popular use is when entering GL journals with many hundreds of line items. The document can be partsaved allowing for completion at a later date.
Question 261. Explain The Document Currency (wrbtr) And Local Currency Fields (dmbtr) When Posting A Document In Sap Fi?
On the document header, the currency key is entered. If this is different from the entity currency (or local currency), an equivalent amount in local currency is calculated automatically by the system and stored in the field “local currency”. It is possible however to overwrite the system proposed value in this field manually.
If the local amount is manually overwritten, and the difference between the implied exchange rate is sufficiently different to the rate used by the system, a warning or error message is displayed (depending on system configuration).
Question 262. What Are Fi Substitution Rules ?
Defined in configuration they are similar to the FI validation rules above. Substitution rules allow field values to be replaced when certain pre-requisites conditions are met.
Question 263. During Document Postings, Under What Circumstances Would Sap Display The Following Warning / Error Message: “calculated Rate Deviates From Document Header Rate By
This occurs when the exchange rate in the document header (either entered by the user or derived from the exchange rate table) differs by a larger amount than that specified as the maximum tolerance. (The message can changed to be either an error or a warning).
Question 264. When Entering Foreign Currency Fi Transactions Describe The Various Ways In Which The Exchange Rate Is Derived By Sap?
The exchange rate can be entered via either:-
- Directly on the document header.
- Derived from the exchange rate table (by leaving exchange rate blank).
- Indirectly, by entering the explicit local currency amount so the system is forced to use a specific exchange rate.
Question 265. What Are Fi Validation Rules ?
Validation rules (configured via transaction OB28) enforce certain conditions when FI postings are made.
Validation rules comprise:-
- A prerequisite event that has to occur for the validation check to take place.
- The check itself.
- The output message that is to be displayed (you can choose between a warning or error message).
Question 266. Explain The Purpose Of The Account Type Field In The Gl Master Record?
At year end P&L accounts are cleared down to the retained earnings balance sheet account. This field contains an indicator which is linked (in the IMG transaction OB53) to the specific GL account use in this clear down.
Question 267. What Is The Difference Between The Chart Of Account View And Company Code View When Maintaining A Gl Account ?
There are two screens which have to be maintained for each new GL account. The first is at ‘chart of account’ level (transaction FSP0) and contains the information used by all company codes using this chart of accounts such as description, group account number etc.
Each company code using this chart will then add its own company code view (via transaction code FSS0) which contains localized data specific to that entity e.g. field status group, alternative account number etc.
The chart of accounts screen must be maintained before the local company code screens.
Question 268. What Is A Sort Key And What Is It Used For?
Sort keys are stored in customer, vendor and GL master records. They determine what value is populated in the ‘assignment’ field in the document line items posted.
There are several standard entries in a pre-delivered SAP system and additional entries can be configured if required.
A very common use for sort key 014 Purchase Order number for example, is to allow the GR/IR clearing GL account to be cleared automatically.
For FI/CO jobs in a logistics environment this is a common question.
Question 269. What Are Fiscal Year Variants And How Are Fiscal Periods Opened And Closed?
Fiscal year variants (FSV’s) are assigned to a company code via transaction OBY6. They determine the financial reporting periods of an entity e.g. 13 4-weekly periods, calendar months, 5-5-4 reporting etc.
During month end the current fiscal reporting period will be and the next month opened. Its possible to open and close specific ledgers e.g. AP, AR, GL and even sets of accounts within those ledgers. This way its possible to, for example, close all GL accounts and leave only the month end adjustment accounts open for posting.
Question 270. What Are The Special Periods 13,14,15,16 And What Are They Used For?
When you define the fiscal year variant you can choose to define additional special periods. These can be used for example for the posting of year end adjustments, auditors adjustments etc.
Periods 1-12 can be closed and periods 13-16 left open during year end closing.
Question 271. What Are Recurring Entries And Why Are They Used?
Recurring entries (setup in FBD1 ) can eliminate the need for the manual posting of accounting documents which do not change from month to month.
Question 272. Explain How Foreign Currency Revaluation Works In Sap R/3 Fi?
Over time the local currency equivalent of foreign currency amounts will fluctuate according to exchange rate movements. Usually at month end, there is a requirement to restate these amounts using the prevailing month end exchange rates.
SAP can revalue foreign currency GL account balances as well as outstanding customer and vendor open item balances.
In SAP configuration, you define the balance sheet adjustment account and which accounts the realized gain/loss should be booked.
A batch input session is created to automatically post the required adjustments.
Question 273. Describe Three Ways Of Disposing Of An Asset From A Company Code In Sap R/3
An existing asset can be scrapped (transaction ABAVN), transferred to another company code (ABUMN), sold to a customer account in the accounts receivable module (F-92), sold with revenue but the revenue is booked to a GL account (ABAON).
Question 274. What Are Account Assignment Models ?
AAM’s are blocks of document line items that can be used repeatedly to prevent manual re-entry.
Which fields are included in the AAM layout can be configured using O7E3.
Question 275. What Is A “value Field” In The Co-pa Module ?
Value fields are number/value related fields in profitability analysis such as quantity, sales revenue, discount value etc.
Question 276. What Is A “characteristic Field” In The Co-pa Module ?
Characteristics are analytical information fields used in CO-PA. Typical examples include customer number, brand, distribution channel etc.
Question 277. What Is The Difference Between “costing Based” (cb) And “account Based” (ab) Co-pa ?
This is an incredibly popular question for any positions with a COPA component.
The interviewer will be looking for some of the following:-
- AB can easily be reconciled with FI at account level through the use of cost elements. CB can only be reconciled at account group level (such as revenues, sales deductions etc) as values are stored in “value fields” as opposed to accounts.
- In CB data is stored by posting periods and weeks. In AB storage is only by periods.
- In CB transactions can be stored in operating concern currency and company code currency. In AB transactions are stored in controlling area currency, company code currency and transaction currency.
- In CB you can create cross controlling area evaluations or cross controlling area plans. In AB you cannot as the chart of accounts may differ.
- In CB the cost of good sales (COGS) are updated via material price valuations. Stock change values can be transferred to CB COPA during billing. Timing differences can occur if the goods issue and billing documents are in different posting periods. In AB the value posted in the stock change is posted simultaneously to COPA.
Question 278. What Is An Operating Concern And What Is Its Relationship With A Controlling Area In Co ?
The operating concern is the main organizational unit in Profitability Analysis. It’s structure depends on the configuration setup of characteristics and value fields.
It is assigned to a controlling area on a one to may basis i.e. one controlling area may be assigned to only one operating concern, one operating concern can be assigned to many controlling areas.
Question 279. What Are Statistical Internal Orders?
Statistical real internal orders are dummy cost objects used for analysis and reporting purposes. They must be posted to in conjunction with a real cost object such as a cost center.
For example for employees we define statistical internal orders and for departments we define cost centers. Travel expense invoices can then be booked to specific cost centers but analysis can also be done at employee level by looking at the statistical orders.
Statistical internal orders cannot be settled.
Question 280. Name Some Settlement Receivers For Co Internal Orders?
Typically CO Internal Order are settled to:-
- Other internal orders.
- Fixed assets (including assets under constructions).
- GL Accounts.
- Cost Centres.
Question 281. What Are The Performances Issue To Be In Mind When Configuring Profitability Analysis (copa) ?
Sometimes COPA reporting performance is severely affected by poor initial setup. Anyone involved in a full COPA project lifecycle in a retail or manufacturing environment will have come across such issues hence the reason the interviewer is asking the question. The most important thing.
Question 282. Explain Some Of The Controls Setup During The Configuration Of Internal Order Types In The Co Module?
The following settings are made during the configuration of order types (transaction KOT2_OPA)
- Number ranges assigned to the order master on creation.
- Planning and budgeting profiles.
- Status profiles.
- Order layouts.
Question 283. What Is The Co Reconciliation Ledger And When Would You Typically Use It ?
The reconciliation ledger effectively highlights differences by account across the FI and CO modules. A report is produced by the RL program, identifying where transactions have been booked across entities in controlling that would impact the external reporting produced from the FI module.
The RL program can then either post automatic corrections or you can choose to post manual corrections based on the information in the RL report.
Question 284. What Are Statistical Key Figures In Co ?
SKF’s are statistical (or information values) used in cost allocations such as assessments and distributions.
For example we may have an SKF for ‘head count per department’. When utility costs are allocated across various departments we could perform the percentage allocation based on the ‘head count’ SKF.
Question 285. How Do You Take The Balances Onto Fixed Asset Reconciliation Accounts During Data Take-on ?
Normally you cannot post direct to reconciliation accounts. However there is a configuration transaction OAK5/ OAMK which can be used to temporarily remove the reconciliation flags to allow the balances to be journaled onto the fixed asset reconciliation accounts.
Question 286. Name Three Ways Of Posting Acquisition Cost To A Fixed Asset Master?
There are many ways of booking APC to fixed asset records including:-
- Via F-90 – Acquisition with Vendor.
- ABZON – Acquisition with automatic offsetting entry.
- ABZP – from affiliated company.
- From settlement of an asset under construction (AIBU).
- From goods receipt (or invoice receipt depending on system setup) relating to a purchase order.
Question 287. What Is An “asset Under Construction”?
AuC’s can be used to track investment cost during projects or asset assembly. Following completion their costs can be settled to other fixed assets or to other CO cost objects such as real internal orders or cost centres.
For example, the construction of a new building, the various costs involved (engineering, utlity cost etc) could be collected under an AUC, before being settled to an asset under the ‘buildings’ asset class at the end of the project.
AuC’s generally are not depreciated until completion.
Question 288. What Is The Difference Between ‘company Code’ And ‘company Id’ When In The Fi Global Settings In The Img?
The company code is the legal entity organization unit and the lowest level at which external financial statements are prepared.
The company id is a higher organization unit used for consolidation in the SAP system. A single company id can have many company codes assigned to it so long as the fiscal year variant and chart of accounts is consistent.
Question 289. What Is A ‘financial Statement Version’?
Financial statement versions FSV’s are the structures forming the P’L and Balance sheet reports from the FI module.
Accounts are assigned to the end nodes in the reporting structure tree. Depending on the setup debit /credit balances can be reflected in different asset / liability columns where required.
Question 290. How Do You Define A New Company Code ?
Using transaction code EC01, the most straightforward way of creating a new company code is to copy an existing value.
All associated data such as the fiscal year variant and assignments to controlling area and credit control area are taken across from the source value.
Transactional data of course is not copied. Here, interviewers are simply looking to hear the word “copy” to prove that you have defined a SAP FI/CO organizational structure before.
Question 291. What Is Stored In Table T001 ?
This is the main company code configuration table and includes such assignments as:-
- Fiscal year variant.
- Company assignment.
- Local currency setting.
- Credit control area.
Question 292. What Is A Company Code ? Describe Its Relationship With A Controlling Area?
A company code represents a specific legal entity for financial reporting purposes and represents the lowest level at which external financial accounts can be produced.
It’s the main organizational object in the FI module and is assigned to a controlling area in CO. One company code may only be assigned to a single controlling area. (A controlling area may have multiple company codes assigned to it).
Question 293. What Are ‘commitment’ Line Items In Co ?
Commitment line items in CO are not actual cost items but rather committed expenditure items generated through purchase orders.
Question 294. When Defining A New Ledger In The Special Purpose Ledger, How Can You Retrospectively Populate Fi Data For A Previous Fiscal Year ?
Using SAP transaction GCU1, FI data can be transferred for a particular company code, fiscal year or specific document number range.
A similar transaction exists for controlling data, GCU3.
Question 295. What Is The Special Purpose Ledger And What Would Be Some Reasons For Using It ?
The SPL is a user defined ledger which can be built to support reporting requirements which cannot normally be met through the usual SAP modules.
You can pull information from many SAP modules such as FI, CO, MM, SD and build user defined fields whose contents are based on calculations from other SAP standard information.
Typical uses include:-
- Reporting using an alternative fiscal year variant other than the one assigned to the entity.
- Reporting in a different currency (maybe to meet a new head office reporting currency).
- Meeting USGaap and local reporting requirements.
Question 296. Explain The Purpose Of The Following Sap R/3 Fi Tables: Bseg, Bkpf, Glt0
BKPF is the document header table. It stores all the fields common to all of the document line items such as posting date, currency key, document number etc.
BSEG is the associated line item table to BKPF. Specific line item information such as posting key, GL account, document amount are stored.
GLT0 is the summarized account balances table showing account balances by period, by account, by fiscal year.
Question 297. Explain The Purpose Of The Following Sap R/3 Co Tables: Coep, Cska, Ce1xxxx?
COEP is the CO object line item table.
CSKA is the cost element master table (dependant on chart of accounts).
CE1xxxx (where xxxx is the name of your operating concern) is the profitability analysis line item table.
Question 298. What Is The Legacy System Migration Workbench (lsmw) And When Would You Use It In Your Sap Fi/co Rollout ?
LSMW is a technical tool used for migrating master data and transaction data from your old ‘legacy’ systems to SAP.
Though usually setup by your ABAP programming colleagues, the LSMW projects are usually run by FI/CO project team members in order to upload vendors, customers, cost centers, internal orders etc.
Question 299. What Is The Report Painter?
The report painter is a pre-delivered SAP reporting tool for the controlling module. It allows SAP reports to be quickly created, typically actual versus plan analysis for cost elements, internal orders and cost centers.
Question 300. What Are User Exits And Name An Example Where One Could Be Used In The Fi/co Modules?
User exits are SAP supplied ‘hooks’ within specific program which allow user customizations to meet specific requirements.
When the program is run, SAP checks to see if the user has setup any logic within these hooks.
For example in the fixed asset module lets say the gain/loss from disposal is normally booked to GL account 65410. During posting however you wish to book certain asset retirement transaction types to 65499 for reporting purposes. An enhancement AINT0002 exists to do this.
User exits are commonly used also with validation and substitution rules.
To implement user exist you need an understanding of the ABAP programming language. However for those who have worked across several SAP projects its inevitable that at some point they will have come across user exits at some stage even if its just at a conceptual level.
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