SAP BI Interview Questions & Answers

  1. Question 1. What Is The T-code To See Log Of Transport Connection?

    Answer :

    In RSA1 -> Transport Connection you can collect the Queries and the Role and after this you can transport them (enabling the transport in SE10, import it in STMS

    1. RSA1
    2. Transport connection (button on the left bar menu)
    3. Sap transport -> Object Types (button on the left bar menu)
    4. Find Query Elements -> Query
    5. Find your query
    6. Group necessary object
    7. Transport Object (car icon)
    8. Release transport (SE10 T-code)
    9. Load transport (STMS T-code)
  2. Question 2. How Can You Navigate To See The Error Idocs?

    Answer :

    If it is fine check the IDOCs in source system go to BD87->give Ur user ID and date->execute->you can find Red status Idocs select the erroneous Idoc->Rt.click and select Manual process.

    You need to reprocess this IDOC which are RED. For this you can take help of Any of your Team (ALE IDOC Team or Basis Team) Or Else

    you can push it manually. Just search it in bd87 screen only to reprocess.

    Also, try to find why this Idocs are stuck there.

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  4. Question 3. Difference Between V1, V2, V3 Jobs In Extraction?

    Answer :

    V1 Update: whenever we create a transaction in R/3(e.g.Sales Order) then the entries get into the R/3 Tables (VBAK, VBAP..) and this takes place in V1 Update.

    V2 Update: V2 Update starts a few seconds after V1 Update and in this update the values get into Statistical Tables, from where we do the extraction into BW.

    V3 Update: Its purely for BW extraction.

  5. Question 4. What Are Statistical Update And Document Update?

    Answer :

    Synchronous Updating (V1 Update)

    The statistics update is made synchronously with the document update.

    While updating, if problems that result in the termination of the statistics update occur, the original documents are NOT saved. The cause of the termination should be investigated and the problem solved.

    Subsequently, the documents can be entered again. Radio button: V2 updating

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  7. Question 5. How Can You Decide The Query Performance Is Slow Or Fast?

    Answer :

    You can check that in RSRT tcode.

    execute the query in RSRT and after that follow the below steps

    Go to SE16 and in the resulting screen give table name as RSDDSTAT for BW 3.x and RSDDSTAT-DM for BI 7.0 and press enter you can view all the details about the query like time taken to execute the query and the timestamps

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  9. Question 6. What Is Statistical Setup And What Is The Need And Why?

    Answer :

    Follow these steps to filling the set up table.

    1. Go to transaction code RSA3 and see if any data is available related to your DataSource. If data is there in RSA3 then go to transaction code LBWG (Delete Setup data) and delete the data by entering the application name.
    2. Go to transaction SBIW –> Settings for Application Specific Datasource –> Logistics –> Managing extract structures –> Initialization –> Filling the Setup table –> Application specific setup of statistical data –> perform setup (relevant application)
    3. In OLI*** (for example OLI7BW for Statistical setup for old documents: Orders) give the name of the run and execute. Now all the available records from R/3 will be loaded to setup tables.
    4. Go to transaction RSA3 and check the data.
    5. Go to transaction LBWE and make sure the update mode for the corresponding DataSource is serialized V3 update.
    6. Go to BW system and create infopackage and under the update tab select the initialize delta process. And schedule the package. Now all the data available in the setup tables are now loaded into the data target.
    7. Now for the delta records go to LBWE in R/3 and change the update mode for the corresponding DataSource to Direct/Queue delta. By doing this record will bypass SM13 and directly go to RSA7. Go to transaction code RSA7 there you can see green light # Once the new records are added immediately you can see the record in RSA7.
    8. Go to BW system and create a new infopackage for delta loads. Double click on new infopackage. Under update tab you can see the delta update radio button..
    9. Now you can go to your data target and see the delta record.
  10. Question 7. Why We Have Construct Setup Tables?

    Answer :

    The R/3 database structure for accounting is much more easier than the Logistical structure.

    Once you post in a ledger that is done. You can correct, but that give just another posting.

    BI can get information direct out of this (relatively) simple database structure.

    In LO, you can have an order with multiple deliveries to more than one delivery addresses. And the payer can also be different.

    When 1 item (order line) changes, this can have its reflection on order, supply, delivery, invoice, etc.

    Therefore a special record structure is built for Logistical reports. and this structure now is used for BI.

    In order to have this special structure filled with your starting position, you must run a set-up. From that moment on R/3 will keep filling this LO-database.

    If you wouldn’t run the setup. BI would start with data from the moment you start the filling of LO (with the logistical cockpit)

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  12. Question 8. How Can You Eliminate The Duplicate Records In Td, Md?

    Answer :

    Try to check the system logs through SM21 for the same.

  13. Question 9. What Use Marker In Mm?

    Answer :

    Marker update is just like check point.

    ie it will give the snapshot of the stock on a particular date ie when was the marker updated.

    Because we are using Non cumulative key figure it will lot of time to calculate the current stock for example at report time. To overcome this we use marker update

    Marker updates do not summarize the data.. In inventory management scenarios, we have to calculate opening stock and closing stock on a daily basis. In order to facilitate this, we set a marker which will add and subtract the values for each record.

    In the absence of marker update, the data will be added up and will not provide the correct values.

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  15. Question 10. Tell Me Web Template?

    Answer :

    You get information on where the web template details are stored from the following tables :

    RSZWOBJ Storage of the Web Objects

    RSZWOBJTXT Texts for Templates/Items/ Views

    RSZWOBJXREF Structure of the BW Objects in a Template

    RSZWTEMPLATE Header Table for BW HTML Templates

    You can check these tables and search for your web template entry . However, If I understand your question correctly, you will have to open the template in the WAD and then make the corrections in the same to correct it.

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  17. Question 11. About Dtp ?

    Answer :

    Data Transfer Process:

    Data transfer process (DTP) loads data within BI from one object to another object with respect to transformations and filters. In short, DTP determines how data is transferred between two persistent objects.

    It is used to load the data from PSA to data target (cube or ods or infoobject) thus, it replaced the data mart interface and the Info Package.

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  19. Question 12. What Is Difference Between Psa And Idoc?

    Answer :

    BI7 is PSA used only for Data load from Source System into BW

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  21. Question 13. What We Do In Business Blue Print Stage?

    Answer :

    SAP has defined a business blueprint phase to help extract pertinent information about your company that is necessary for implementation. These blueprints are in the form of questionnaires that are designed to probe for information that uncovers how your company does business. As such, they also serve to document the implementation. Each business blueprint document essentially outlines your future business processes and business requirements.

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  23. Question 14. How Do We Decide What Cubes Have To Be Created?

    Answer :

    Its depends on your project requirement. Customized cubes are not mandatory for all the projects. If your business requirement is differs from given scenario (BI content cubes) then only we will opt for customized cubes. Normally your BW customization or creation of new info providers all are depending on your source system. If your source system other that R3 then you should go with customization of your all objects. If your source system is R3 and your users are using only R3 standard business scenarios like SD, MM or FI… etc., then you don’t want to create any info providers or you don’t want to enhance anything in the existing BW Business Content. But 99% this is not possible. Because surely they should have included their new business scenario or new enhancements. 

  24. Question 15. Give Me One Example Of A Functional Specification And Explain What Information We Will Get From That?

    Answer :

    Functional Specs are requirements of the business user.Technical Specs translate these requirements in a technical fashion.Let’s say Functional Spec says,

    1. the user should be able to enter the Key date, Fiscal Year, Fiscal Version.
    2. The Company variable should be defaulted to USA but then if the user wants to change it, they can check the drop down list and choose other countries.
    3. The calculations or formulas for the report will be displayed in precision of one decimal point.
    4. The report should return values for 12 months of data depending on the fiscal year that the user enters Or it should display in quarterly values. Functional specs are also called as Software requirements.

    Now from this Technical Spec follows, to resolve each of the line items listed above.

    1. To give the option of key date, Fiscal year and Fiscal Version – certain Info Objects should be available in the system. If available, then should we create any variables for them – so that they are used as user entry variable. To create any variables, what is the approach, where do you do it, what is the technical of the objects you’ll use, what’ll be the technical name of the objects you’ll Crete as a result of this report.
    2. Same explanation goes for the rest. How do you set up the variable,
    3. What changes in properties will you do to get the precision.
    4. How will you get the 12 months of data. What will be the technical and display name of the report, who’ll be authorized to run this report, etc are clearly specified in the technical specs.
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  26. Question 16. What Is Customization? How Do We Do In Lo?

    Answer :

    How to do basic LO extraction for SAP-R3-BW

    1. Go to transaction code RSA3 and see if any data is available related to your DataSource. If data is there in RSA3 then go to transaction code LBWG (Delete Setup data) and delete the data by entering the application name.
    2. Go to transaction SBIW –> Settings for Application Specific Datasource –> Logistics –> Managing extract structures –> Initialization –> Filling the Setup table –> Application specific setup of statistical data –> perform setup (relevant application)
    3. In OLI*** (for example OLI7BW for Statistical setup for old documents : Orders) give the name of the run and execute. Now all the available records from R/3 will be loaded to setup tables.
    4. Go to transaction RSA3 and check the data.
    5. Go to transaction LBWE and make sure the update mode for the corresponding DataSource is serialized V3 update.
    6. Go to BW system and create infopackage and under the update tab select the initialize delta process. And schedule the package. Now all the data available in the setup tables are now loaded into the data target.
    7. Now for the delta records go to LBWE in R/3 and change the update mode for the corresponding DataSource to Direct/Queue delta. By doing this record will bypass SM13 and directly go to RSA7. Go to transaction code RSA7 there you can see green light # Once the new records are added immediately you can see the record in RSA7.
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  28. Question 17. Change Attribute Run.

    Answer :

    Generally attribute change run is used when there is any change in the master data. it is used for realignment of the master data. Attribute change run is nothing but adjusting the master data after its been loaded from time to time so that it can change or generate or adjust the Sid’s so that u may not have any problem when loading the transaction data in to data targets. The detail explanation about Attribute change run. The hierarchy/attribute change run which activates hierarchy and attribute changes and adjusts the corresponding aggregates is divided, into 4 phases:

    1. Finding all affected aggregates
    2. Set up all affected aggregates again and write the result in the new aggregate table.
    3. Activating attributes and hierarchies
    4. Rename the new aggregate table. When renaming, it is not possible to execute queries.

    In some databases, which cannot rename the indexes, the indexes are also created in this phase.

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  30. Question 18. How To Convert A Bex Query Global Structure To Local Structure (steps Involved)

    Answer :

    BeX query Global structure to local structure Steps; ***a local structure when you want to add structure elements that are unique to the specific query. Changing the global structure changes the structure for all the queries that use the global structure. That is reason you go for a local structure.Coming to the navigation part–In the Bex Analyzer, from the SAP Business Explorer toolbar, choose the open query icon (icon that looks like a folder) On the SAP Bex Open dialog box:Choose Queries.Select the desired Info Cube Choose New.On the Define the query screen:In the left frame, expand the Structure node.Drag and drop the desired structure into either the Rows or Columns frame.Select the global structure.Right-click and choose Remove reference.A local structure is created.Remember that you cannot revert back the changes made to global structure in this regard. You will have to delete the local structure and then drag and drop global structure into query definition.*When you try to save a global structure, a dialogue box prompts you to confirm changes to all queries. that is how you identify a global structure*

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  32. Question 19. How To Create Condition And Exceptions In Bi.7.0? But I Know In Bw3.5 Version?

    Answer :

    From a query name or description, you would not be able to judge whether the query is having any exception. There are two ways of finding exception against a query:1. Execute queries one by one, the one which is having background color as exception reporting are with exceptions.2. Open queries in the BEX Query Designer. If you are finding exception tab at the right side of filter and rows/column tab, the query is having exception.

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  34. Question 20. The Fi Business Flow Related To Bw. Case Studies Or Scenarios

    Answer :

    FI Flow Basically there are 5 major topics/areas in FI,

    1. GL Accounting -related tables are SKA1, SKB1 Master Database and BSAS are the Transaction Data
    2. Account Receivables- related to Customer All the SD related data when transferred to FI these are created. Related Tables BSID and BSAD
    3. Account Payable – related Vendor All the MM related documents data when transferred to FI these are created Related Tables BSIK and BSAK All the above six tables data is present in BKPF and BSEG tables You can link these tables with the help of BELNR and GJAHR and with Dates also.
    4. Special Purpose Ledger. which is rarely used.
    5. Asset Management In CO there are Profit center Accounting Cost center Accounting will be there.
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  36. Question 21. What Are Various Ways To Make Generic Extractor Delta Enabled?

    Answer :

    This field from the extraction structure of a DataSource meets one of the following criteria:

    1. The field has the following type: Time stamp. New records to be loaded into the BW using a delta upload have a higher entry in this field than the time stamp of the last extraction.
    2. The field has the following type: Calendar day. The same criteria applies to new records as in the time stamp field.
    3. The field has another type. This case is only supported for SAP Content DataSources. In this case, the maximum value to be read must be displayed using a DataSource-specific exit when beginning data extraction.
  37. Question 22. What Are Various Ways To Track Delta Records?

    Answer :

    RSA7, LBWQ, Idocs and SMQ1.

  38. Question 23. What Is The Purpose Of Table Usr02?

    Answer :

    This table stores User IDs and passwords.

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  40. Question 24. How Do You Create A Password Exception List?

    Answer :

    Place the answers in table USR40.

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  42. Question 25. What Is The Purpose Of Table Tadir?

    Answer :

    Table TADIR contains object directory entries.

  43. Question 26. What Are The Transaction Codes Associated With Changing Requests, Request Headers, Or Request Object Lists?

    Answer :

    The following tables hold information about change requests.

    E070 Change request headers

    E071 Change request object lists

  44. Question 27. How Can You Get A List Of The Users With Development Access On A Particular System?

    Answer :

    Table DEVACCESS

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  46. Question 28. Where Can You Find A List Of Object Keys Included In A Transport?

    Answer :

    E071K Object keys contained within transports

  47. Question 29. How Can You Tell If A Transport Entry Is In The Process Of Being Imported?

    Answer :

    Check table TRBAT

  48. Question 30. How Can You Find A List Of Objects That Have Been Repaired In The System?

    Answer :

    ADIRACCESS List of repaired objects and their access keys

  49. Question 31. How Do You Disable Multiple Logins In The Same Client?

    Answer :

    To disable multiple user logins within the same client implement this parameter in the instance profile:

    login/disable_multi_gui_login = 1
  50. Question 32. What Are The Advantages Of An Extended Star Schema Of Bw Vs. ‘the Star Schema?

    Answer :

    • Uses generated numeric keys and aggregates in its own tables for faster access.
    • Uses an external hierarchy.
    • Supports multiple languages.
    • Contains master data common to ;dl cubcs.
    • Supports slowly changing dimensions.
  51. Question 33. How Maliy Tliniensio~is Are There Ill A Cube?

    Answer :

    There are a total of 16 dimensions in a culx. Of these 16, 3 are predefined by SAP and thcsc arc timc, unit and request. This leaves the customer uri th 1 3 dimensions.

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  53. Question 34. What Is The Transaction For The Administrator Work Bench?

    Answer :

    Transaction RSA1

  54. Question 35. Wliat Is Tlie “myself Data Mart”?

    Answer :

    A BW system feeding data to itself is called the myself data mart. It is created automatically and ilscs ALE for data transfer.

  55. Question 36. What Is A Calculated Key Figure?

    Answer :

    A calculated key figure is used to do complicated calculations on key figures such as mathematical functions, percentage functions and total functions. For example, you can have a calculated key figure to calculates ales tax based on your sale price.

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  57. Question 37. What Is The Enlia~icement User Exit For Best Reporting?

    Answer :

    RSR00001

  58. Question 38. What Is A Condition?

    Answer :

    If yo11 want to filter on key figures or do a ranked analysis then you use a condition. For example, you can use a condition to report on the top 10 customers, or customers with more than a million dollars in annual sales.

  59. Question 39. What Are The Data Types Supported By Characteristics?

    Answer :

    NUMC              Numeric
    CHAR (up to 60)   IJp to 60 characters
    DATS              Date
    TIMS              Time

     

  60. Question 40. What Are The Types Of Attributes?

    Answer :

    Display only – These attributes are only for display and no analysis can be done.

    Navigational attributes – These attributes behave like regular characteristics.

    For example, assume that we have customer characteristics with country as a navigational attribute, you will then be able to analyze the data using customer and country. In the BEx query you can create filters or variables for country and you can also use the drill down feature.

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  62. Question 41. What Is Meant By Compounding?

    Answer :

    Compounding defines the superior info object, which must be combined to define an object. For example, when you define a cost center, the controlling area is the compounding (superior) object.

  63. Question 42. What Are Title 10 Decision Points Of Data Warehousing?

    Answer :

    • Identify a fact table.
    • Identify the dimension tables.
    • Define the attributes of the entities.
    • Define the granularity of the fact table (how detailed do you want the data to be).
    • Define pre-calculated key figures.
    • Identify slowly changing dimensions.
    • Identify aggregates.
    • How long will the data be kept.
    • How often is the data extracted.
    • From which system is the data to be extracted.
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  65. Question 43. What Options Are Available In The Transfer Rule?

    Answer :

    • Assign an Infoobject – direct transfer, no transformation
    • Assign a constant eg. If you are loading data from a specified country from a flat file, you can make the country (17s) as a constant and assign the value explicitly
    • ABAP routine eg. If you want to do some complex string manipulation, assume that you are getting a flat file from legacy data and the cost center is in a field and you have to “massage” the data to get it in. In this case the use of an ABAP routine is most appropriate 
    • Formula – for simple calculations usc formula eg. If you want to convert all lower casc cl~uractcrst o upper case, use the TOUPPER formula. You can use formilla builder to help put your formulas together.

     

  66. Question 44. What Is Compression Or Collapse?

    Answer :

    This is the process by which we delete the request IDS which leads to space savings. All the regular requests are stored in the F table. When you compress, the request ID is deleted and data is moved from the F table to the E table. This saves space and improves performance but the disadvantage is that you cannot delete the compressed requests individually. You can, however, still use selective deletion.

    If you are using noncumulative key figures in a cube, the cube should be compressed as often possible to improve performance.

  67. Question 45. What Is An Infoset?

    Answer :

    An InfoSet is an info provider giving data by joining data from different sources like ODs and master data. You can also do an outer join in an InfoSet. InfoSets can also be used to combine transactional data with master data. For example, if you have cli~anti tying the transaction data and you have price as an attribute of the material. Then you can have an InfoSet with transaction data and material where you will be able to do calculations based on material price in BEx.

    Another usage is, if you have ODs you can disable BEx reporting (in the setting) and use the ODs in the InfoSet for reporting, which leads to improved performance

  68. Question 46. What Are Lion Cumulative Key Figures?

    Answer :

    These are key figures that are not summarized (unlike sales, etc.). Examples are head count and inventory amount. They are always shown in relation to a point in time. For example, we will ask how many employees we had as of last quarter. We don’t add up the head count.

  69. Question 47. What Perfornialice Improvement Call We Do For Reporting?

    Answer :

    • Aggregates
    • OLAP cache
    • Pre-calculated web templates
    • Use small amount or result data as starting point of any queries and do the drill down.
    • Avoid reporting on ODs and use InfoSet containing ODs for reporting.
    • If you use exclusion in reporting (< >), the indices are not used. So avoid using the exclusion but use inclusion.
    • Use the read mode “H” read when navigating and expanding hierarchies”.
    • Use compression on Infocubes since the E table is optimized for queries.
    • Create additional indexes.
    • Run DB statistics often.
    • Use secondary indexes on ODS active table.
    • Use RSRT transaction to look at the “Explain Plan” statement.
    • If you are running a query on an info provider with non cumulative key figure then suppress summary line items (totals)
  70. Question 48. What Are The Best Options For Characteristics Like F4 Help For Query Definition And Execution?

    Answer :

    This defines how the data is displayed in the query definition screen or when the query is executed. Options are from the data displayed, from master data table (all data) and from dimension data. For example let us assume that you have 100 products in total in your material master, 10 products available in a cube and in BEx you display a query for 2 products; the following options for the product will display different data:

    • Selective data only will display 2 products
    • Dimension data will display 10 products
    • From master data will display all 100 products
  71. Question 49. What Is The Difference Between Amount /quantity Number Type Key Figures?

    Answer :

    Amount /quantity is always combined with units. For example, sales will be linked to currency and inventory will be linked to quantity in units. In your design if you don’t need units then you should use number or integer to improve performance.

  72. Question 50. Will Coding The Abap Transfer Rule, What Are The Important Variables You Make Use Of?

    Answer :

    • RESULT                  This gets the result of the ABAP code.
    • RETURN CODE        You set this to 0 if everything is OK; else this record is skipped.
    •  ABORT                   Set this to a value not 0, to abort the centric package.
  73. Question 51. What Is The Use Of Time Distribution Option In The Update Rule?

    Answer :

    This option is used to distribute data according to time. For example, if the source contains calendar week and the target contains calendar day, time data is split for each calendar day. Here you can select either the normal calendar or the factory calendar.

  74. Question 52. What Is A “marker” In Non Cumulative Cubes?

    Answer :

    Non cumulatives are stored using a “Marker” for the current period. A marker is nothing but pointer referring to a time period. For example an inventory cube marker may refer to the inventory levels as of yesterday.

  75. Question 53. What Is The Use Of A Colon ‘:’ As An Authorization Value?

    Answer :

    • It enables queries that do not contain an authorization relevant object that have been checked into the Infocube.
    • It allows summary data to be displayed if the user does not have access to detailed data. For example, if you create 2 authorizations for one user: one with Sales Org * and customers : and second with sales org 1000 and customers *, the user sees all customers for sales org 1000 and only summarized report for other sales org.
  76. Question 54. What Are Start Routines, Transfer Routines And Update Routines?

    Answer :

    Start Routines: The start routine is run for each DataPackage after the data has been written to the PSA and before the transfer rules have been executed. It allows complex computations for a key figure or a characteristic. It has no return value. Its purpose is to execute preliminary calculations and to store them in global DataStructures. This structure or table can be accessed in the other routines. The entire DataPackage in the transfer structure format is used as a parameter for the routine.

    Transfer / Update Routines: They are defined at the InfoObject level. It is like the Start Routine. It is independent of the DataSource. We can use this to define Global Data and Global Checks.

  77. Question 55. What Is The Difference Between Start Routine And Update Routine, When, How And Why Are They Called?

    Answer :

    Start routine can be used to access InfoPackage while update routines are used while updating the Data Targets.

  78. Question 56. What Is The Table That Is Used In Start Routines?

    Answer :

    Always the table structure will be the structure of an ODS or InfoCube.

    For example if it is an ODS then active table structure will be the table.

  79. Question 57. Explain How You Used Start Routines In Your Project?

    Answer :

    Start routines are used for mass processing of records. In start routine all the records of Data Package is available for processing. So we can process all these records together in start routine. In one of scenario, we wanted to apply size % to the forecast data. For example if material M1 is forecasted to say 100 in May. Then after applying size %(Small 20%, Medium 40%, Large 20%, Extra Large 20%), we wanted to have 4 records against one single record that is coming in the info package. This is achieved in start routine.

  80. Question 58. What Are Return Tables?

    Answer :

    When we want to return multiple records, instead of single value, we use the return table in the Update Routine. Example: If we have total telephone expense for a Cost Center, using a return table we can get expense per employee.

  81. Question 59. How Do Start Routine And Return Table Synchronize With Each Other?

    Answer :

    Return table is used to return the Value following the execution of start routine

  82. Question 60. What Is Compression?

    Answer :

    It is a process used to delete the Request IDs and this saves space.

  83. Question 61. What Is Rollup?

    Answer :

    This is used to load new Data Packages (requests) into the InfoCube aggregates. If we have not performed a rollup then the new InfoCube data will not be available while reporting on the aggregate.

  84. Question 62. What Is Table Partitioning And What Are The Benefits Of Partitioning In An Infocube?

    Answer :

    It is the method of dividing a table which would enable a quick reference. SAP uses fact file partitioning to improve performance. We can partition only at 0CALMONTH or 0FISCPER. Table partitioning helps to run the report faster as data is stored in the relevant partitions. Also table maintenance becomes easier. Oracle, Informix, IBM DB2/390 supports table partitioning while SAP DB, Microsoft SQL Server, IBM DB2/400 do not support table portioning.

  85. Question 63. How Many Extra Partitions Are Created And Why?

    Answer :

    Two partitions are created for date before the begin date and after the end date.

  86. Question 64. What Are The Options Available In Transfer Rule?

    Answer :

    • InfoObject
    • Constant
    • Routine
    • Formula
  87. Question 65. How Would You Optimize The Dimensions?

    Answer :

    We should define as many dimensions as possible and we have to take care that no single dimensional crosses more than 20% of the fact table size.

  88. Question 66. What Are Conversion Routines For Units And Currencies In The Update Rule?

    Answer :

    Using this option we can write ABAP code for Units / Currencies conversion. If we enable this flag then unit of Key Figure appears in the ABAP code as an additional parameter. For example, we can convert units in Pounds to Kilos.

  89. Question 67. Can An Infoobject Be An Infoprovider, How And Why?

    Answer :

    Yes, when we want to report on Characteristics or Master Data. We have to right click on the InfoArea and select “Insert characteristic as data target”. For example, we can make 0CUSTOMER as an InfoProvider and report on it.

  90. Question 68. What Is Open Hub Service?

    Answer :

    The Open Hub Service enables us to distribute data from an SAP BW system into external Data Marts, analytical applications, and other applications. We can ensure controlled distribution using several systems. The central object for exporting data is the InfoSpoke. We can define the source and the target object for the data. BW becomes a hub of an enterprise data warehouse. The distribution of data becomes clear through central monitoring from the distribution status in the BW system.

  91. Question 69. How Do You Transform Open Hub Data?

    Answer :

    Using BADI we can transform Open Hub Data according to the destination requirement.

  92. Question 70. What Is Ods?

    Answer :

    Operational DataSource is used for detailed storage of data. We can overwrite data in the ODS. The data is stored in transparent tables.

  93. Question 71. What Are Bw Statistics And What Is Its Use?

    Answer :

    They are group of Business Content InfoCubes which are used to measure performance for Query and Load Monitoring. It also shows the usage of aggregates, OLAP and Warehouse management.

  94. Question 72. What Are The Steps To Extract Data From R/3?

    Answer :

    • Replicate DataSources
    • Assign InfoSources
    • Maintain Communication Structure and Transfer rules
    • Create and InfoPackage
    • Load Data
  95. Question 73. What Are The Delta Options Available When You Load From Flat File?

    Answer :

    The 3 options for Delta Management with Flat Files:

    • Full Upload
    • New Status for Changed records (ODS Object only)
    • Additive Delta (ODS Object & InfoCube)
  96. Question 74. What Are The Inputs For An Infoset?

    Answer :

    The inputs for an InfoSet are ODS objects and InfoObjects (with master data or text).

  97. Question 75. What Internally Happens When Bw Objects Like Infoobject, Infocube Or Ods Are Created And Activated?

    Answer :

    When an InfoObject, InfoCube or ODS object is created, BW maintains a saved version of that object but does not make it available for use. Once the object is activated, BW creates an active version that is available for use.

  98. Question 76. What Is The Maximum Number Of Key Fields That You Can Have In An Ods Object?

    Answer :

    16

  99. Question 77. What Is The Importance Of 0requid?

    Answer :

    It is the InfoObject for Request ID. OREQUID enables BW to distinguish between different data records.

  100. Question 78. Can You Add Programs In The Scheduler?

    Answer :

    Yes. Through event handling.

  101. Question 79. What Does A Data Idoc Contain?

    Answer :

    Data IDoc contains:

    • Control Record à Contains administrator information such as receiver, sender and client.
    • Data record
    • Status Record à Describes status of the record e.g., modified.
  102. Question 80. What Is The Importance Of The Table Roidocprms?

    Answer :

    It is an IDOC parameter source system. This table contains the details of the data transfer like the source system of the data, data packet size, maximum number of lines in a data packet, etc. The data packet size can be changed through the control parameters option on SBIW i.e., the contents of this table can be changed.

  103. Question 81. When Is Idoc Data Transfer Used?

    Answer :

    IDOCs are used for communication between logical systems like SAP R/3, R/2 and non-SAP systems using ALE and for communication between an SAP R/3 system and a non-SAP system. In BW, an IDOC is a data container for data exchange between SAP systems or between SAP systems and external systems based on an EDI interface. IDOCs support limited file size of 1000 bytes. So IDOCs are not used when loading data into PSA since data there is more detailed. It is used when the file size is lesser than 1000 bytes.

  104. Question 82. When An Ods Is In ‘overwrite’ Mode, Does Uploading The Same Data Again And Again Create New Entries In The Change Log Each Time Data Is Uploaded?

    Answer :

    No.

  105. Question 83. What Is The Function Of ‘selective Deletion’ Tab In The Manage Contents Of An Infocube?

    Answer :

    It allows us to select a particular value of a particular field and delete its contents.

  106. Question 84. When We Collapse An Infocube, Is The Consolidated Data Stored In The Same Infocube Or Is It Stored In The New Infocube?

    Answer :

    When the cube is collapsed the data is stored in the same cube, data is stored in F table before the compress and in E table after the compression. These two tables are for the same cube.

  107. Question 85. What Happens When You Load Transaction Data Without Loading Master Data?

    Answer :

    The transaction data gets loaded and the master data fields remain blank.

  108. Question 86. When Given A Choice Between Using An Infocube And A Multiprovider, What Factors To Consider Before Making A Decision?

    Answer :

    One would have to see if the InfoCubes are used individually. If these InfoCubes are often used individually, then it is better to go for a MultiProvider with many InfoCubes since the reporting would be faster for an individual InfoCube query rather than for a big InfoCube with lot of data.

  109. Question 87. How Many Hierarchy Levels Can Be Created For A Characteristic Infoobject?

    Answer :

    Maximum of 98 levels.

  110. Question 88. What Is The Function Of ‘reconstruction’ Tab In An Infocube?

    Answer :

    It reconstructs the deleted requests from the InfoCube. If a request has been deleted and we want the data records of that request to be added to the InfoCube, we can use the reconstruction tab to add those records. It goes to the PSA and brings the data to the InfoCube.

  111. Question 89. What Are Secondary Indexes With Respect To Infocubes?

    Answer :

    It is an Index created in addition to the primary index of the InfoCube. When you activate a table in the ABAP Dictionary, an index is created on the primary key fields of the table. Further indexes created for the table are called secondary indexes.

  112. Question 90. What Is Db Connect And Where Is It Used?

    Answer :

    DB connect is a database connecting program. It is used in connecting third party tools with BW for reporting purpose.

  113. Question 91. What Is The Common Method Of Finding The Tables Used In Any R/3 Extraction?

    Answer :

    By using the transaction LIST SCHEMA we can navigate the tables.

  114. Question 92. What Is The Difference Between Table View And Infoset Query?

    Answer :

    An InfoSet Query is a query using flat tables while a view table is a view of one or more existing tables. Parts of these tables are hidden, and others remain visible.

  115. Question 93. How To Load Data From One Infocube To Another Infocube?

    Answer :

    Through DataMarts data can be loaded from one InfoCube to another InfoCube.

  116. Question 94. What Is The Difference Between Extract Structure And Datasource?

    Answer :

    DataSource defines the data from different source system, where an extract structure contains the replicated data of DataSource and where we define extract rules and transfer rules

    • Extract Structure is a record layout of InfoObjects.
    • Extract Structure is created on SAP BW system.
  117. Question 95. What Is Entity Relationship Model In Data Modeling?

    Answer :

    An ERD (Entity Relation Diagram) can be used to generate a physical database.

    It is a high level data model.

    It is a schematic that shows all the entities within the scope of integration and the direct relationship between the entities.

  118. Question 96. What Is Datamining Concept?

    Answer :

    Process of finding hidden patterns and relationships in the data.

    With typical data analysis requirements fulfilled by data warehouses, business users have an idea of what information they want to see.

    Some opportunities embody data discovery requirements, where the business user wants to correlate sets of data to determine anomalies or patterns in the data.

  119. Question 97. How Does The Time Dependent Work For Bw Objects?

    Answer :

    Time Dependent attributes have values that are valid for a specific range of dates (i.e., valid period).

  120. Question 98. What Is I_isource?

    Answer :Name of the InfoSource

  121. Question 99. What Is I_t_fields?

    Answer :

    List of the transfer structure fields. Only these fields are actually filled in the data table and can be sensibly addressed in the program.

  122. Question 100. What Is C_t_data?

    Answer :

    Table with the data received from the API in the format of source structure entered in table ROIS (field ROIS-STRUCTURE).

  123. Question 101. What Is I_updmode?

    Answer :

    Transfer mode as requested in the Scheduler of the BW. Not normally required.

  124. Question 102. What Is I_t_select?

    Answer :

    Table with the selection criteria stored in the Scheduler of the SAP BW. This is not normally required.

  125. Question 103. What Are The Different Update Modes?

    Answer :

    Direct Delta: In this method, extraction data from document postings is transferred directly to BW delta queue.

    Queued Delta: In this method, extraction data from document postings is collected in an extraction queue, from which a periodic collective run is used to transfer the data to BW delta queue. o The transfer sequence and the order in which the data was created are the same in both Direct and Queued Delta.

    Unserialized V3 Update: In this method, the extraction data is written to the update tables and then is transferred to the BW delta queues without taking the sequence into account.

  126. Question 104. What Are The Different Ways Data Transfer?

    Answer :

    Full Update: All the data from the InfoStructure is transferred according to the selection criteria defined in the scheduler in the SAP BW.

    Delta Update: Only the data that has been changed or is new since the last update is transferred.

  127. Question 105. Which Object Connects Aggregates And Infocube?

    Answer :

    ReadPointer connects Aggregates and InfoCube. We can view the ReadPointer in table RSDDAGGRDIR, the field name is RN_SID, whenever we are rolling up the data, it contains the request number, it will check with the next request for second roll up. Just follow the table for a particular InfoCube and roll up the data.

  128. Question 106. What Is Switching On And Off Of Aggregates? How Do We Do That?

    Answer :

    When we switch off an aggregate, it is not available to supply data to queries, but the data remains in the aggregate, so if required, we can turn it on and update the data, instead of re-aggregating all the data. However if we deactivate an aggregate, it is not available for reporting and also we lose the aggregated data. So when you activate it, it starts the aggregation anew. To do this select the relevant aggregate and choose the Switch On/Off (red and green button). An aggregate that is switched off is marked in column Filled/Switched off with Grey Button.

  129. Question 107. While Creating Aggregates System Gives Manual Or Automatic Option. What Are These?

    Answer :

    If we select the automatic option, system will propose aggregates based on the BW statistics. i.e., how many times the InfoCube is used to fetch data, etc. Else we can manually select the dataset which should form the aggregate.

  130. Question 108. What Are The Options When Defining Aggregates?

    Answer :

    • Manual
    • Automatic
  131. Question 109. What Are Aggregates And When Are They Used?

    Answer :

    • An aggregate is a materialized, aggregated view of the data in an InfoCube. In an aggregate, the dataset of an InfoCube is saved redundantly and persistently in a consolidated form. Aggregates make it possible to access InfoCube data quickly in Reporting. Aggregates can be used in following cases:

    • To speed up the execution and navigation of a specific query.
    • Use attributes often in queries.
    • To speed up reporting with characteristic hierarchies by aggregating specific hierarchy levels.
  132. Question 110. When I Run Initial Load It Failed Then What Should I Do?

    Answer :

    Deletion of an initial load can be done in the InfoPackage. First set the QM status of the request to red if not yet done, then delete it from all data targets. After that we go to the InfoPackage and choose from menu scheduler à “initialization options for the source system”. There you should see your red request. Mark it and delete it. Accept deletion question and accept post information message. Now the request should be deleted from the initialization options. Now you can run a new init.

    You can also run a repair request. That’s a full request. With this you correct your data in the data target because of failed deltas or wrong inits. You do this in the InfoPackage too. Choose menu scheduler repair full request. But if you want to use the init/delta load you have to make a successful init first.

  133. Question 111. What Are The Inverted Fields In Data Source?

    Answer :

    They allow to do reverse posting. It would actually multiply the field by -1.

  134. Question 112. What Are Setup Tables And Why Should We Delete The Setup Tables First Before Extraction?

    Answer :

    Setup tables are filled with data from application tables. They are the OLTP tables storing transaction record. They interface between the application tables and extractor. LO extractor takes data from Setup table while initialization and full upload. It is not needed to access the application table for data selection. As setup tables are required only for full and init load we can delete the data after loading in order to avoid duplicate data.

  135. Question 113. What Are The Setup Tables? Why Use Setup Tables?

    Answer :

    In LO Extraction Mechanism when we fill the setup tables the extract structure is filled with the data. When we schedule InfoPackage using FULL / INITI DELTA from BW, the data is picked from the setup tables

  136. Question 114. When Filling The Set Tables, Is There Any Need Of Delete The Setup Tables?

    Answer :

    Yes. By deleting the setup tables we are deleting the data that is in the setup tables from the previous update. This avoids updating the records twice into the BW.

  137. Question 115. Why We Need To Delete The Setup Table First Then Filling?

    Answer :

    During the Setup run, these setup tables are filled. Normally it’s a good practice to delete the existing setup tables before executing the setup runs so as to avoid duplicate records for the same selections.

  138. Question 116. With What Data The Setup Table Is Filling (is It R3 Data)?

    Answer :

    The init loads in BW pull data from the Setup tables. The setup tables are only used in case of first init/full loads.

  139. Question 117. Will There Be Any Data In The Application Tables After Sending Data To Setup Tables?

    Answer :

    There will be data in application tables even after fill up of setup tables. Setup tables are just temp tables that fill up from application tables for setting up Init/Full loads for BW.

  140. Question 118. How To Work Master Data Delta?

    Answer :

     We always do full load for Master Data. It would always overwrite the previous entries.

  141. Question 119. Master Data Is Stored In Master Data Tables. Then What Is The Importance Of Dimensions?

    Answer :

    Dimension tables link Master Data tables with the fact table through SID’s.

  142. Question 120. I Replicate The Data Source To Bw System. I Want To Add One More Field To Data Source. How Do I Do It?

    Answer :

    Add the field to extract structure and replicate the Data Source again into BW and this field will appear in BW also.

  143. Question 121. Suppose One Million Records Are Uploaded To Infocube. Now I Want To Delete 20 Records In Infocube. How Can We Delete 20 Records?

    Answer :

    This you could do with selective deletion

  144. Question 122. What Is The Infocube For Inventory?

    Answer :

    InfoCube: 0IC_C03

  145. Question 123. What Is The Maintenance Of Data Source?

    Answer :

    It is the maintenance of required fields in a particular Data Source for which there are reporting requirements in BW and data for the same needs to be extracted.

  146. Question 124. What Is The Maintenance Of Extract Structure

    Answer :

    Extract structures are maintained in case of LO Data Sources. There are multiple extract structures for each Data Source in the LO for different applications. Any enhancements to Data Source in case of LO are done using maintenance of extract structures.

  147. Question 125. What Are Mc Ekko, Mc Ekpo In The Maintenance Of Datasource?

    Answer :

    These are purchasing related communication structures.

  148. Question 126. How Is The Delta Load Different For An Infocube And Ods?

    Answer :

    An InfoCube will have additive Delta, but you will still be able to see all individual records in the InfoCube contents. This is because if you choose to delete the current request – then the records have to be rolled back to the prior status. You build a query on the InfoCube and on the query you will find that the data is actually summed up. The ODS records will not have duplicate records. You will have only one record.

  149. Question 127. What Is The Difference Between The Transactions Lbwf And Rsa7?

    Answer :

    RSA7 is to view BW delta queue. This gets overwritten each time

    LBWF is the Log for LO Extract Structures. This is populated only when the User parameter MCL is set, and is recommended only for testing purposes.

  150. Question 128. What Exactly Happens (background) When We Are Deactivating/activating The Extract Structure For Lo Cockpit?

    Answer :

    If the extract structure is activated then any online transaction or on the compilation of setup tables, the data is posted to the extract structures depending on the update method selected. Activation marks the DataSource with green else it is yellow. The activation/deactivation makes entries to the TMC EXACT table.

  151. Question 129. What Is Content Extraction?

    Answer :

    These are extractors supplied by SAP for specific business modules. Eg. 2FI_AR_4: Customers: Line Items with Delta Extraction / 2FI_GL_6: General Ledger Sales Figures via Delta Extraction.

  152. Question 130. What Is Direct Update Of Infoobject?

    Answer :

    This is updating of InfoObject without using Update Rules but only the Transfer Rules.

  153. Question 131. You Get New Status Or Additive Delta. If I Set Here (on R/3) What Is The Need Of Setting In Bw.

    Answer :

    In R/3 the record mode determines this as seen in the RODELTAM table i.e., whether it will be a new status or additive delta for the respective DataSource. Based on this you need to select the appropriate update type for the data target in BW. For e.g., ODS supports additive as well as Overwrite function. Depending on which DataSource is updating the ODS, and the record mode supported by this DataSource, you need to do the right selection in BW.

  154. Question 132. Where Does Bw Extract Data From During Generic Extraction And Lo Extraction?

    Answer :

    All deltas are taken from the delta queue. The way of populating the delta queue differs for LO and other Data Sources.

  155. Question 133. What Is The Importance Of Ods Object?

    Answer :

    ODS is mainly used as a staging area.

  156. Question 134. Differences Between Star And Extended Star Schema?

    Answer :

    Star schema: Only characteristics of the dimension tables can be used to access facts. No structured drill downs can be created. Support for many languages is difficult.

    Extended star schema: Master data tables and their associated fields (attributes), External hierarchy tables for structured access to data, Text tables with extensive multilingual descriptions are supported using SIDs.

  157. Question 135. What Are The Major Errors In Bw And R3 Pertaining To Bw?

    Answer :

    • Errors in loading data (ODS loading, InfoCube loading, delta loading etc)
    • Errors in activating BW or other objects.
  158. Question 136. When Are Tables Created In Bw?

    Answer :

    When the objects are activated, the tables are created. The location depends on the Basis installation.

  159. Question 137. What Is M Table?

    Answer :

    Master Data table.

  160. Question 138. What Is F Table?

    Answer :

    Fact table

  161. Question 139. What Is Data Warehousing?

    Answer :

    Data Warehousing is a concept in which the data is stored and analysis is performed over it.

  162. Question 140. What Is A Remote Cube And How Is It Accessed And Used?

    Answer :

    A Remote Cube is an Info Cube whose data is not managed in the BW but externally. Only the structure of the Remote Cube is defined in BW. The data is read for reporting using a BAPI from another system.

    With a Remote Cube, we can report using data in external systems without having to physically store transaction data in BW. We can, for example, include an external system from market data providers using a Remote Cube.

    This is best used only for small volume of data and when less users access the query.

  163. Question 141. Tell About A Situation When You Implemented A Remote Cube.

    Answer :

    Remote Cube is used when we like to report on transnational data. In a Remote Cube data is not stored on BW side. Ideally used when detailed data is required and we want to bypass loading of data into BW.

  164. Question 142. Differences Between Multicube And Remotecube?

    Answer :

    A MultiCube is a type of InfoProvider that combines data from a number of InfoCubes and makes them available as a whole to reporting.

    A RemoteCube is an InfoCube whose transaction data is not managed in the BW but externally. Only the structure of the RemoteCube is defined in BW. The data is read for reporting using a BAPI from another system.

  165. Question 143. How You Did Data Modeling In Your Project? Explain

    Answer :

    We had collected data from the user and created HLD (High level Design document) and we analyzed to find the source for the data. Then data models were done indicating dataflow, lookups. While designing the data model considerations were given to use existing objects (like ODS and InfoCube) not storing redundant data, volume of data, Batch dependency.

  166. Question 144. There Is An Infoobject Called 0plant I Activated And Using It After Some Days One More Person Came And Activated It Again. What Will Happen, Whether There Will Be Any Effect Merge Or No Effect.

    Answer :

    Reactivating the InfoObject shouldn’t affect unless he has made some changes to that and then reactivated it.

  167. Question 145. I Want To Create An Infoobject That Is A Dependent Infoobject. How To Do It?

    Answer :

    Go to the first InfoObject screen in administration work bench go to compounding tab, create the InfoObject that is dependent on the former InfoObject and activate.

  168. Question 146. Delta Has Been Done Successfully In Lo. Later Some Fields Were Added To That Particular Data Sources Then There Will Be Any Effect To The Previous Data Records.

    Answer :

    No. If there is data in the Data Source we can only append the fields. No data will be lost. But you need to have separate mechanism to fill in the historical data for the newly added fields.

  169. Question 147. There Are 5 Characteristics In An Infocube. We Have To Assign These Characteristics To A Dimension Based On What We Assign Characteristics To Dimension?

    Answer :

    • Depends on the characteristic and cardinality.
    • The characteristics that logically belong together can be grouped together in a Dimension.
    • First we will decide the dimensions of the InfoCube. After that we will assign necessary InfoObjects to the corresponding dimensions.
  170. Question 148. What Are The Places We Use Abap Code In Bw?

    Answer :

    • Start routine
    • Update routine
    • InfoPackages (to populate selection parameters )
    • Transfer Rules
    • Variable Exits
    • To create any generic DataSources
  171. Question 149. What Is Sales Flow?

    Answer :

    Quotation à inquiry à Sales order à Delivery à Post goods issue àInvoice à Accounting document

  172. Question 150. What Is Delta Queue (rsa7)? When Will The Data Queue Here And From Where?

    Answer :

    Delta queue stores records that have been generated after last delta upload and yet to be sent to BW. The queued data will be sent to BW from here. Depending on the method selected, generated records will either come directly to this queue or through extraction queue.

  173. Question 151. What Is Extraction Queue? What Does It Contain?

    Answer :

    Newly generated records will be stored in the extraction queue and from there a scheduled job will push it to delta queue.

  174. Question 152. What Are Serialized And Unserialized V3 Updates?

    Answer :

    In serialized V3 Update data is transferred from the LIS communication structure, using extract structures (e.g. MC02M_0HDR for the header purchase documents), into a central delta management area.

    With Unserialized V3 Update mode, the extraction data continues to be written to the update tables using a V3 update module and then is read and processed by a collective update run (through LBWE).

  175. Question 153. What Are 5 Different Types Of Source Systems Are?

    Answer :

    • SAP Systems – SAP Basis Release 3.11 and above – SAPI
    • DataBases – Use SAP DB Connect
    • External Systems – BAPI
    • File Systems
    • SAP BW
  176. Question 154. What Are 4 Different Types Of Datasources?

    Answer :

    • Transaction Data
    • Attributes
    • Texts
    • Hierarchy
  177. Question 155. What Are 2 Types Of Infosources?

    Answer :

    • Direct InfoSource
    • Flexible InfoSource
  178. Question 156. What Are 3 Types Of Transfer Rules?

    Answer :

    • The fields copied from the Transfer Structure and are not modified
    • Fixed Value can be assigned to an InfoObject
    • An ABAP routine or a form field determines the value of the InfoObject
  179. Question 157. What Are 6 Types Of Connections Between The Source Systems And The Bw?

    Answer :

    • RFC Connections
    • ALE Settings
    • Partner Agreements
    • Ports
    • IDoc Types
    • IDoc Segments
  180. Question 158. What Is Transfer Method And What Are The Types Of Transfer Methods?

    Answer :

    The transfer method only determines how the data is transferred.

    IDoc transfer method: A data IDoc consists of a control record, a data record, and a status record. The control record contains administration information such as receiver, sender, and client. The status record describes the status of the IDoc, for example “modified”. The data stores in the ALE inbox and outbox have to be emptied or reorganized.

    PSA (tRFC) transfer method: With this transfer method, a transactional Remote Function Call is used to transfer the data directly from the source system to the SAP BW. Here, there is the option of storing the data in the PSA (the tables have the same structure as the transfer structure.) This is the preferred transfer method, because it improves performance better than the IDoc method. When you use tRFCs to transfer data, the maximum number of fields that can be used is restricted to 255. The length of a data record is also restricted to 1962 bytes when you use tRFCs (IDoc –> 1000 bytes.)

  181. Question 159. What Are 6 Control Parameters For Transferring Data (sbiw à General Settings)?

    Answer :

    • Source System
    • Maximum size of the Data Package
    • Maximum number of rows in a Data Package
    • Frequency
    • Maximum number of parallel processes during the transfer of data
    • Target system for batch job
  182. Question 160. What Are 3 Uses Of Sapi Technology?

    Answer :

    • Transfer data and Metadata from SAP Systems
    • Transfer data from XML files
    • Transfer data between BW data targets or from one BW system to another (Data Marts)
  183. Question 161. What Are 4 Functions Of Lo Cockpit?

    Answer :

    • Maintaining Extract Structures
    • Maintaining DataSources
    • Activating Updates
    • Controlling Updates
  184. Question 162. What Are 3 Update Methods For Infopackage?

    Answer :

    • Full Update
    • Initialize Delta
    • Delta Update
  185. Question 163. What Are 3 Update Methods In Logistics Extraction?

    Answer :

    • Direct Delta
    • Queued Delta
    • Unserialized V3 Update
  186. Question 164. What Are 4 Advantages Of Lo Extraction?

    Answer :

    • Improved performance and reduced volumes of data
    • Simple handling
    • Standardized solution for all Logistics applications
    • No use of LIS functions
  187. Question 165. What Are 3 Ways To Load A Delta Queue?

    Answer :

    1. At the time of the transaction – Direct Delta
    2. At a later date after the transaction (V3 job) – Queued Delta
    3. At the time the extractor job is called by BW – Unserialized V3 Update
  188. Question 166. What Are 6 Types Of Record Mode: 0recordmode Is An Infoobject That Specifies The Method In Which Delta Information Is Supplied?

    Answer :

    • “After Image” = Record Mode “ ” – The way a record looks after the change
    • “Before Image” = Record Mode “X” – The way a record looked before the change
    • “Additive Image” = Record Mode “A” – Shows only the difference for all numeric values
    • “New Image” = Record Mode “N” – For each change, a new, unique record is generated
    • “Delete” = Record Mode “D” – Only provides the key information required to make a deletion
    • “Reverse” = Record Mode = “R” – Sends information to numerically “cancel” a deleted record.
  189. Question 167. There Is One Product Of Color Black And One Is Pink. The Color Properties Should Be Displayed When The Query Is Run But It Is Not Displaying. What Might Be The Problem?

    Answer :

    • Check if the colors have been checked as navigational attribute of material.
    • Check if master data for the same is maintained and extractION in BW.
  190. Question 168. What Is The Importance Of Compounding Of Infoobjects?

    Answer :

    This defines a superior InfoObject which must be combined to define another InfoObject and it makes the superior InfoObject uniquely identifiable. For example, in a Plant, there can be some similar products manufactured. (Plant A– Soap, Paste, Lotion; plant B–Soap, paste, Lotion) In this case Plant A and Plant B should be made unique. So the characteristics can be compounded to make them unique.

  191. Question 169. What Is Delta Upload? What Is The Use Of Delta Upload?

    Answer :

    When transactional data is pulled from R3 system instead of pulling all the data daily (Instead of having full load), if we pull only the changed records, or newly added records, the load on the system will be very less.

  192. Question 170. What Is Sid? What Is The Impact In Using Sid?

    Answer :

    SIDs are Surrogate IDs which are system generated numbers and assigned to each characteristic value when they are uploaded. Search on Numeric character is faster than Alpha characters and hence SIDs.

  193. Question 171. What Are The Three Tables Of Ods Objects? Explain?

    Answer :

    ODS has three database tables. New Table, Active Table and Change Log Table. Initially new data are loaded and their traces are kept in Change log table. When another set of data comes, it actually compares with change log and transfers the data (delta data) into active table and also notes in Change log. Every time the tables are compared and data is written into the targets.

  194. Question 172. Other Than Bw, What Are The Other Etl Tools Used For Sap R/3 In Industry?

    Answer :

    Informatica, ACTA, COGNOS, Business Objects are other ETL tools.

  195. Question 173. Does Any Other Erp Software Use Bw For Data Warehousing?

    Answer :

    No.

  196. Question 174. What Is The Importance Of Hierarchies?

    Answer :

    One can display the elements of characteristics in hierarchy form and evaluate query data for the individual hierarchy levels in the  Web applications.

  197. Question 175. What Are Hierarchies? Explain How You Used In Your Project?

    Answer :

    Hierarchies are organizing data in a structured way. For example BOM (Bill of material) can be configured as hierarchies.

  198. Question 176. Where Is 0recordmode Infoobject Used?

    Answer :

    It is an InfoObject which specifies the method in which the delta information is supplied. ODS uses 0RECORDMODE for delta load. 0RECORDMODE can have any of the 6 values as “ ”, “X”, “A”, “N”, “D” & “R”.

  199. Question 177. Are All The Characteristics – Key Fields In An Ods?

    Answer :

    No. An ODS object contains key fields (for example, document number/item) and data fields that can also contain character fields (for example, order status, customer).

  200. Question 178. What Is The Use Bapi, Ale?

    Answer :

    BAPI & ALE are programs to extract data from DataSources. BW connects SAP systems (R/3 or BW) and flat files via ALE. BW connects with non SAP systems via BAPI.

  201. Question 179. Where To Check The Log For Warning Messages Appearing In Activation Of Transfer Rules?

    Answer :

    If transfer rules are not defined for InfoObjects, then traffic lights will not be green.

  202. Question 180. Can We Load Transaction Data Into Infocube Without Loading The Master Data First?

    Answer :

    Yes.

  203. Question 181. What Is Difference Between Saving And Activating?

    Answer :

    In BIW, Saving à actually saves the defined structure and retrieves whenever required.

    Activating à It saves and generates required tables and structures.

  204. Question 182. What Is Time Dependent Master Data?

    Answer :

    Time dependant master data are one which keeps changing according to time. For example: Assume a Scenario, Sales person A works in East Zone till (Jan 30th 2004), and then moves to North Zone from Jan31st 2004. Thus the master data with regard to Sales person A, should be changed to different zone based on a time

  205. Question 183. What Is Difference Between Delta And Pseudo Delta?

    Answer :

    Some data targets and modules have delta Update feature. Those can be used for delta Update of data. Say ODS, InfoCube, COPA are delta capable. Data can be expected stage wise. After first accumulation of data, BIW expects the data in delta for these data target. When a data target does not have this feature (delta update), it can be made delta capable using ODS as data target.

  206. Question 184. What Is Third Normal Form And Its Comparison With Star Schema?

    Answer :

    Third normal form is normalized form of storing data in a relational database. It eliminates functional dependencies on non-key fields by putting them in a separate table. At this stage, all non-key fields are dependent on only the key.

    Star schema is a demoralized form of storing data, which paves the path for storing data in a multi-dimensional model.

  207. Question 185. What Is Life Period Of Data In Change Log Of An Ods?

    Answer :

    The data of Change Log can be scheduled to be deleted periodically. Usually the Data is removed after it has been updated into the data targets.

  208. Question 186. What Are Inbound And Consistent Dos’s?

    Answer :

    In an Inbound ODS object, the data is saved in the same form as it was when delivered from the source system. This ODS type can be used to report the original data as it comes from the source system.

    In a Consistent ODS object, data is stored in granular form and consolidated. This consolidated data on a document level creates the basis for further processing in BW.

  209. Question 187. What Is Life Period Of Data In Psa?

    Answer :

    Data in PSA is deleted when one feels that there is no use of it in future. There is a trade off between wastage of space and use as a back up.

  210. Question 188. How To Load Data From One Infocube To Another?

    Answer :

    A DataSource is created from the InfoCube which is supposed to feed. This can be done by right-clicking on the InfoCube and selecting export DataSource. Then a suitable InfoSource can be created for this DataSource. And the intended data target InfoCube can be fed.

  211. Question 189. What Is Activation Of Objects?

    Answer :

    Activation of objects enables them to be executed, in other words used elsewhere for different purposes. Unless an object is activated it cannot be used.

  212. Question 190. What Is Transactional Ods?

    Answer :

    A transactional ODS object differs from a standard ODS object in the way it prepares data. In a standard ODS object, data is stored in different versions (active, delta, modified); whereas a transactional ODS object contains the data in a single version. Therefore, data is stored in precisely the same form in which it was written to the transactional ODS object by the application.

  213. Question 191. Are Sids Static Or Dynamic?

    Answer :

    SIDs are static.

  214. Question 192. Is Data In Infocube Editable?

    Answer :

    No.

  215. Question 193. What Are Data-marts?

    Answer :

    Data Marts are used to exchange data between different BW systems or to update data within the same BW system (Myself Data Mart). Here, the InfoProviders that are used to provide data are called Data Marts.

  216. Question 194. Which One Is More Normalized; Ods Or Infocube?

    Answer :

    InfoCube is more normalized than ODS.

  217. Question 195. What Is Replication Of Datasource?

    Answer :

    Replication of Data Source enables the extract structure from the source system to be replicated in the BW.

  218. Question 196. What Are The Quality Checks For Inefficient Infocube Designs?

    Answer :

    Huge Dimension tables make an InfoCube inefficient.

    The query takes a long time.

  219. Question 197. Why Is Star Schema Not Implemented For Ods As Well?

    Answer :

    Because ODS is meant to store a detailed document for quick use and help make short-term decisions.

  220. Question 198. Why Do We Need Separate Update Rules For Characteristics On Each Key Figure?

    Answer :

    If the requirement specifies a different need for each characteristic then we have separate update rules for each of the characteristics.

  221. Question 199. What Is The Use Of Hierarchies?

    Answer :

    Efficient reporting is one of the targets of using hierarchies. Easy drilldown paths can be built using hierarchies.

  222. Question 200. What Is “referential Integrity”?

    Answer :

    A feature provided by relational database management systems (RDBMS) that prevents users or applications from entering inconsistent data. For example, suppose Table B has a foreign key that points to a field in Table A.

    • Referential integrity would prevent from adding a record to Table B that cannot be linked to Table A.
    • Referential integrity rules might also specify that whenever you delete a record from Table A, any records in Table B that are linked to the deleted record will also be deleted. This is called cascading delete.
    • Referential integrity rules could specify that whenever youmodify the value of a linked field in Table A, all records in Table B that are linked to it will also be modified accordingly. This is called cascading update.
  223. Question 201. What Is A Transactional Infocube And When Is It Preferred?

    Answer :

    Transactional InfoCubes differ from Basic InfoCubes in their ability to support parallel write accesses. Basic InfoCubes are technically optimized for read accesses to the detriment of write accesses. Transactional InfoCubes are designed to meet the demands of SEM, where multiple users write simultaneously into an InfoCube.

  224. Question 202. When Is Data In Change Log Table Of Ods Deleted?

    Answer :

    When requests loaded into ODS object are neither required for delta update nor for initialization, they can be deleted. If delta initialization for update exists in connected data targets, the requests have to be updated first before the data can be deleted.

  225. Question 203. How Is The Data Of Different Modules Stored In R/3?

    Answer :

    Data is stored in multiple tables in R/3 based on ERM (Entity Relationship model) to prevent the redundant storage of data.

  226. Question 204. In What Cases Do We Transfer Data From One Infocube To Another?

    Answer :

    Modifications can’t be made to an InfoCube if there is data present in the InfoCube. If we want to modify an InfoCube and no backup for data exist then we can design another InfoCube with the parameters specified and load data from the old InfoCube.

  227. Question 205. How Often Do We Have A Multi-layered Structure In Ods Stage And In What Cases.

    Answer :

    Multi-layered structure in ODS stage is used to consolidate data from different DataSources.

  228. Question 206. How Is Data Extracted From Systems Other Than R/3 And Flat Files?

    Answer :

    Data is extracted from systems other than R/3 and flat files using staging BAPIs.

  229. Question 207. When Do Trfc And Idoc Errors Occur?

    Answer :

    tRFC and iDoc errors- when you load data , these are connection specific and if the source system is not set properly or is interrupted , you get these errors.

    Intermediate Document (IDoc) is a container for exchanging data between R/3, R/2 and non-SAP systems. IDocs are sent in the communication layer by transactional Remote Function Call (tRFC) or by other file interfaces (for example, EDI). tRFC guarantees that the data is transferred once only. Was not able to find out when the errors occur.

  230. Question 208. On What Factors Does The Loading Time Depend On?

    Answer :

    Loading time depends on the work load both on the BW side and source system side. It might also depend upon the network connectivity.

  231. Question 209. How Long Does It Take To Load A Million Records Into An Infocube From An R/3 System?

    Answer :

    Depending on work load on BW side and source system side loading time varies. Typically it takes half an hour to load a million records.

  232. Question 210. Will The Loading Time Be Same For The Same Amount Of Data For Non-sap Systems Like Flat Files?

    Answer :

    It might not be the same. It depends on the extraction programs used on the source system side.

  233. Question 211. What Is Mysap.com?

    Answer :

    SAP solution to integrate all relevant business processes on the Internet. mySAP.com integrates business processes in SAP and non-SAP systems seamlessly and provides a complete business environment for electronic commerce.

  234. Question 212. How Was Data Modeling Done In Your Project? Explain

    Answer :

    Initially we study the business process of client, like what kind of data is flowing in the system, the volume, changes taking place in it, the analysis done on the data by users, what are they expecting in the future, how can we use the BW functionality. Later we have meetings with business analyst and propose the data model, based on the client. Later we give a proof of concept demo wherein we demo how we are going to build a BW data warehouse for their system. Once we get an approval we start requirement gatherings and building your model and testing follows in QA.

  235. Question 213. As You Said You Have Worked On Info Cubes And Ods, Which One Is Better Suited For Reporting? Explain And What Are The Drawbacks And Benefits Of Each One?

    Answer :

    Depending on the type of report the data is stored in Info Cube or ODS. BW is used to store high volumes of data and faster reporting. Info Cube is used to store normalized data. Master Data and transaction data are stored in Info Cube as per the Extended Star Schema using SIDs. The reporting is fast.

    ODS stores data in more detail utilizing its structure of transparent tables. Reporting on this will be slow. ODS is better used for RRI.

  236. Question 214. How Do You Measure The Size Of Infocube?

    Answer :

    In number of records

  237. Question 215. What Is The Difference Between Infocube And Ods?

    Answer :

    InfoCube is structured as per Extended Star Schema with the fact table surrounded by different dimension tables which connect to SIDs. And the data can be aggregated in the InfoCubes. ODS is a flat structure and does not use the star schema concept and has detailed data in transparent tables.

  238. Question 216. What Is The Difference Between Display Attributes And Navigational Attributes?

    Answer :

    Display attribute is one which is used only for display purpose in the report. Were as navigational attribute is used for drilling down in the report. We don’t need to maintain NAV attribute in the Info Cube as a characteristic (that is the advantage) to drill down.

  239. Question 217. Data Is Uploaded Twice Into Infocube. How To Correct It?

    Answer :

    You can delete it by the Request ID.

  240. Question 218. Can You Add A New Field At The Ods Level?

    Answer :

    Yes.

  241. Question 219. Can Many Datasources Have One Infosource?

    Answer :

    Yes. For example, for loading text and hierarchies we use different DataSources but the same InfoSource.

  242. Question 220. Apart From R/3, Which Legacy Db You Used For Extraction?

    Answer :

    Access, Informatica

  243. Question 221. Where The Psa Data Is Stored?

    Answer :

    In PSA table.

  244. Question 222. What Is Data Size?

    Answer :

    The volume of data one data target holds(in no. of records)

  245. Question 223. Different Types Of Info Cubes.

    Answer :

    • Basic Cube,
    • Virtual Cube
    • Remote Cube
    • SAP Remote Cube
    • Virtual Info Cube with services
  246. Question 224. If There Are Two Datasources How Many Transfer Structures Are There?

    Answer :

    Two in R/3 and Two in BW

  247. Question 225. What Are Indexes?

    Answer :

    Indexes are database indexes, which help in retrieving data fast.

  248. Question 226. Is It Necessary To Initialize Each Time The Delta Update Is Used?

    Answer :

    No

  249. Question 227. After The Data Extraction What Is The Image Position?

    Answer :

    After image

  250. Question 228. What Are Authorizations?

    Answer :

    Profile generators.

  251. Question 229. Can A Characteristic And Infoobject Be Infoprovider?

    Answer :

    Yes

  252. Question 230. What Is Data Integrity And How Can We Achieve This?

    Answer :

    Data Integrity is about eliminating duplicate entries in the database and achieve normalization.

  253. Question 231. What Is Index Maintenance And What Is Its Purpose?

    Answer :

    Indexing is a process by which the address of data is stored. It helps easier access to the data.

  254. Question 232. When And Why Use Infocube Compression?

    Answer :

    When the data in the InfoCube is not going to change ever and if it is occupying a lot of space then we compress the InfoCube. The data that is compressed cannot be altered or deleted except through selective deletion, hence we have to make an informed decision on compression. This compression can be done through process chain and also manually.

  255. Question 233. How Can Business Content Be Enhanced? And Why Do We Need To Enhance The Business Content?

    Answer :

    We can enhance the Business Content by adding fields to the Extract Structures delivered by SAP BC. We may need to enhance the BC because we need to provide fields which are not already in the BC as per the customers needs. Eg: you have a customer InfoCube (in BC) but your company uses attribute for say Apt number. Then instead of constructing the whole InfoCube you can add the above field to the existing BC InfoCube.

  256. Question 234. What Is Tuning And Why Do We Do It?

    Answer :

    Tuning is done to increase efficiency. It is done to lower time for:

    • Loading data into Data Target
    • Accessing a query
    • For drilling down in a query, etc
  257. Question 235. What Is A Multi Provider And How Do We Use Multi Provider?

    Answer :

    Multi Provider can combine various Info Providers for reporting purposes. We can extract data from an ODS, Info Cube, Info Set, Info Object, etc in any combination.

  258. Question 236. What Are Scheduled And Monitored Data Loads?

    Answer :

    Scheduling of data load means to schedule the loading of data for some particular date and time. It can be done from the scheduler tab on Create InfoPackage. Data Loads are monitored using transaction RSMON.

  259. Question 237. What Is The Specific Advantage Of Lo Extraction Over Lis Extraction?

    Answer :

    The load performance of LO extraction is better than that of LIS. In LIS two tables are used for delta management that is cumbersome. In LO only one delta queue is used for delta management.

  260. Question 238. What Is Logistic Cockpit (lc)?

    Answer :

    It is a technique to extract logistics information and consists of a series of a standard extract structures delivered in the business content.

  261. Question 239. What Is The Significance Of Setup Tables In Lo Extractions?

    Answer :

    It adds the Selection Criteria to the LO extraction.

  262. Question 240. What Is Delta Management In Lo?

    Answer :

    It is a method used in delta update methods which are based on change log in LO.

  263. Question 241. Suppose We Performed A Lo Extraction Using V3 Update. This Update Method Has Problems After Replication. Can You Change The Alternative Methods?

    Answer :

    This is only the extraction mechanism for logistics other than LIS and SAP is not recommended LIS extraction

  264. Question 242. What Is Partitioning Characteristic In Co-pa Used For?

    Answer :

    For easier parallel search and load of data.

  265. Question 243. What Is The Advantage Of Bw Reporting On Co-pa Data Compared With Directly Running The Queries On Co-pa?

    Answer :

    BW has a better performance advantage over reporting in R/3. For a huge amount of data, the R/3 reporting tool is at a serious disadvantage because R/3 is modeled as an OLTP system and is good for transaction processing rather than analytical processing.

  266. Question 244. Can We Extract Hierarchies From R/3 For Co-pa?

    Answer :

    No, we cannot, there are no hierarchies in CO/PA.

  267. Question 245. Explain The Field Name For Partitioning In Co-pa.

    Answer :

    The CO/PA partitioning is used to decrease package size (eg: company code)

  268. Question 246. What Is T-code For Co-pa?

    Answer :

    KEB0

  269. Question 247. What Is Operating Concern In Co-pa?

    Answer :

    An organizational structure that combines controlling areas together in the same way as controlling areas group companies together.

  270. Question 248. What Is Field Partitioning In Co-pa?

    Answer :

    Internally allocates space in database. If needed table resides in one or few partitions, then only these partitions will be selected and examined by SQL statement, thereby significantly reducing I/O volume.

  271. Question 249. Is Co-pa Delta Capable?

    Answer :

    Yes, CO-PA is delta capable.

  272. Question 250. What Is Operating Concern And Partitioning In Co-pa.

    Answer :

    Operating concern is set of characteristics based on which we want to analyze the performance of company. Partitioning is dividing the data into different datasets depending on a certain characteristics. Partitioning enables parallel access of data.

  273. Question 251. What Is The Difference Between Value Fields And Key Figures In Co-pa?

    Answer :

    Value fields comprises of data which CO-PA gets from various modules in R/3. Whereas key figures are derived from these value fields.

  274. Question 252. What Is A Meta Chain?

    Answer :

    Process chains which are clubbed together are called a Meta Chain. Each sub chain is triggered only when the previous Process Chain is successful.

  275. Question 253. What Is Process Chain? How Many Types Are There? How Many We Use In Real Time Scenario?

    Answer :

    Process Chains can define interdependent processes with tasks like data loading, InfoCube compression, index maintenance, Master Data & ODS activation in the best possible performance & data integrity. Process Chains exist in administrator work bench. Using these we can automate ETTL processes. They help to schedule all activities and monitor (T-Code: RSPC).

  276. Question 254. What Are Structures?

    Answer :

    They are a combination of characteristics and Key figures (Basic Key Figures, Calculated Key Figures (CKF) and Restricted Key Figures(RKF))

  277. Question 255. What Does The Term Cell Mean?

    Answer :

    The term CELL in the function of Defining Exception Cells is the intersection of the two structure elements.

  278. Question 256. When We Run The Query At Query Run Time The Wrong Data Has Come For One Key Figure, What Might Be The Problem?

    Answer :

    If the Key figure is Calculated Key Figures (CKF), check the formula. If it is a regular key figure, check the respective values in the InfoProvider. If the values are incorrect, need to check the update rules & transfer rules. If they are correct in the InfoProvider, then do check the source system table, maybe they are captured in correctly in the Source System level itself.

  279. Question 257. When We Run Query At Run Time It Is Not Displaying One Key Figure Values What Could Be The Problem?

    Answer :

    Check if Info Provider has values for the same. If yes, then check the formula in case of CKFs or check the selection parameters/filters etc in query.

  280. Question 258. When To Report From R/3 And When From Bw?

    Answer :

    We can Report from R/3 for all operational needs that are based on the transaction data. The optimum use of BW is to analyze the data from tactical and strategic point of view.

  281. Question 259. Is It Necessary To Create The Partner Profiles In Case Of File To Idoc Scenario?

    Answer :

    NO, it is not always necessary to create the partner profiles in case of file to idoc scenario if you are doing it for testing purposes otherwise you have to configure partner profile to assure XI for receiver client.