SAP ABAP Web Dynpro Interview Questions & Answers

    1. Question 1. What Is An Abap?Answer :

      ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) is a high level programming language created by the German software company SAP. It is currently positioned as the language for programming SAP’s Web Application Server, part of its NetWeaver platform for building business applications. Its syntax is somewhat similar to COBOL.


    1. Question 2. What Is An Abap Data Dictionary? Answer :

      ABAP 4 data dictionary describes the logical structures of the objects used in application development and shows how they are mapped to the underlying relational database in tables/views.


SAP ABAP Interview Questions

    1. Question 3. What Are Domains And Data Element? Answer :

      Domains : Domain is the central object for describing the technical characteristics of an attribute of an business objects. It describes the value range of the field.

      Data Element : It is used to describe the semantic definition of the table fields like description the field. Data element describes how a field can be displayed to end-user.



    1. Question 4. What Is Foreign Key Relationship? Answer :

      A relationship which can be defined between tables and must be explicitly defined at field level. Foreign keys are used to ensure the consistency of data. Data entered should be checked against existing data to ensure that there are now contradiction. While defining foreign key relationship cardinality has to be specified. Cardinality mentions how many dependent records or how referenced records are possible.


SAP ABAP Tutorial

    1. Question 5. Describe Data Classes? Answer :

      Master data: It is the data which is seldom changed. Transaction data: It is the data which is often changed. Organization data: It is a customizing data which is entered in the system when the system is configured and is then rarely changed. System data:It is the data which R/3 system needs for itself.


Sap Abap Hr Interview Questions

    1. Question 6. What Are Indexes? Answer :

      Indexes are described as a copy of a database table reduced to specific fields. This data exists in sorted form. This sorting form ease fast access to the field of the tables. In order that other fields are also read, a pointer to the associated record of the actual table are included in the index. The indexes are activated along with the table and are created automatically with it in the database.



    1. Question 7. Difference Between Transparent Tables And Pooled Tables?Answer :

      Transparent tables: Transparent tables in the dictionary has a one-to-one relation with the table in database. Its structure corresponds to single database field. Table in the database has the same name as in the dictionary. Transparent table holds application data. Pooled tables. Pooled tables in the dictionary has a many-to-one relation with the table in database. Table in the database has the different name as in the dictionary. Pooled table are stored in table pool at the database level.


SAP ABAP Web Dynpro Tutorial
SAP ABAP Dictionary Interview Questions

    1. Question 8. What Is An Abap/4 Query? Answer :

      ABAP/4 Query is a powerful tool to generate simple reports without any coding. ABAP/4 Query can generate the following 3 simple reports:

      Basic List: It is the simple reports.

      Statistics: Reports with statistical functions like Average, Percentages.

      Ranked Lists: For analytical reports. – For creating a ABAP/4 Query, programmer has to create user group and a functional group. Functional group can be created using with or without logical database table.

      Finally, assign user group to functional group. Finally, create a query on the functional group generated.



    1. Question 9. What Is Bdc Programming? Answer :

      Transferring of large/external/legacy data into SAP system using Batch Input programming. Batch input is a automatic procedure referred to as BDC(Batch Data Communications). The central component of the transfer is a queue file which receives the data vie a batch input programs and groups associated data into “sessions”.


SAP ABAP Enhancement Interview Questions

    1. Question 10. What Are The Functional Modules Used In Sequence In Bdc? Answer :

      These are the 3 functional modules which are used in a sequence to perform a data transfer successfully using BDC programming:

      BDC_OPEN_GROUP – Parameters like Name of the client, sessions and user name are specified in this functional modules.

      BDC_INSERT – It is used to insert the data for one transaction into a session.

      BDC_CLOSE_GROUP – This is used to close the batch input session.


    1. Question 11. What Are Internal Tables? Answer :

      Internal tables are a standard data type object which exists only during the runtime of the program. They are used to perform table calculations on subsets of database tables and for re-organizing the contents of database tables according to users need.


SAP ABAP Module Pool Interview Questions

    1. Question 12. What Is Its?Answer :

      ITS is a Internet Transaction Server. ITS forms an interface between HTTP server and R/3 system, which converts screen provided data by the R/3 system into HTML documents and vice-versa. Merits of ITS: A complete web transaction can be developed and tested in R/3 system. All transaction components, including those used by the ITS outside the R/3 system at runtime, can be stored in the R/3 system. The advantage of automatic language processing in the R/3 system can be utilized to language-dependent HTML documents at runtime.



SAP ABAP Interview Questions

    1. Question 13. What Is Dynpro? Answer :

      DynPro is a Dynamic Programming which is a combination of screen and the associated flow logic Screen is also called as DynPro.


    1. Question 14. What Are Screen Painter And Menu Painter? Answer :

      Screen painter : Screen painter is a tool to design and maintain screen and its elements. It allows user to create GUI screens for the transactions. Attributes, layout, filed attributes and flow logic are the elements of Screen painter. Menu painter: Menu painter is a tool to design the interface components. Status, menu bars, menu lists, F-key settings, functions and titles are the components of Menu painters. Screen painter and menu painter both are the graphical interface of an ABAP/4 applications.



    1. Question 15. What Are The Components Of Sap Scripts? Answer :

      SAP scripts is a word processing tool of SAP which has the following components: Standard text. It is like a standard normal documents. Layout sets. – Layout set consists of the following components: Windows and pages, Paragraph formats, Character formats. Creating forms in the R/3 system. Every layout set consists of Header, paragraph, and character string. ABAP/4 program.


SAP ABAP Report Developer Interview Questions

    1. Question 16. What Is Alv Programming In Abap? When Is This Grid Used In Abap? Answer :

      ALV is Application List viewer. Sap provides a set of ALV (ABAP LIST VIEWER) function modules which can be put into use to embellish the output of a report. This set of ALV functions is used to enhance the readability and functionality of any report output. Cases arise in sap when the output of a report contains columns extending more than 255 characters in length. In such cases, this set of ALV functions can help choose selected columns and arrange the different columns from a report output and also save different variants for report display. This is a very efficient tool for dynamically sorting and arranging the columns from a report output. The report output can contain up to 90 columns in the display with the wide array of display options.



    1. Question 17. What Are The Events In Abap/4 Language?Answer :

      Initialization, At selection-screen, Start-of-selection, end-of-selection, top-of-page, end-of-page, At line-selection, At user-command, At PF, Get, At New, At LAST, AT END, AT FIRST.


SAP ABAP Data Dictionary Interview Questions

    1. Question 18. What Is Cts And What Do You Know About It? Answer :

      The Change and Transport System (CTS) is a tool that helps you to organize development projects in the ABAP Workbench and in Customizing, and then transport the changes between the SAP Systems and clients in your system landscape. This documentation provides you with an overview of how to manage changes with the CTS and essential information on setting up your system and client landscape and deciding on a transport strategy. Read and follow this documentation when planning your development project.



Sap Abap Hr Interview Questions

    1. Question 19. What Are Logical Databases? What Are The Advantages/ Dis-advantages Of Logical Databases? Answer :

      To read data from a database tables we use logical database. A logical database provides read-only access to a group of related tables to an ABAP/4 program.


      • check functions which check that user input is complete, correct,and plausible.
      • Meaningful data selection.
      • central authorization checks for database accesses.
      • good read access performance while retaining the hierarchical data view determined by the application logic.

      dis advantages:

      • If you donot specify a logical database in the program attributes,the GET events never occur.
      • There is no ENDGET command,so the code block associated with an event ends with the next event statement (such as another GET or an END-OF-SELECTION).


    1. Question 20. What Is A Batch Input Session? Answer :

      BATCH INPUT SESSION is an intermediate step between internal table and database table. Data along with the action is stored in session ie data for screen fields, to which screen it is passed, program name behind it, and how next screen is processed.



SAP ABAP ALV Reports Interview Questions

    1. Question 21. How To Upload Data Using Catt ? Answer :

      These are the steps to be followed to Upload data through CATT: Creation of the CATT test case & recording the sample data input. Download of the source file template. Modification of the source file. Upload of the data from the source file.


    1. Question 22. What Is Smart Forms? Answer :

      Smart Forms allows you to create forms using a graphical design tool with robust functionality, color, and more. Additionally, all new forms developed at SAP will be created with the new Smart Form solution.



    1. Question 23. How Can I Make A Differentiation Between Dependent And Independent Data? Answer :

      Client dependent or independent transfer requirements include client specific or cross client objects in the change requests. Workbench objects like SAPscripts are client specific, some entries in customizing are client independent. If you display the object list for one change request, and then for each object the object attributes, you will find the flag client specific. If one object in the task list has this flag on, then that transport will be client dependent.


    1. Question 24. What Is The Difference Between Macro And Subroutine? Answer :

      Macros can only be used in the program the are defined in and only after the definition are expanded at compilation / generation. Subroutines (FORM) can be called from both the program the are defined in and other programs . A MACRO is more or less an abbreviation for some lines of code that are used more than once or twice. A FORM is a local subroutine (which can be called external). A FUNCTION is (more or less) a subroutine that is called external. Since debugging a MACRO is not really possible, prevent the use of them (I’ve never used them, but seen them in action). If the subroutine is used only local (called internal) use a FORM. If the subroutine is called external (used by more than one program) use a FUNCTION.



SAP ABAP Dictionary Interview Questions

    1. Question 25. What Is The Differences Between Structure And Table In Data Dictionary In Abap? Answer :

      Structure and table both are 2/2 matrices but there are many differences between table and structure.

      1. Table can store the data physically but a structure dose not store.
      2. Table can have primary key but a structure dose not have.
      3.  Table can have the technical attribute but a structure dose not have.
      • structure doesn’t contain technical attributes.
      • structure doesn’t contain primary key.
      • structure doesn’t stores underline database level.


    1. Question 26. How We Format The Data Before Before Write Statement In Report ? Answer :

      We can format the reports output by using the loop events like: first new last .etc….



    1. Question 27. What Is The Difference Between Table And Template? Answer :

      table is a dynamic and template is a static.


SAP ABAP Enhancement Interview Questions

    1. Question 28. When Do We Use End-of-selection? Answer :

      End-of-selection event are mostly used when we are writing HR-ABAP code. In the HR-ABAP code, data is retrived in the Start-of-selection event and Printing on the list and all will be done in End-of-selection event.


    1. Question 29. In Events Start-of-selection Is Default Event. When We Have To Use This Event Explicitly? Why? Answer :

      The default event in the ABAP is Start-of-selection.We have to call explicitely this event when you are writing other than ths event that is when you write AT SELECTION-SCREEN EVENTS OR INITIALIZATION EVENT etc,you have to explicitely mention the Start-of-selection event while you are writing the logic. Before these events called ,all the code you have written come into this default Start-of-selection screen event.


    1. Question 30. What Is The Differences Between Abap And Ooabap. In Which Situation We Use Ooabap? Answer :

      OOABAP is used to develop BSP/PCUI applications and also anthing involved object oriented like BADIs, SmartForms..etc.where as ABAP is used to develop traditional programs in R/3.


    1. Question 31. What Is Table Buffer? Which Type Of Tables Used This Buffer? Answer :

      buffer is nothing but a memory area. table is buffered means that table information is available on application server. when you call data from database table it will come from application server.Transperent and pooled tables are buffered. cluster tables can not buffered.


    1. Question 32. What Is The Use Of Pretty Printer ? Answer :

      Exactly where can we link the functional module to abap coding.

      Pretty Printer is used to format the ABAP Code we write in ABAP Editor ,like KEY WORDS in Capitals and remaining are in small letters which is also depend on system settings.

      We can call the function module in the ABAP Code .Press the Pattern button on Appl. tool bar then u will get box where u write the function module NAME which u want to call in the code by selecting the radio button CALL FUNCTION. In this way we link function module to ABAP Code.


    1. Question 33. What Is The Difference Between Sap Memory And Abap Memory? Answer :

      data sending between main sessions using get parameter and set parameter is sap memory.
      data sending between internal sessions using import or export parameters is abap memory.


SAP ABAP Module Pool Interview Questions

    1. Question 34. What Is The Difference Between Type And Like?Answer :

      TYPE, you assign datatype directly to the data object while declaring.
      LIKE,you assign the datatype of another object to the declaring data object. The datatype is referenced indirectly.


    1. Question 35. What Is Tcode Se16. For What Is It Used. Explain Briefly? Answer :

      SE16 is a T-code for object browser. Generally used to search the fields of SAP Tables and respective data.


    1. Question 36. What Are Different Abap/4 Editors? What Are The Differences? Answer :

      The 2 editors are se38 and se80 both have the abap editor in place. In se38 you can go create programs and view online reports and basically do all thedevelopmet of objects in this editor. In se80 (object navigator) there are additional features such as creating packages,module pool , function group ,classes, programs (where you can create ur programs) and BSP applications .


SAP ABAP Report Developer Interview Questions

    1. Question 37. What Is Difference Between Dialog Program And A Report? Answer :

      Report is a excecutable program.
      Dialog is a module pool program.It has to be executed via a transaction only. Dialog programming is used for customization ofscreens.


    1. Question 38. How Do You Connect To The Remote Server If You Are Working From The Office For The Client In Remote Place? Answer :

      WAS web application server or ITS are generally used for this purpose. If you are sitting at your office with a server which is in the system and the other server is at the clients place you can generate IDOC, intermidiate documents which carry the data you want to transfer or the documents you want to transfer, these IDOC are interpretted by the system at the recieving end with the message class with which it is bound with. If you want to logon a system which is very distant..then remote login can be used this depends on the internet speed.


    1. Question 39. Explain About Roll Area , Dispatcher, Abap-processor? Answer :

      Dispatcher recieves the request from client and assigns the request to one of the work process.
      Roll area: Each workprocess works in a particular memory that memory is known as Role Area, which consists of User context and session data.
      ABAP- Processor :is an interpretor which can execute logic


    1. Question 40. What Is Lock Object ? Answer :

      LockObjects used to synchornize access of several users using same data.


SAP ABAP Data Dictionary Interview Questions

    1. Question 41. Why Bapi Need Then Bdc? Answer :

      BAPI’S provide the standard interface to other applications apart from SAP and within differnt vesions of SAP too. Also it is OOD bases so doesn’t depends on screen flow. BDC gets failed if we make changes for screen changes through IMG customization.


    1. Question 42. What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Using Views In Abap Programming ?Answer :


      • view is used to retrieve the data very fastly from the database tables.
      • memory wastage is reduced.
      • faster than joins to retrieve the data from database tables.


      • view is not a container,it will not hold the data.
      • view memory is not permanent memory.


SAP ABAP ALV Reports Interview Questions

    1. Question 43. How Data Is Stored In Cluster Table? Answer :

      A cluster table conatins data from mulitple DDIC tables. It stores data as a name value pair ( varkey, vardata).


    1. Question 44. Have You Used Performance Tuning? What Major Steps Will You Use For These? Answer :

      First of all tunning can be done In three ways: disk i/o ,sql tunning , memory tunning, Before tunning u have to get the status of your database using Oracle utility called statpack , tkprof, then you should go for tunning.


    1. Question 45. What Type Of User Exits Have You Written? Answer :

      There are four types

      1. function exit
      2. menu exit
      3. screen exit.
      4. field exit.

      these are the user exits


    1. Question 46. How Can You Debug A Script Form? Answer :

      SE71 -> give the form name -> utilities -> activate debugger.


    1. Question 47. How Do We Debug Sapscript? Answer :

      First we need to put Break point in Print program where ever you want to stop the execution. After in SE71 give your form name and go to Utilities–>Active De-bugger. Then go to your transcation like VF03(for Invoice or Credit memo) etc to see the print preview or print the form execute it. When you execute it the the form Debugging will get activated and you can see your Form execution step by step.


    1. Question 48. What Are The Different Types Of Data Dictionary Objects? Answer :

      Data Dictionary Objects are:

      • Tables.
      •  Views.
      •  Domain.
      •  Data Element.
      • Type Groups.
      • Search Helps/Matchcode Objects.
      • Lock objects.
      • Structures.
      • Table Types.


    1. Question 49. What Is The Step By Step Process To Create A Table In Data Dictionary? Answer :

      steps to create database tables:

      1. go to sell.
      2. give name the database table.
      3. give short description for the table.
      4. Give delivery class name as A and data browser / table view maint as Display/maintenence allowed.
      5. select fields tab.
      6. give field name data type(user defined element type/built-in-type),short text.
      7. select technical settings tab ,give data class as appl0 and size category as 0.
      8. save it.
      9. go utillities menu click table contents select create and enter the field values then select display in table contents and u can view the table values with field lables.


    1. Question 50. Can A Transparent Table Exist In Data Dictionary But Not In The Data Base Physically? Answer :

      NO. TRANSPARENT TABLE DO EXIST WITH THE SAME STRUCTURE BOTH IN THE DICTIONARY AS WELL AS IN THE DATABASE,EXACTLY WITH THE SAME DATA AND FIELDS. No, at the point you will activate your table a same transparent table is going to be create in database.


    1. Question 51. What Are The Domains And Data Elements?Answer :

      domains are the dictionary objects that are assigned with constants and data types.

      data elements:
      data elements are dictionary objects that are assigned with the domains.

      • data elements are used to create relation between tables.
      • data elements are used to transfer the data from one R/3 to another R/3.
      • to create search helps.


    1. Question 52. In The ‘select’ Statement What Is “group By”? Answer :

      Group by clause is used to fetch the data from the table by the specified field count (*) from emptable group by deptno where deptno = 1. It is used to find the number of employees present in the specified department no.


    1. Question 53. How Can I Copy A Standard Table To Make My Own Z_table? Answer :



    1. Question 54. What Is Sap R/3?Answer :

      SAP R/3 refers to Systems Application and Product for data processing Real-time having a 3 tier architecture i.e. Presentation layer, Application layer and Database layer.


    1. Question 55. What Are The Contents In Technical Specifications?Answer :

      There are five contents in Technical Settings: Data Class, Size Category, Buffering Permission, Buffering Type and Logging.


    1. Question 56. What Is An Instance?Answer :

      When you call a function module, an instance of its function group plus its data, is loaded into the memory area of the internal session. An ABAP program can load several instances by calling function modules from different function groups.


    1. Question 57. What Is Function Group? Difference Between Function Group And Function Module?Answer :

      Function Groups act as containers for Function Modules that logically belong together.
      Function Groups:

      1. These cannot be defined in a Function Module.
      2. It cannot be called.
      3. They are containers for Function Module.

      Function Modules:

      1. These must be defined in a Function Group.
      2. It can be called from any program.
      3. They are not containers for Function Group.


    1. Question 58. What Is The Difference Between ‘select Single * ‘ And ‘select Upto 1 Rows’?Answer :

      Select single *- It can work on the work area not on the internal table. It has no endselect.

      Select * upto 1 rows– It can be implemented in Internal table and work area both. It has endselect.


    1. Question 59. What Function Does Data Dictionary Perform?Answer :

      Central information repository for application and system data. The ABAP Dictionary contains data definitions (metadata) that allow you to describe all of the data structures in the system (like tables, views, and data types) in one place. This eliminates redundancy.


    1. Question 60. What Is View? Different Types Of View. Explain?Answer :

      View – A view is a virtual table containing fields from one or more tables. A virtual table that does not contain any data, but instead provides an application-oriented view of one or more ABAP Dictionary tables.
      Different Types of View:

      1. Maintenance
      2. Database – It is on more than two tables.
      3. Projection – It is only on one table.
      4. Help.


    1. Question 61. What Is Sequence Of Event Triggered In Report?Answer :

      There are 6 events in report:

      1. Initialization.
      2. At Selection-Screen.
      3. Start-of-Selection.
      4. Get.
      5. Get Late.
      6. End-of-Selection.
      7. Top-of-Page.
      8. End-of-Page.
      9. At Line Selection.
      10. At User Command.
      11. At PF (nn).


    1. Question 62. What Are Standard Layouts Sets In The Sap Script?Answer :

      There are four standard layouts in the SAP Script:

      1.  Header.
      2. Logo.
      3.  Main Window.
      4.  Footer.


    1. Question 63. What Are The Various Types Of Selection Screen Event?Answer :



    1. Question 64. What Are The System Fields? Explain?Answer :

      The ABAP system fields are active in all ABAP programs. They are filled by the runtime environment, and you can query their values in a program to find out particular states of the system. Although they are variables, you should not assign your own values to them, since this may overwrite information that is important for the normal running of the program. However, there are some isolated cases in which you may need to overwrite a system variable. For example, by assigning a new value to the field SY-LSIND, you can control navigation within details lists.


    1. Question 65. What Is Sap Script? What Is The Purpose Of Sap Script? Difference Between
      Sap Script And Report?
      Answer :

      SAP Script – It is the integrated text management system of the SAP R/3 System. Two types – PC Editor & Line Editor.

      Reports – It is the way to display data fetched from database table onto screen or directly output it to a printer. Two types – Classical and Interactive.


    1. Question 66. What Is A Logical Database?Answer :

      Logical Databases are special ABAP programs that retrieve data and make it available to application programs. Use of LDB – is used to read data from database tables by linking them to executable ABAP programs.


    1. Question 67. What Are The Events Used For Logical Database?Answer :

      Two Events –

      1. GET – This is the most important event for executable programs that use a logical database. It occurs when the logical database has read a line from the node and made it available to the program in the work area declared using the statement NODES. The depth to which the logical database is read is determined by the GET statements.
      2. PUT – The PUT statement directs the program flow according to the structure of the logical database.


    1. Question 68. What Is The Difference Between Get And Get Late?Answer :

      GET – After the logical database has read an entry from the node.
      GET LATE – After all of the nodes of the logical database have been processed that are in the database hierarchy.


    1. Question 69. What Are The Data Types Of Internal Tables? Answer :

      There are three types:

      1.  Line.
      2.  Key.
      3. Table.


    1. Question 70. What Are The Events Used In Abap In The Order Of Execution?Answer :

      Events are:

      5. TOP-OF-PAGE.
      7. END-OF-PAGE.
      11.AT PF.
      13.GET LATE.
      14. AT User Command.


    1. Question 71. What Are Interactive Reports?Answer :

      An output list which displays just the basic details & allow user to interact, so that a new list is populated based on user-selection. With interactive list, the user can actively control data retrieval and display during the session.


    1. Question 72. What Are The Commands Used For Interactive Reports?Answer :

      Top-of-Page during line-selection.


    1. Question 73. What Is The Difference Between Primary Key And Unique Key?Answer :

      Primary Key – It can accepts 0 value and cannot be NULL.
      Unique Key – It can be NULL.


    1. Question 74. What Is The Transaction Code For Table Maintenance?Answer :



    1. Question 75. If U Are Using Logical Databases How Will U Modify The Selection-screen Elements?Answer :

      Select-options : dname for deptt-dname.


    1. Question 76. What Is An Rfc?Answer :

      Remote Function Call.


    1. Question 77. What Is The Significance Of Hide?Answer :

      It stores the click value and display the related record in the secondary list.


    1. Question 78. Where Do U Code The Hide Statement?Answer :

      In a LOOP statement.


    1. Question 79. Types Of Bdc’s?Answer :

      There are two types of BDC’s:

      1. Transaction Method.
      2. Session Method.


    1. Question 80. What Are The Events Used In Interactive Reports?Answer :

      There are three events of Interactive Reports:

      1.  At PF(nn).
      2. At line-selection.
      3.  At user-command.


    1. Question 81. What Is An Rdbms?Answer :

      RDBMS – Relational Database Management System. It helps to create relationship between two or more table.


    1. Question 82. What Are Joins And Different Types Joins?Answer :

      There are four types of Joins:

      1. Self Join.
      2.  Inner Join.
      3.  Outer Join.
      4.  Equi Join.


    1. Question 83. How Do U Display A Data In A Detail List?Answer :

      By using two statements:

      1. Top-of-page during line-selection
      2. At line-selection


    1. Question 84. What Are The Types Of Windows In Sap Script?Answer :

      There are five Standard Layouts in SAP Script:

      1. Page.
      2. Window.
      3. Page Window.
      4. Paragraph Format.
      5. Character Format.


    1. Question 85. What Are The Function Modules Used In A Sap Script Driver Program?Answer :

      There are three functions used in SAP Script:

      1. OPEN_FORM.
      2. WRITE_FORM.
      3. CLOSE_FORM.


    1. Question 86. What Are Extracts?Answer :

      Extracts are dynamic sequential datasets in which different lines can have different structures. We can access the individual records in an extract dataset using a LOOP.


    1. Question 87. What Is Luw?Answer :

      Logical Unit of Work.


    1. Question 88. Different Types Of Luws. What Are They?Answer :

      Two types of LUW are:

      1. DB LUW – A database LUW is the mechanism used by the database to ensure that its data is always consistent. A database LUW is an inseparable sequence of database operations that ends with a database commit. The database LUW is either fully executed by the database system or not at all. Once a database LUW has been successfully executed, the database will be in a consistent state. If an error occurs within a database LUW, all of the database changes since the beginning of the database LUW are reversed. This leaves the database in the state it had before the transaction started.
      2. SAP LUW – A logical unit consisting of dialog steps, whose changes are written to the database in a single database LUW is called an SAP LUW. Unlike a database LUW, an SAP LUW can span several dialog steps, and be executed using a series of different work processes.


    1. Question 89. How Do U Find Out Whether A File Exits On The Presentation Server? Answer :

      eps_get_directory_listing for directory.


    1. Question 90. If Internal Table Used In For All Entries In Empty Then What Happens?Answer :

      No, records will be displayed.


    1. Question 91. If I Forgot Some Command In Sap Script E.g.: Suppress Zero Display – How To Do Find It?Answer :

      Suppressing of entire screens is possible with this command. This command allows us to perform screen processing “in the background”. Suppressing screens is useful when we are branching to list-mode from a transaction dialog step.


    1. Question 92. How To Write A Bdc – How Do U Go About It?Answer :

      Steps for writing BDC:

      1. inSE38.
      2. Declare Tables, Data (for ITAB) and Data (for BDCITAB).
      3. Call function ‘Upload’.
      4. Write code for the First Screen, Radio Button, Filename, Change Button, Second Screen, Utilities (Create Entries), Third Screen and Save.
      5. Call transaction ‘SEll’ using BDCITAB mode ‘A’.
      6. Save, Check Errors, Activate and Execute.


    1. Question 93. How Do U Move On To The Next Screen In Interactive Reporting?Answer :

      Write code of the following:

      1. Top-of-Page during line-selection.
      2. At line-selection.


    1. Question 94. Function Modules Used In F4 Help?Answer :

      There are two types of function modules used in F4 help:



    1. Question 95. Work Most On Which Module: Name A Few Tables?Answer :

      Sales & Distribution Module:

      1. Sales Document: Item Data – VBAP.
      2. Sales Document: Partner – VBPA.
      3. Sales Document: Header Data – VBAK.
      4. Sales Document Flow – VBFA.
      5. Sales Document: Delivery Item Data – LIPS.
      6. Customer Master – KNA.
      7. Material Data – MARA.
      8. Conditions (Transaction Data) – KONV.


    1. Question 96. What Is Read Line?Answer :

      READ LINE and READ CURRENT LINE – These statements are used to read data from the lines of existing list levels. These statements are closely connected to the HIDE technique.


    1. Question 97. What Are The Differences Between Sap Memory And Abap Memory?Answer :

      ABAP Memory is a memory area in the internal session (roll area) of an ABAP program. Data within this area is retained within a sequence of program calls, allowing you to pass data between programs that call one another. It is also possible to pass data between sessions using SAP Memory.
      SAP Memory is a memory area to which all sessions within a SAPgui have access. You can use SAP memory either to pass data from one program to another within a session (as with ABAP memory) or to pass data from one session to another.


    1. Question 98. What Are Differences Between At Selection-screen And At Selection-screen Output?Answer :

      AT SELECTION-SCREEN event is triggered in the PAI of the selection screen once the ABAP runtime environment has passed all of the input data from the selection screen to the ABAP program.
      AT SELECTION-SCREEN OUTPUT – This event block allows you to modify the selection screen directly before it is displayed.


    1. Question 99. What Is Get Cursor Field? Answer :

      GET CURSOR statement transfers the name of the screen element on which the cursor is positioned during a user action into the variable .


    1. Question 100. What Is The Inside Concept In Select-options? Answer :

      Select-options specify are displayed on the selection screen for the user to enter values.
      Different Properties of Select-options:

      1. Visible Length.
      2. Matchcode Object.
      3. Memory ID.
      4. Lowercase.
      5. Obligatory.
      6. No Display.
      7. Modify ID.


    1. Question 101. What Is The Difference Between Free And Refresh?Answer :

      Free – You can use FREE to initialize an internal table and release its memory space without first using the REFRESH or CLEAR statement. Like REFRESH, FREE works on the table body, not on the table work area. After a FREE statement, you can address the internal table again. It still occupies the amount of memory required for its header (currently 256 bytes). When you refill the table, the system has to allocate new memory space to the lines.

      Refresh – This always applies to the body of the table. As with the CLEAR statement, the memory used by the table before you initialized it remains allocated. To release the memory space, use the statement.


    1. Question 102. Can We Have More Than One Selection-screen And How?Answer :

      Yes, we can have more than one selection screen:

      Selection-screen begin of block honey with frame title text-101.
      Select-options : deptno for zrekha_deptt-deptno.
      Selection-screen end of block honey.

      Selection-screen begin of block honey1 with frame title text-102.
      Select-options : dname for zrekha_deptt-dname.
      Selection-screen end of block honey1.


    1. Question 103. How To Declare Select-option As A Parameter?Answer :

      SELECT-OPTIONS: specify are displayed on the selection screen for the user to enter values.
      Parameters: dname like dept-dname.
      Select-options: dname for dept-dname.


    1. Question 104. How Can U Write Programmatically Value Help To A Field Without Using Search Help And
      Match Codes?
      Answer :

      By using two types of function modules to be called in SAP Script:



    1. Question 105. What Are The Differences Between Se01, Se09 And Se10?Answer :

      SE01 – Correction & Transport Organizer.
      SE09 – Workbench Organizer.
      SE10 – Customizing Organizer.


    1. Question 106. What Are Tables?Answer :

      Tables : ZREKHA_EMP. It creates a structure – the table work area in a program for the database tables, views or structure ZREKHA_EMP. The table work area has the same name as the object for which we created it. ZREKHA_EMP must be declared in the ABAP dictionary. The name and sequence of fields in the table work area ZREKHA_EMP corresponds exactly to the sequence of fields in the database table, view definition in the ABAP dictionary.


    1. Question 107. What Is The Use Of Table Maintenance Allowed?Answer :

      Mark the Table maintenance allowed flag if users with the corresponding authorization may change the data in the table using the Data Browser (Transaction SE16). If the data in the table should only be maintained with programs or with the table view maintenance transaction (Transaction SM30), you should not set the flag.


    1. Question 108. How To Define Selection Screen?Answer :

      Parameters, Select-options & Selection-Screen.


    1. Question 109. What Is The Difference Between Tables And Structures?Answer :


      1. Data is permanently stored in tables in the database.
      2. Database tables are generated from them.


      1. It contains data temporarily during program run-time.
      2. No Database tables are generated from it.


    1. Question 110. What Is The Difference Between Open_form And Close_form?Answer :

      OPEN_FORM – This module opens layout set printing. This function must be called up before we can work with other layout set function like WRITE_FORM.

      WRITE_FORM – Output text element in form window. The specified element of the layout set window entered is output. The element must be defined in the layout set.

      CLOSE_FORM – End layout set printing. Form printing started with OPEN_FORM is completed. Possible closing operations on the form last opened are carried out. Form printing must be completed by this function module. If this is not carried out, nothing is printed or displayed on the screen.


    1. Question 111. What Are The Page Windows? Answer :

      Page Window– In this window, we define the margins for left, width, upper and height for the layout of Header, Logo, Main, & Footer.


    1. Question 112. How To Debugg A Script?Answer :

      Go to SE71, give layout set name, go to utilities select debugger mode on.


    1. Question 113. How Many Maximum Sessions Can Be Open In Sapgui?Answer :

      There are maximum 6 sessions open in SAPgui.


    1. Question 114. What Are Session Method And Call Transaction Method And Explain About Them?Answer :

      Session method – Use the BDC_OPEN_GROUP to create a session. Once we have created a session, then we can insert the batch input data into it with BDC_INSERT. Use the BDC_INSERT to add a transaction to a batch input session. We specify the transaction that is to be started in the call to BDC_INSERT. We must provide a BDCDATA structure that contains all the data required to process the transaction completely. Use the BDC_CLOSE_GROUP to close a session after we have inserted all of our batch input data into it. Once a session is closed, it can be processed.

      Call Transaction – In this method, we use CALL TRANSACTION USING to run an SAP transaction. External data does not have to be deposited in a session for later processing. Instead, the entire batch input process takes place inline in our program.


    1. Question 115. If You Have 10000 Records In Your File, Which Method You Use In Bdc?Answer :

      Call transaction is faster then session method. But usually we use session method in real time…because we can transfer large amount of data from internal table to database and if any errors in a session, then process will not complete until session get correct.


    1. Question 116. What Are Different Modes Of Call Transaction Method And Explain Them?Answer :

      There are three modes of Call Transaction method:

      1. A – Display All Screens.
      2. E – Display Errors.
      3. N – Background Processing.


    1. Question 117. What Is The Typical Structure Of An Abap Program? Answer :



    1. Question 118. What Is The Alternative To Batch Input Session? Answer :

      Call Transaction Method & Call Dialog.


    1. Question 119. What Are The Problems In Processing Batch Input Sessions? How Is Batch Input Process
      Different From Processing On Line?
      Answer :

      Two Problems: –

      1. If the user forgets to opt for keep session then the session will be automatically removed from the session queue (log remains). However, if session is processed we may delete it manually.
      2. If session processing fails, data will not be transferred to SAP database table.


    1. Question 120. Is Session Method, Asynchronous Or Synchronous?Answer :



    1. Question 121. How To Schedule A Report In Background? What Is The Use Of Background Job Please Explain About It?Answer :

      There are 3 ways to schedule in background:
      The easiest of the three is SA38.
      In foreground jobs are only allowed a certain amount of runtime. Long running jobs usually times out in foreground, and have to be run background. Some customers has day-end jobs to fill custom tables, and these only run late at night, so they are scheduled as background jobs as well. There may be any of a hundred reasons why you want a job to run in background instead of foreground, and these are only 2 of them.


    1. Question 122. What Are Hashed Tables?Answer :

      Hashed tables – This is the most appropriate type for any table where the main operation is key access. You cannot access a hashed table using its index. The response time for key access remains constant, regardless of the number of table entries. Like database tables, hashed tables always have a unique key. Hashed tables are useful if you want to construct and use an internal table, which resembles a database table or for processing large amounts of data.
      REPORT Z_1 .


    1. Question 123. What Are Pooled Table?Answer :

      Table pools (pools) and table clusters (clusters) are special table types in the ABAP Dictionary. The data from several different tables can be stored together in a table pool or table cluster. Tables assigned to a table pool or table cluster are referred to as pooled tables or cluster tables.

      A table in the database in which all records from the pooled tables assigned to the table pool are stored corresponds to a table pool. The definition of a pool consists essentially of two key fields (Tabname and Varkey) and a long argument field (Vardata).

      Table Clusters Several logical data records from different cluster tables can be stored together in one physical record in a table cluster.

      A cluster key consists of a series of freely definable key fields and a field (Pageno) for distinguishing continuation records. A cluster also contains a long field (Vardata) that contains the contents of the data fields of the cluster tables for this key. If the data does not fit into the long field, continuation records are created. Control information on the structure of the data string is still written at the beginning of the Vardata field.


    1. Question 124. What Are The Types Of Tables?Answer :
      1. Transparent table.
      2. Cluster table are data dictionary table objects.
      3. Indexed table.
      4. Internal tables.
      5. Pool table.
      6. Sorted table.
      7. Hash table.


    1. Question 125. For Sales Document: Item Data, Which Table Is Used? Answer :

      VBAP – Sales Document, Sales Document Item, Material Number, Material Entered, Batch Number, Material Group, Target Quantity in Sales Document.


    1. Question 126. What Is Cardinality? Answer :

      For cardinality one out of two (domain or data element) should be the same for Ztest1 and Ztest2 tables. M:N Cardinality specifies the number of dependent(Target) and independent (source) entities which can be in a relationship.


    1. Question 127. What Do You Define In The Domain And Data Element?Answer :

      Domain – Technical details are defined in Domain like data type, number of decimal places and length.

      Data Element – Functionality details are defined in Data elements – Field Text, Column Captions, Parameters ID, and Online Field Documentation.


    1. Question 128. What Are The Fields In A Bdc_tab Table? Answer :



    1. Question 129. What Is The Structure Of A Bdc Sessions? Answer :

      BDCDATA (standard structure).


    1. Question 130. What Has To Be Done To The Packed Fields Before Submitting To A Bdc Session? Answer :

      Fields converted into character type.


    1. Question 131. What Is Difference Between Session Method And Call Transaction? Answer :

      Call Transaction –
      1. Single transaction.
      2. Synchronous processing.
      3. Asynchronous and Synchronous update.
      4. No session log is created.
      5. Faster.

      Session –
      1. Multiple Transaction.
      2. Asynchronous processing.
      3. Synchronous update.
      4. Session log is created.
      5. Slower.


    1. Question 132. What Are Different Data Types In Abap/4? Answer :

      Elementary –
      Predefined: C, D, F, I, N, P, T, X.
      User defined: TYPES.

      Structured –
      Predefined: TABLES.
      User defined: Field Strings and internal tables.


    1. Question 133. In An Abap/4 Program, How Do You Access Data That Exists On Presentation Server Vs On An Application Server? Answer :

      Using loop statements and Flat.


    1. Question 134. What Are Presentation And Application Servers In Sap? Answer :

      The application layer of an R/3 System is made up of the application servers and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 System are run on application servers. The application servers communicate with the presentation components, the database, and also with each other, using the message server.


    1. Question 135. How Do You Use Tab Sets In Layout Sets? Answer :

      Define paragraph with defined tabs.


    1. Question 136. What Takes Most Time In Sap Script Programming? Answer :



    1. Question 137. How Do You Number Pages In Sap Script Layout Outputs? Answer :

      & page &    &next Page &.


    1. Question 138. Can You Use If Then Else, Perform..etc Statements In Sap Script? Answer :



    1. Question 139. What Are The Different Elements In Layout Sets? Answer :

      PAGES, Page windows, Header, Paragraph, Character String, Windows.


    1. Question 140. How Do You Get Help In Abap? Answer :

      HELP-SAP LIBRARY, by pressing F1 on a keyword.


    1. Question 141. What Are The Different Modules Of Sap? Answer :

      FI, CO, SD, MM, PP, HR. etc..


    1. Question 142. How Do You Find The Tables To Report From When The User Just Tell You The Transaction He Uses? And All The Underlying Data Is From Sap Structures? Answer :

      Transaction code is entered in command field to open the table – Utilities – Table contents display.


    1. Question 143. How Do You Find If A Logical Database Exists For Your Program Requirements? Answer :



    1. Question 144. What Are The General Naming Conventions Of Abap Programs? Answer :

      Should start with Y or Z.


    1. Question 145. Can You Call A Subroutine Of One Program From Another Program? Answer :

      Yes, only external subroutines Using ‘SUBMIT’ statement.


    1. Question 146. What Are The Include Programs? Answer :

      When the same sequence of statements in several programs is to be written repeatedly. They are coded in include programs (External programs) and are included in ABAP/4 programs.


    1. Question 147. Is Abap A Gui Language? Answer :



    1. Question 148. What Are Step Loops? How Do You Program Page Down Page Up In Step Loops? Answer :

      Step loops are repeated blocks of field in a screen.

      Step loops: Method of displaying a set of records.
      Page down & Page up: decrement / increment base counter.
      Index = base + sy-step1 – 1.


    1. Question 149. Does Sap Has A Gui Screen Painter Or Not? If Yes What Operating Systems Is It Available On? What Is The Other Type Of Screen Painter Called? Answer :

      Operating System – Windows based.
      Screen Painter – Alpha numeric Screen Painter.


    1. Question 150. What Is Screen Flow Logic? What Are The Sections In It? Explain Pai And Pbo? Answer :

      The control statements that control the screen flow.
      PBO – This event is triggered before the screen is displayed.
      PAI – This event is responsible for processing of screen after the user enters the data and clicks the pushbutton.


    1. Question 151. What Are Idoc’s? Answer :

      IDOC’s are intermediate documents to hold the messages as a container.


    1. Question 152. Where We Use Chain And End Chain? Answer :

      In Screen Programming.


    1. Question 153. Among “move” And “move Corresponding”, Which Is Efficient One? Answer :

      I guess, ‘move corresponding’ is very efficient then ‘move’ statement. Because usually we use this statement for internal table fields only…so if we give move corresponding. Those fields only moving to other place (what ever you want).


    1. Question 154. What Is Pf-status? Answer :

      PF-Status is used in interactive report for enhancing the functionality. If we go to SE41, we can get menus, items and different function keys, which we are using for secondary list in interactive report.


    1. Question 155. What Is The Difference Between Clustered Tables And Pooled Tables? Answer :

      A pooled table is used to combine several logical tables in the ABAP/4 dictionary. Pooled tables are logical tables that must be assigned to a table pool when they are defined.

      Cluster table are logical tables that must be assigned to a table cluster when they are defined. Cluster table can be used to store control data. They can also used to store temporary data or text such as documentation.


    1. Question 156. What Is The Table, Which Contain The Details Of All The Name Of The Programs And Forms? Answer :

      Table contains vertical and horizontal lines. We can store the data in table as blocks. We can scroll depends upon your wish. And these all are stored in database (data dictionary).


    1. Question 157. What Are The Difference Between Interactive And Drill Down Reports? Answer :

      ABAP/4 provides some interactive events on lists such as AT LINE-SELECTION (double click) or AT USER-COMMAND (pressing a button). You can use these events to move through layers of information about individual items in a list.

      Drill down report is nothing but interactive report…drilldown means above paragraph only.


    1. Question 158. Among The Call Transaction And Session Method, Which Is Faster? Answer :

      Call transaction is faster then session method. But usually we use session method in real time…because we can transfer large amount of data from internal table to database and if any errors in a session, then process will not complete until session get correct.


    1. Question 159. How Did You Test The Developed Objects? Answer :

      There are two types of testing:

      1. Negative testing.
      2. Positive testing.

      -In negative testing, we will give negative data in input and we check any errors occurs.
      -In positive testing, we will give positive data in input for checking errors.


    1. Question 160. What Is Runtime Analysis? Have You Used This? Answer :

      It checks program execution time in microseconds. When you go to SE30. If you give desired program name in performance file. It will take you to below screen. You can get how much fast is your program.


    1. Question 161. Which Transaction Code Can I Used To Analyze The Performance Of Abap Program?Answer :

      Transaction Code AL21.


    1. Question 162. Can We Create Field Without Data Element And How? Answer :

      In SE11, one option is available above the fields strip i.e. Data element / direct type.


    1. Question 163. When Top Of The Page Event Is Triggered? Answer :

      After executing first write statement in start-of-selection event.


    1. Question 164. How Do You Get Output From Idoc? Answer :

      Data in IDOC is stored in segments; the output from IDOC is obtained by reading the data stored in its respective segments.


    1. Question 165. On Which Event We Can Validate The Input Fields In Module Programs? Answer :

      In PAI (Write field statement on field you want to validate, if you want to validate group of fields put in chain and End chain statement).


    1. Question 166. What Are Client Dependant Objects In Abap / Sap? Answer :

      SAP Script layout, text element, and some DDIC objects.


    1. Question 167. What Are The Different Types Of Abap Statements?Answer :

      There are six types of ABAP statements:

      1. Declarative – Types, Data, Tables.
      2. Modularization – Event Keywords and Defining Keywords.
      3. Control – If…Else, While, Case.
      4. Call – Perform, Call, Set User Command, Submit, Leave to.
      5. Operational – Write, Add, Move.
      6. Database – Open SQL & Native SQL.


    1. Question 168. Write Special Commands Of List?Answer :

      There are four specials commands of lists: Write, Uline, Skip and New-Page.


    1. Question 169. What Are Different Types Of Screen Keywords?Answer :

      There are four types of screen keywords: Module, Loop, Chain and Field.


    1. Question 170. What Are The Fields Of Sales Order?Answer :

      Transaction Code of Sales Order: VA01.
      Table of Sales Order: VBAK.
      Order Type – AUART.
      Sales Org – VKORG.
      Dist Channel – VTWEG.
      Division – SPART.
      Sales Office – VKBUR.
      Sales Group – VKGRP.


    1. Question 171. What Are The Different Types Of Mode (run Code) In Call Transaction Method?Answer :

      There are three modes in Call Transaction:

      • A – Displays All Screen.
      • E – Display Errors.
      • N – Background Processing.


    1. Question 172. Write The Steps To Execute Session Method?Answer :

      Steps for execution Session Method:

      1. System.
      2. Service.
      3. Batch Input.
      4. Session.
      5. Choose Session Name.
      6. Process.
      7. Asks for Mode (Display All Screen, Display Errors & Background).
      8. Process.


    1. Question 173. What Are The Function Module In Bdc?Answer :

      There are three function module in BDC:

      1. BDC_OPEN_GROUP.
      2. BDC_INSERT.


    1. Question 174. How To See The List Of All Created Session?Answer :

      There are two method to see all sessions:

      1. SHDB (Recording).
      2.  Write code in SE38 then save, check errors activate and execute it.


    1. Question 175. Write Syntax For Message Error (report)?Answer :

      If SY-DBCNT = 0.


    1. Question 176. What Is Asynchronous And Synchronous Update?Answer :

      Asynchronous Update – The program does not wait for the work process to finish the update. Commit Work.
      Synchronous Update – The program wait for the work process to finish the update. Commit Work and Wait.


    1. Question 177. What Are Dml Commands?Answer :

      Select, Insert, Delete, Modify, Update.


    1. Question 178. What Are The Sequences Of Event Block?Answer :

      i. Reports.
      ii. Nodes.
      iii. Data.
      iv. Initialization.
      v. At selection-screen.
      vi. Start-of-selection.
      vii. Get deptt.
      viii. Get emp.
      ix. Get deptt late.
      x. End-of-selection.
      xi. Form.
      xii. Endform.


    1. Question 179. How To Display Or Know If The Value Entered Contains Records Or Not?Answer :



    1. Question 180. What Are The Components Of Selection Table?Answer :

      There are four components of selection table:
      Low, High, Sign, Options.


    1. Question 181. What Are The Properties Of Selection Screen?Answer :

      There are 11 properties of selection screen:

      1. Default.
      2. Memory ID.
      3. Lowercase.
      4.  Visible length.
      5. Obligatory.
      6. Matchcode.
      7. Check.
      8. Checkbox.
      9. Radiobutton Group.
      10. No-display.
      11. Modif ID.


    1. Question 182. How Many Default Tab Strips Are There? How To Insert More Tabs In It?Answer :

      There are 2 default Tab strips. Screen painter attributes contain Tab Title, which is used to insert more tabs in tab strip.


    1. Question 183. List Of Screen Elements?Answer :

      There are 13 screen elements:
      i. Input / output fields.
      ii. Text fields.
      iii. Checkbox.
      iv. Radio button.
      v. Push Button.
      vi. Drop down list.
      vii. Subscreen.
      viii. Table control.
      ix. Tabstrip control.
      x. Custom control.
      xi. Box.
      xii. Status icons.
      xiii. OK_CODE fields.


    1. Question 184. What Are Different Types Of Attributes Of Function Module?Answer :

      There are 6 attributes of FM:

      1. Import.
      2. Export.
      3. Table.
      4. Changing.
      5. Source.
      6. Exception.


    1. Question 185. What Is The Syntax Of Packed Number?Answer :

      Data : NUM type P decimals 2.


    1. Question 186. What Are The Abap Commands That Link To A Layout Set? Answer :

      Control Commands, System Commands.


    1. Question 187. What Is Sap Script And Layout Set? Answer :

      The tool, which is used to create layout set is called SAP Script. Layout set is a design, appearance and structure of document.


    1. Question 188. Does Sap Handle Multiple Currencies? Multiple Languages? Answer :



    1. Question 189. What Do You Do With Errors In Bdc Batch Sessions? Answer :

      We look into the list of incorrect session and process it again. To correct incorrect session, we analyze the session to determine which screen and value produced the error. For small errors in data we correct them interactively otherwise modify batch input program that has generated the session or many times even the data file.


    1. Question 190. What Do You Do When The System Crashes In The Middle Of A Bdc Batch Session? Answer :

      We will look into the error log file (SM35). Check number of records already updated and delete them from input file and run BDC again.


    1. Question 191. Is A Logical Database A Requirement/must To Write An Abap Query? Answer :

      No, it is not must to use LDB. Apart from it, we have other options:

      1. Table join by Basis Table.
      2. Direct Read of table.
      3. Data Retrieval by Program.


    1. Question 192. What Are The Functional Areas? User Groups? How Does Abap Query Work In Relation To
      Answer :

      Functional Areas – By creating functional areas, we can initially select this data. This ensures that the data is presented to the ABAP Query user in a meaningful way to accomplish the task, and that only the data that the user may use is presented.

      User Groups – A user group is a collection of users that work with about the same data and carry out similar tasks. The members of a user group can use all programs (queries) created by any user of the group. Changes to such a program are at once visible to all users. This ensures that all members of a user group use the same evaluation programs.

      ABAP Query– It consists of three components – queries, functional areas and user groups. The functional areas provide the user with an initial set of data in accordance with the task to be accomplished. All users must be members of at least one user group. All members of one user group can access the same data as well as the same program (queries) to create lists.


    1. Question 193. What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Abap Query Tool? Answer :

      No programming knowledge is required.

      Depending on the complexity of the database tables, it may not be easy for the user to select the necessary data correctly.


    1. Question 194. What Specific Statements Do You Using When Writing A Drill Down Report? Answer :

      AT PF.


    1. Question 195. What Are Conversion & Interface Programs In Sap? Answer :

      CONVERSION– Legacy system to flat file.
      INTERFACE– Flat file to SAP system.


    1. Question 196. How To Find The Return Code Of An Stmt In Abap Programs? Answer :

      Open SQL has 2 system fields with return codes:

      1. SY-SUBRC.
      2.  SY-DBCNT.


      Using function modules


    1. Question 197. What Are Datasets? Answer :

      The sequential files (ON APPLICATION SERVER) are called datasets. They are used for file handling in SAP.


    1. Question 198. How Do You Take Care Of Performance Issues In Your Abap Programs? Answer :

      Performance of ABAP programs can be improved by minimizing the amount of data to be transferred. The data set must be transferred through the network to the applications, so reducing the amount of time and also reduces the network traffic.

      Some measures that can be taken are:
      – Use views defined in the ABAP/4 DDIC (also has the advantage of better reusability).
      – Use field list (SELECT clause) rather than SELECT *.
      – Range tables should be avoided (IN operator) .
      – Avoid nested SELECTS.


    1. Question 199. What Are Internal Tables? How Do You Get The Number Of Lines In An Internal Table? How To Use A Specific Number Occurs Statement? Answer :
      1. It is a standard data type object, which exists only during the runtime of the program. They are used to perform table calculations on subsets of database tables and for re-organizing the contents of database tables according to users need.
      2. Using SY-DBCNT.
      3. The number of memory allocations the system need to allocate for the next record population.


    1. Question 200. Are Programs Client Dependent? Answer :

      Yes, group of users can access these programs with a client number.


    1. Question 201. What Is The Client Concept In Sap? What Is The Meaning Of Client Independent? Answer :

      In commercial, organizational and technical terms, the client is a self-contained unit in the R3 system, with separate set of Master data and its own set of Tables. When a change is made in one client all other clients are affected in the system – this type of objects are called Client independent objects.


    1. Question 202. What Are Ranges? What Are Number Ranges? Answer :

      Main function of ranges to pass data to the actual selection tables without displaying the selection screen.
      Min, Max values provided in selection screens.
      It is often necessary to directly access individual records in a data structure. This is done using unique keys. Number ranges are used to assign numbers to individual database records for a commercial object, to complete the key. Such numbers are e.g. order numbers or material master numbers.


    1. Question 203. What Are The Elements Of Selection Screen?Answer :

      There are 5 elements of selection screen:

      Selection-screen include blocks .
      Selection-screen include parameters

      Selection-screen include select-options .
      Selection-screen include comment .
      Selection-screen include push-button .


    1. Question 204. What Are Matchcodes? Describe? Answer :

      It is similar to table index that gives list of possible values for either primary keys or non-primary keys.


    1. Question 205. What Happens When A Table Is Activated In Dd? Answer :

      When the table is activated, a physical table definition is created in the database for the table definition stored in the ABAP dictionary. The table definition is translated from the ABAP dictionary of the particular database.


    1. Question 206. Name A Few Data Dictionary Objects? Answer :

      Different types of data dictionary objects:

      1. Tables.
      3. Data elements.
      4. Structure.
      5. Matchcode.
      6. Domains.
      7. Search Helps.
      8. Local Objects.


    1. Question 207. What Are The Fields In A Bdc_tab And Bdcdata Table? Answer :

      Fields of BDC_Tab & BDCDATA Table:
      Sr.No                 Fields             Description.
      1                        Program         BDC Module pool.
      2                        Dynpro            BDC Screen Number.
      3                        Dynbegin        BDC Screen Start.
      4                        Fname            Field Name.
      5                        Fval                 BDC field value.


    1. Question 208. How Are The Date And Time Field Values Stored In Sap? Answer :



    1. Question 209. How Do You Write A Function Module In Sap? Describe?Answer :
      1. Called program – SE37 – Creating function group, function module by assigning attributes, importing, exporting, tables, and exceptions.
      2.  Calling program – SE38 – In program, click pattern and write function name- provide export, import, tables, exception values.


    1. Question 210. What Is A Drill Down Report? Answer :

      Its an Interactive report where in the user can get more relevant data by selecting explicitly.


    1. Question 211. What Is An Interactive Report? What Is The Obvious Difference Of Such Report Compared
      With Classical Type Reports?
      Answer :

      An Interactive report is a dynamic drill down report that produces the list on users choice.
      Difference: –

      1. The list produced by classical report doesn’t allow user to interact with the system where as the list produced by interactive report allows the user to interact with the system.
      2. Once a classical report, executed user looses control where as Interactive, user has control.
      3. In classical report, drilling is not possible where as in interactive, drilling is possible.


    1. Question 212. What Are The Events In Abap Language? Answer :

      The events are as follows:

      1. Initialization.
      2.  At selection-screen.
      3. Start-of-selection.
      4. End-of-selection.
      5. Top-of-page.
      6. End-of-page.
      7. At line-selection.
      8. At user-command.
      9. At PF.
      10. Get.
      11. At New.
      12. At LAST.
      13. AT END.
      14. AT FIRST.


    1. Question 213. What Is The Meaning Of Abap Editor Integrated With Abap Data Dictionary? Answer :

      ABAP Editor: Tool in the ABAP Workbench in which you enter the source code of ABAP programs and check their syntax. You can also navigate from the ABAP Editor to the other tools in the ABAP Workbench.


    1. Question 214. What Is Open Sql Vs Native Sql? Answer :

      Open SQL – These statements are a subset of standard SQL. It consists of DML command (Select, Insert, Update, Delete). It can simplify and speed up database access. Buffering is partly stored in the working memory and shared memory. Data in buffer is not always up-to-date.

      Native SQL – They are loosely integrated into ABAP. It allows access to all functions containing programming interface. They are not checked and converted. They are sent directly to the database system. Programs that use Native SQL are specific to the database system for which they were written. For e.g. to create or change table definition in the ABAP.


    1. Question 215. What Is A Collect Statement? How Is It Different From Append? Answer :

      Collect : If an entry with the same key already exists, the COLLECT statement does not append a new line, but adds the contents of the numeric fields in the work area to the contents of the numeric fields in the existing entry.

      Append – Duplicate entries occurs.


    1. Question 216. What Is The Advantage Of Structures? How Do You Use Them In The Abap Programs? Answer :

      GLOBAL EXISTANCE (these could be used by any other program without creating it again).


    1. Question 217. Can You Create A Table With Fields Not Referring To Data Elements? Answer :

      YES. e.g.:- ITAB LIKE SPFLI.
      Here we are refering to a data object (SPFLI) not data element.


    1. Question 218. In Sap Scripts, How Will U Link Form With The Event Driven? Answer :

      In PAI, define function code and write code for the same.


    1. Question 219. Can A Transparent Table Exist In Data Dictionary But Not In The Database Physically? Answer :

      No, Transparent table do exist with the same structure both in the dictionary as well as in the database, exactly with the same data and fields.


    1. Question 220. What Is The Step-by-step Process To Create A Table In Data Dictionary? Answer :

      Steps to create a table:
      Step 1: creating domains (data type, field length, Range).
      Step 2: creating data elements (properties and type for a table field).
      Step 3: creating tables (SE11).


    1. Question 221. What Guarantees The Integration Of All Application Modules?Answer :

      The R/3 basis system guarantees the integration of all application modules. The R/3 basis s/w provides the run time environment for the R/3 applications ensures optimal integration, defines a stable architectural frame for system enhancements, and contains the administration tools for the entire system. One of the main tasks of the basis system is to guarantee the portability of the complete system.


    1. Question 222. What Are The Central Interfaces Of The R/3 System?Answer :

      Presentation Interface.
      Database Interface.
      Operating system Interface.


    1. Question 223. Which Interface Controls What Is Shown On The P.c.?Answer :

      Presentation Interface.


    1. Question 224. Which Interface Converts Sql Requirements In The Sap Development System To Those Of The Database?Answer :

      Database Interface.


    1. Question 225. What Is Sap Dispatcher?Answer :

      SAP dispatcher is the control agent that manages the resources for the R/3 applications.


    1. Question 226. What Are The Functions Of Dispatcher?Answer :

      Equal distribution of transaction load to the work processes.
      Management of buffer areas in main memory.
      Integration of the presentation levels.
      Organization of communication activities.


    1. Question 227. What Is A Work Process?Answer :

      A work process is where individual dialog steps are actually processed and the work is done. Each work process handles one type of request.


    1. Question 228. Name Various Work Processes Of R/3 System?Answer :

      Dialog or Online (processes only one request at a time).
      Background (Started at a specific time).
      Update (primary or secondary).
      Enque (Lock mechanism).
      Spool (generated online or during back ground processing for printing).


    1. Question 229. Explain About The Two Services That Are Used To Deal With Communication?Answer :

      Message Service– Used by the application servers to exchange short internal messages, all system communications.
      Gateway Service– Enables communication between R/3 and external applications using CPI-C protocol.


    1. Question 230. Which Work Process Triggers Database Changes?Answer :

      Update work process.


    1. Question 231. Define Service (within R/3)?Answer :

      A service is a process or group of processes that perform a specific system function and often provide an application-programming interface for other processes to call.


    1. Question 232. What Are The Roll And Page Areas?Answer :

      Roll and page areas are SAP R/3 buffers used to store user contexts (process requests). The SAP dispatcher assigns process requests to work processes as they are queued in the roll and page areas. Paging area holds data from the application programs. Roll area holds data from previous dialog steps and data that characterize the user.


    1. Question 233. What Are The Different Layers In R/3 System?Answer :

      Presentation Layer.
      Application Layer.
      Database Layer.


    1. Question 234. What Are The Phases Of Background Processing?Answer :

      Job Scheduling.
      Job Processing.
      Job Overview.


    1. Question 235. What Components Of The R/e System Initiate The Start Of Background Jobs At The Specified Time?Answer :

      The batch scheduler initiates the start of background job. The dispatcher then sends this request to an available background work process for processing.


    1. Question 236. Define Instance?Answer :

      An instance is an administrative unit in which components of an R/3 systems providing one or more services are grouped together. The services offered by an instance are started and stopped at random. All components are parameterized using a joint instance profile. A central R/3 system consists of a single instance in which all-necessary SAP services are offered. Each instance uses separate buffer areas.


    1. Question 237. From Hardware Perspective, Every Information System Can Be Divided Into Three Task Areas Presentation, Application Logic And Data Storage?Answer :

      The R/3 Basis software is highly suitable for use in multi-level client/server architectures.


    1. Question 238. What Are R/3 Basis Configurations?Answer :

      A central system with centrally installed presentation software.
      Two-level client/server system with rolled out presentation software.
      Two-level client/server system. Presentation and Application run on the same computer.
      Three-level client/server system. Presentation, Application and database each run on separate computers.


    1. Question 239. What Is A Service In Sap Terminology?Answer :

      A service refers to something offered by a s/w component.


    1. Question 240. What Is Server In Sap Terminology?Answer :

      A component can consist of one process or a group and is then called the server for the respective service.


    1. Question 241. What Is A Client In Sap Terminology?Answer :

      A S/W component that uses the service (offered by a s/w component) is called a Client. At the same time these clients may also be servers for other services.


    1. Question 242. What Is A Sap System?Answer :

      The union of all s/w components that are assigned to the same databases is called as a SAP system.


    1. Question 243. What Is The Means Of Communications Between R/3 And External Applications?Answer :

      The means of communication between R/2,R/3 and external applications is via the CPI-C handler or SAP Gateway, using the CPI-C Protocol.


    1. Question 244. What Is The Protocol Used By Sap Gateway Process?Answer :

      The SAP Gateway process communicates with the clients based on the TCP/IP Protocol.


    1. Question 245. Expand Cpi-c?Answer :

      Common Program Interface Communication.


    1. Question 246. What Is A Spool Request?Answer :

      Spool requests are generated during dialog or background processing and placed in the spool database with information about the printer and print format. The actual data is places in the Tem Se (Temporary Sequential objects).


    1. Question 247. What Are Different Types Of Log Records?Answer :

      V1 and V2. V1 must be processed before V2. But, we can have more than one V2 logs.


    1. Question 248. What Are The Types Of Update Requests?Answer :

      An update request can be divided into one primary (V1) and several Secondary update components (V2). Time-critical operations are placed in V1 component and those whose timing is less critical are placed in V2 components. If a V1 update fails, V2 components will not be processed.


    1. Question 249. Explain What Is A Transaction In Sap Terminology?Answer :

      In SAP terminology, a transaction is series of logically connected dialog steps.


    1. Question 250. Explain How Sap Gui Handles Output Screen For The User?Answer :

      The SAP front-end s/w can either run on the same computer or on different computers provided for that purpose. User terminal input is accepted by the SAP terminal program SAP GUI, converted to SAP proprietary format and sent to the SAP dispatcher. The dispatcher coordinates the information exchange between the SAP GUIs and the work processes. The dispatcher first places the processing request in request queues, which it then processes. The dispatcher dispatches the requests one after another, to the available work process. The actual processing takes place in the work process. When processing is complete, the result of a work process is returned via the dispatcher to the SAP GUI. The SAP GUI interprets the received data and generates the output screen for the user.


    1. Question 251. What Are The Layers Of Data Description In R/3?Answer :

      • The external layer.
      • The ABAP/4 layer.
      • The database layer.


    1. Question 252. Define External Layer?Answer :

      The external layer is the plane at which the user sees and interacts with the data, that is, the data format in the user interface. This data format is independent of the database system used.


    1. Question 253. Define Abap/4 Layer?Answer :

      The ABAP/4 layer describes the data formats used by the ABAP/4 processor.


    1. Question 254. Define Database Layer?Answer :

      The database layer describes the data formats used in the database.


    1. Question 255. What Is A Data Class?Answer :

      The Data class determines in which table space the table is stored when it is created in the database.


    1. Question 256. What Is A Size Category?Answer :

      The Size category describes the probable space requirement of the table in the database.


    1. Question 257. What Is The Syntax For ‘call Transaction’?Answer :

      CALL TRANSACTION trans [ using bdctab MODE mode ].
      Three possible entries are there for MODE.

      • A – Show all screens.
      • E – Show only screens with errors.
      • N – Show no screens.


    1. Question 258. Does The Bdc-insert Function Allow Multiple Transactions To Be Processed By Sap?Answer :



    1. Question 259. Does The Call Transaction Method Allow Multiple Transactions To Be Processed By Sap?Answer :

      No. The CALL TRANSACTION method allows only a single transaction to be processed by SAP.


    1. Question 260. How Do You Populate Data Into A Multiple Line Field?Answer :

      To populate data into a multiple line field, an index is added to the field name to indicate which line is to be populated by the BDC session (Line index).


    1. Question 261. What Is A Multiple Line Field?Answer :

      A multiple line field is a special kind of field which allows the user to enter multiple lines of data into it.


    1. Question 262. What Is The Last Entry In All Bdc Tables?Answer :

      In all BDC tables the last entry is to save the data by using the field name BDC_OKCODE and a field value of ‘/11’.


    1. Question 263. How Do You Save Data In Bdc Tables?Answer :

      The data in BDC tables is saved by using the field name ‘BDC_OKCODE’ and field value of ‘/11’.


    1. Question 264. How Do You Find The Information On The Current Screen?Answer :

      The information on the current screen can be found by SYSTEM 􀃆 STATUS command from any menu.


    1. Question 265. What Are The Steps In A Bdc Session?Answer :

      The first step in a BDC session is to identify the screens of the transaction that the program will process. Next step is to write a program to build the BDC table that will be used to submit the data to SAP. The final step is to submit the BDC table to the system in the batch mode or as a single transaction by the CALL TRANSACTION command.


    1. Question 266. What Is Full Form Of Bdc Session?Answer :

      Batch Data Communication Session.


    1. Question 267. What Are Spa/gpa Parameters (sap Memory)?Answer :

      SPA/GPA parameters are field values saved globally in memory. There are two ways to use SPA/GPA parmeters:

      • By setting field attributes in the Screen Painter.
      • By using the SET PARAMETER or GET PARAMETER statements.


    1. Question 268. How Can We Send Data To External Programs?Answer :

      Using SPA/GPA parameters(SAP memory).
      Using EXPORT/IMPORT data (ABAP/4 memory).


    1. Question 269. How To Send A Report To The Printer Instead Of Displaying It On The Screen?Answer :

      We can send a report to the printer instead of diplaying it on the screen. To do this, use the keywords TO SAP-SPOOL: SUBMIT RSFLFIND…TO SAP-SPOOL DESTINATION ‘LT50’.


    1. Question 270. How Can We Pass Selection And Parameter Data To A Report?Answer :

      There are three options for passing selection and parameter data to the report.
      – Using SUBMIT…WITH.
      – Using a report variant.
      – Using a range table.


    1. Question 271. What Is The Difference Between Leave Transaction And Call Transaction?Answer :

      In contrast to LEAVE TO TRANSACTION, the CALL TRANSACTION statement causes the system to start a new SAP LUW. This second SAP LUW runs parallel to the SAP LUW for the calling transaction.


    1. Question 272. What Are The Types Of Parameters In The Function Modules?Answer :

      In general, function module can have four types of parameters:
      – EXPORTING: for passing data to the called function.
      – IMPORTING: for receiving data returned from the function module.
      – TABLES: for passing internal tables only, by reference (that is, by address).
      – CHANGING: for passing parameters to and from the function.


    1. Question 273. What Are Function Modules?Answer :

      Function modules are general-purpose library routines that are available system-wide.


    1. Question 274. Does The External Program Run In The Same Sap Luw As The Caller, Or In A Separate One?Answer :

      – Transactions run with a separate SAP LUW.
      – Reports run with a separate SAP LUW.
      – Dialog modules run in the same SAP LUW as the caller.
      – Function modules run in the same SAP LUW as the caller.
      The only exceptions to the above rules are function modules called with IN UPDATE TASK (V2 function only) or IN BACKGROUND TASK (ALE applications). These always run in their own (separate) update transactions.


    1. Question 275. How Does The System Handle Roll Areas For External Program Components?Answer :

      – Transactions run in their own roll areas.
      – Reports run in their own roll areas.
      – Dialog modules run in their own roll areas.
      – Function modules run in the roll area of their callers.


    1. Question 276. What Is Roll Area?Answer :

      A roll area contains the program’s runtime context. In addition to the runtime stack and other structures, all local variables and any data known to the program are stored here.


    1. Question 277. In What Ways We Can Get The Context Sensitive F1 Help On A Field?Answer :

      – Data element documentation.
      – Data element additional text in screen painter.
      – Using the process on help request event.


    1. Question 278. What Is A Matchcode?Answer :

      A matchcode is an aid to finding records stored in the system whenever an object key is required in an input field but the user only knows other (non-key) information about the object.


    1. Question 279. What Are The Events By Which We Can Program “help Texts” And Display “possible Value Lists”?Answer :



    1. Question 280. How Can A Lock Object Be Called In The Transaction?Answer :

      By calling Enqueue and Dequeue in the transaction.


    1. Question 281. What Are The Different Kinds Of Lock Modes?Answer :

      Shared lock.
      Exclusive lock.
      Extended exclusive list.


    1. Question 282. What Does A Lock Object Involve?Answer :

      The tables.
      The lock argument.


    1. Question 283. What Is Sap Locking?Answer :

      It is a mechanism for defining and applying logical locks to database objects.


    1. Question 284. What Are The Different Database Integrities?Answer :

      • Semantic Integrity.
      • Relational Integrity.
      • Primary Key Integrity.
      • Value Set Integrity.
      • Foreign Key integrity.
      • Operational integrity.


    1. Question 285. What Is The Difference Between Commit-work And Rollback-work Tasks?Answer :

      Commit-Work statement “performs” many functions relevant to synchronized execution of tasks. Rollback-work statement cancels: all reuests relevant to synchronized execution of tasks.


    1. Question 286. What Is The Difference Between Synchronous And Asynchronous Updates?Answer :

      A program asks the system to perform a certain task, and then either waits or doesn’t wait for the task to finish. In synchronous processing, the program waits: control returns to the program only when the task has been completed. In asynchronous processing, the program does not wait: the system returns control after merely logging the request for execution.


    1. Question 287. What Are The Modes In Which Any Update Tasks Work?Answer :

      Synchronous and Asynchronous.


    1. Question 288. How The Transaction That Are Programmed By The User Can Be Protected?Answer :

      By implementing an authority check.


    1. Question 289. What Happens If We Use Leave To List-processing Without Using Suppress-dialog?Answer :

      If we don’t use Suppress-Dialog to next screen will be displayed but as empty, when the user presses ENTER, the standard list output is displayed.


    1. Question 290. How Is The Command Suppress-dialog Useful?Answer :

      Suppressing entire screens is possible using this command. This command allows us to perform screen processing “in the background”. The system carries out all PBO and PAI logic, but does not display the screen to the user. Suppressing screens is useful when we are branching to list-mode from a transaction dialog step.


    1. Question 291. When Will The Current Screen Processing Terminates?Answer :

      A current screen processing terminates when control reaches either a Leave-screen or the end of PAI.


    1. Question 292. What Is The Use Of The Statement Leave To List-processing?Answer :

      Leave to List-processing statement is used to produce a list from a module pool. Leave to list processing statement allows to switch from dialog-mode to list-mode within a dialog program.


    1. Question 293. What Are The Two Ways Of Producing A List Within A Transaction?Answer :

      By submitting a separate report.
      By using leave to list-processing.


    1. Question 294. Differentiate Between Static And Dynamic Step Loops?Answer :

      Step loops fall into two classes: Static and Dynamic. Static step loops have a fixed size that cannot be changed at runtime. Dynamic step loops are variable in size. If the user re-sizes the window the system automatically increases or decreases the number of step loop blocks displayed. In any given screen you can define any number of static step loops but only a single dynamic one.


    1. Question 295. How Can We Declare A Table Control In The Abap/4 Program?Answer :

      Using the syntax controls

      type tableview using screen .


    1. Question 296. Why Do We Need To Code A Loop Statement In Both The Pbo And Pai Events For Each Table In The Screen?Answer :

      We need to code a LOOP statement in both PBO and PAI events for each table in the screen. This is because the LOOP statement causes the screen fields to be copied back and forth between the ABAP/4 program and the screen field. For this reason, at least an empty LOOP….ENDLOOP must be there.


    1. Question 297. What Are The Dynapro Keywords?Answer :

      FIELD, MODULE, SELECT, VALUES and CHAIN are the dynapro keywords.


    1. Question 298. What Are The Differences Between Table Controls And Step Loops?Answer :

      TABLE CONTROLS are simply enhanced STEP LOOPS that display with the look and feel of a table widget in a desktop application. But from a programming standpoint, TABLE CONTROLS and STEP LOOPS are almost exactly the same. One major difference between STEP LOOPS and TABLE CONTROLS is in STEP LOOPS their table rows can span more than one time on the screen. By contrast the rows in a TABLE CONTROLS are always single lines, but can be very long. (Table control rows are scrollable). The structure of table control is different from step loops. A step loop, as a screen object, is simply a series of field rows that appear as a repeating block. A table control, as a screen object consists of:

      1. table fields (displayed in the screen).
      2. a control structure that governs the table display and what the user can do with it.


    1. Question 299. How Can We Use / Display Table In A Screen?Answer :

      ABAP/4 offers two mechanisms for displaying and using table data in a screen. These mechanisms are TABLE CONTROLS and STEP LOOPS.


    1. Question 300. What Are The Restrictions On Subscreens?Answer :

      Subscreens have several restrictions. They cannot:
      • Set their own GUI status
      • Have a named OK code
      • Call another screen
      • Contain an AT EXIT-COMMAND module
      • Support positioning of the cursor.


    1. Question 301. What Is A Screen Group? How It Is Useful?Answer :

      Screen group is a field in the Screen Attributes of a screen. Here we can define a string of up to four characters which is available at the screen runtime in the SY-DNGR field. Rather than maintaining field selection separately for each screen of a program, we can combine logically associated screens together in a screen group.


    1. Question 302. What Are The Attributes Of A Field That Can Be Activated Or Deactivated During Runtime?Answer :

      Input, Output, Mandatory, Active, Highlighted, Invisible.


    1. Question 303. Why Grouping Of Fields Is Required? What Is The Max No Of Modification Groups For Each Field?Answer :

      If the same attribute need to be changed for several fields at the same time these fields can be grouped together. We can specify up to four modification groups for each field.


    1. Question 304. What Is The Significance Of The Memory Table ‘screen’?Answer :

      At runtime, attributes for each screen field are stored in the memory table called ‘SCREEN’. We need not declare this table in our program. The system maintains the table for us internally and updates it with every screen change.


    1. Question 305. What Does The ‘suppress Dialog’ Do?Answer :

      Suppressing of entire screens is possible with this command. This command allows us to perform screen processing “in the background”. Suppresing screens is useful when we are branching to list-mode from a transaction dialog step.


    1. Question 306. What Is The Significance Of The Screen Number ‘0’?Answer :

      In “calling mode”, the special screen number 0 (LEAVE TO SCREEN 0) causes the system to jump back to the previous call level. That is, if you have called a screen sequence with CALL SCREEN leaving to screen 0 terminates the sequence and returns to the calling screen. If you have not called a screen sequence, LEAVE TO SCREEN 0 terminates the transaction.


    1. Question 307. What Happens If Only One Of The Commands Set Screen And Leave Screen Is Used Without Using The Other?Answer :

      If we use SET SCREEN without LEAVE SCREEN, the program finishes processing for the current screen before branching to . If we use LEAVE SCREEN without a SET SCREEN before it, the current screen process will be terminated and branch directly to the screen specified as the default next-screen in the screen attributes.


    1. Question 308. The Max Number Of Calling Modes Stacked At One Time Is?Answer :



    1. Question 309. What Is Dialog Module?Answer :

      A dialog Module is a callable sequence of screens that does not belong to a particular transaction.Dialog modules have their module pools , and can be called by any transaction.


    1. Question 310. The Field Sy-dynr Refers To?Answer :

      Number of the current screen.


    1. Question 311. The Syntex Used To Call A Screen As Dialog Box (pop Up) Is?Answer :

      ENDING AT .


    1. Question 312. Can We Specify The Next Screen Number With A Variable (*yes/no)?Answer :



    1. Question 313. What Is Difference Between Set Screen And Call Screen ?Answer :

      – With SET SCREEN the current screen simply specifies the next screen in the chain , control branches to this next screen as sonn as th e current screen has been processed .Return from next screen to current screen is not automatic .It does not interrupt processing of the current screen.If we want to branch to the next screen without finishing the current one, use LEAVE SCREEN.

      – With CALL SCREEN , the current (calling) chain is suspended , and a next screen (screen chain) is called .The called can then return to the suspended chain with the statement LEAVE SCREEN TO SCREEN 0 .Sometime we might want to let an user call a pop up screen from the main application screen to let him enter secondary information.After they have completed their enteries, the users should be able to close the popup and return directly to the place where they left off in the main screen.Here comes CALL SCREEN into picture .This statement lets us insert such a sequence intp the current one.


    1. Question 314. What Are The Different Message Types Available In The Abap/4 ?Answer :

      – There are 5 types of message types available.
      – E: ERROR.
      – W-WARNING.
      – S-SUCCESS.


    1. Question 315. Which Function Type Has To Be Used For Using “at Exit-command” ?Answer :

      To Use AT EXIT – COMMAND ,We must assign a function Type “E” to the relevant function in the MENU Painter OR Screen Painter .


    1. Question 316. What Is An On “*-input Filed” Statement?Answer :

      ON *-INPUT
      – The ABAP/4 module is called if the user has entered the “*” in the first character of the field, and the field has the attribute *-entry in the screen Painter.You can use this option in Exceptionla cases where you want to check only fields with certain Kinds of Input.


    1. Question 317. What Is An “on Request Field” Statement?Answer :

      – ON REQUEST: The ABAP/4 Module is called only if the user has entered the value in the field value since the last screen display .The Value counts as changed Even if the User simply types in the value that was already there .In general ,the ON REQUEST condition is triggered through any Form of” MANUAL INPUT’.


    1. Question 318. What Is An “on Input Filed” Statements?Answer :

      – ON INPUT
      The ABAP/4 module is called only if a field contains the Value other than the initial Value.This initial Value is determined by the filed’s Dta Type: blanks for character Fields ,Zeroes for numerics. If the user changes the Fields Value back t o its initial value,ON INPUT does not trigger a call.


    1. Question 319. What Are The “field” And “chain” Statements?Answer :

      The FIELD and CHAIN flow logic statements let you Program Your own checks.FIELD and CHAIN tell the system Which fields you are checking and Whether the System should Perform Checks in the flow logic or call an ABAP/4 Module.


    1. Question 320. The Function Code Currently Active Is Ascertained By What Variable ?Answer :

      By SY-UCOMM Variable.


    1. Question 321. The Function Code Currently Active Is Ascertained By What Variable?Answer :

      The function code currently active in a Program can be ascertained from the SY-UCOMM Variable.


    1. Question 322. What Controls The Screen Flow?Answer :

      The SET SCREEN and LEAVE SCREEN statements controls screen flow.


    1. Question 323. How Are The Function Code Handles In Flow Logic?Answer :

      – When the User selects a function in a transaction ,the system copies the function code into a specially designated work field called OK_CODE.This field is Global in ABAP/4 Module Pool.The OK_CODE can then be evaluated in the corresponding PAI module. The function code is always passed in Exactly the same way , regardless of Whether it comes from a screen’s pushbutton,a menu option ,function key or other GUI element.


    1. Question 324. What Is To Be Defined For A Push Button Fields In The Screen Attributes?Answer :

      A function code has to be defined in the screen attributes for the push buttons in a screen.


    1. Question 325. How Does The Dialog Handle User Requests?Answer :

      when an action is performed ,the system triggers the PROCESS AFTER INPUT event.The data passed includes field screen data data entered by the user and a function code. A functioncode is a technical name that has been allocated in a screen Painter or Menu Painter to a meny entry,a push button,the ENTER key or a function Key of a screen.An internal work field(ok-code)in the PAI module evaluates the function code,and the appropriate action is taken.


    1. Question 326. How Does The Interection Between The Dynpro And The Abap/4 Modules Takes Place?Answer :

      A transaction is a collection os screens and ABAP/4 routines, controlled and executed by a Dialog processor. The Dilaog processor processes screen after the screen, thereby triggering the appropriate ABAP/4 processing of each screen. For each screen, the system executes the flow logic that contains the corresponding ABAP/4 processing. The controls passes from screen flow logic to ABAP/4 code and back.


    1. Question 327. What Is Gui Status? How To Create /edit Gui Status?Answer :

      A GUI status is a subset of the interface elements used for a certain screen.The status comprises those elements that are currently needed by the transaction .The GUI status for a transaction may be composed of the following elements:
      -Title bar.
      -Mneu bar.
      -Application tool bar
      -Push buttons.
      To create and edit GUI status and GUI title,we use the Menu Painter.


    1. Question 328. Can We Use Flow Logic Control Key Words In Abap/4 And Vice-versa?Answer :

      The flow control of a dynpro consists os a few statements that syntactically ressemble ABAP/4 statements. However, We cannot use flow control keywords in ABAP/4 and vice-versa.


    1. Question 329. Can We Use Write Statements In Screen Fields?if Not How Is Data Transferred From Field Data To Screen Fields?Answer :

      We cannot write field data to the screen using the WRITE statement.The system instead transfers data by comparing screen fields names with ABAP/4 variable names.If both names are the same,it transfers screen fields values to ABAP/4 programs fields and Vice Versa.This happens immediately after displaying the screen.


    1. Question 330. What Is A Abap/4 Module Pool?Answer :

      Each dynpro refers to exactly one ABAP/4 dialog program.Such a dialog program is also called a module pool ,since it consists on interactive modules.


    1. Question 331. What Is Dynpro? What Are Its Components?Answer :

      A dynpro (Dynamic Program) consists of a screen and its flow logic and controls exactly one dialog steps.
      – The different components of the dynpro are :

      • Flow Logic– calls of the ABAP/4 modules for a screen .
      • Screen layout- Positions of the text ,fields,pushbuttons and so on for a screen.
      • Screen Attributes- Number of the screen,number of the subsequent screen,and others.
      • Fields attributes– Definition of the attributes of the individual fields on a screen.


    1. Question 332. What Is Pbo And Pai Events?Answer :

      PBO- Process Before Output-It determines the flow logic before displaying the screen.
      PAI-Process After Input-It determines the flowlogic after the display of the screen and after receiving inputs from the User.


    1. Question 333. What Are The Requirements A Dialog Program Must Fulfill?Answer :

      A dialog program must fulfil the following requirements:
      – a user friendly user interface.
      – Format and consistancey checks for the data entered by the user.
      – Easy correction of input errors.
      – Access to data by storing it in the data bases.


    1. Question 334. What Is A Transaction?Answer :

      A transaction is dialog program that change data objects in a consistant way.


    1. Question 335. How Many Lists Can A Program Can Produce?Answer :

      Each program can produce up to 21 lists: one basic list and 20 secondary lists. If the user creates a list on the next level (that is, SY-LSIND increases), the system stores the previous list and displays the new one. Only one list is active, and that is always the most recently created list.


    1. Question 336. What Will Exactly The Hide Statement Do?Answer :

      For displaying the details on secondary lists requires that you have previously stored the contents of the selected line from within the program. To do this, ABAP/4 provides the HIDE statement. This statement stores the current field contents for the current list line. When calling a secondary list from a list line for which the HIDE fields are stored, the system fills the stored values back into the variables in the program. In the program code, insert the HIDE statement directly after the WRITE statement for the current line. Interactive lists provide the user with the so-called ‘INTERACTIVE REPORTIN’ facility. For background processing the only possible method of picking the relevant data is through ‘NON INTERACTIVE REPORT’ . After starting a background job, there is no way of influencing the program. But whereas for dialog sessions there are no such restrictions.


    1. Question 337. How Can You Manipulate The Presentation And Attributes Of Interactive Lists?Answer :

      -Scrolling through Interactive Lists.
      -Setting the Cursor from within the Program.
      -Modifying List Lines.


    1. Question 338. How To Pass Data From List To Report?Answer :

      ABAP/4 provides three ways of passing data:
      -Passing data automatically using system fields.
      -Using statements in the program to fetch data.
      -Passing list attributes.


    1. Question 339. How The At-user Command Serves Mainly In Lists?Answer :

      The AT USER-COMMAND event serves mainly to handle own function codes. In this case, you should create an individual interface with the Menu Painter and define such function codes.


    1. Question 340. When The Get Cursor Command Used In Interactive Lists?Answer :

      If the hidden information is not sufficient to uniquely identify the selected line, the command GET CURSOR is used. The GET CURSOR command returns the name of the field at the cursor position in a field specified after the addition field, and the value of the selected field in a field specified after value.


    1. Question 341. What Is Meant By Hide Area?Answer :

      The hide command temporarily stores the contents of the field at the current line in a system-controlled memory called the HIDE AREA. At an interactive event, the contents of the field are restored from the HIDE AREA.


    1. Question 342. Can We Display A List In A Pop-up Screen Other Than Full-size Stacked List?Answer :

      Yes, we can display a list in a pop-up screen using the command WINDOW with the additions starting at X1 Y1 and ending at X2 Y2 to set the upper-left and the lower-right corners where x1 y1 and x2 y2 are the coordinates.


    1. Question 343. In Which System Field Does The Name Of Current Gui Status Is There?Answer :

      The name of the current GUI STATUS is available in the system field SY-PFKEY.


    1. Question 344. Can We Create A Gui Status In A Program From The Object Browser?Answer :

      Yes. You can create a GUI STATUS in a program using SET PF-STATUS.


    1. Question 345. What Is The Length Of Function Code At User-command?Answer :

      Each menu function, push button, or function key has an associated function code of length FOUR (for example, FREE), which is available in the system field SYUCOMM after the user action.


    1. Question 346. What Is Meant By Hotspots?Answer :

      A Hotspot is a list area where the mouse pointer appears as an upright hand symbol. When a user points to that area (and the hand cursor is active), a single click does the same thing as a double-click. Hotspots are supported from R/3 release 3.0c.


    1. Question 347. Is The Basic List Deleted When The New List Is Created?Answer :

      No. It is not deleted and you can return back to it using one of the standard navigation functions like clicking on the back button or the cancel button.


    1. Question 348. What Is Meant By Stacked List?Answer :

      A stacked list is nothing but secondary list and is displayed on a full-size screen unless you have specified its coordinates using the window command.


    1. Question 349. What Are The Drill-down Features Provided By Abap/4 In Interactive Lists?Answer :

      ABAP/4 provides some interactive events on lists such as AT LINE-SELECTION (double click) or AT USER-COMMAND (pressing a button). You can use these events to move through layers of information about individual items in a list.


    1. Question 350. What Are The User Interfaces Of Interactive Lists?Answer :

      If you want the user to communicate with the system during list display, the list must be interactive. You can define specific interactive possibilities in the status of the list’s user interface (GUI). To define the statuses of interfaces in the R/3 system, use the Menu Painter tool. In the Menu Painter, assign function codes to certain interactive functions. After an user action occurs on the completed interface, the ABAP/4 processor checks the function code and, if valid, triggers the corresponding event.


    1. Question 351. What Are The Types Of Messages?Answer :

      A message can have five different types. These message types have the following effects during list processing:

      • A (=Abend):
      • E (=Error) or W (=Warning):
      • I (=Information):
      • S (=Success):


    1. Question 352. How To Maintain Lists?Answer :

      To return from a high list level to the next-lower level (SY-LSIND), the user chooses Back on a secondary list. The system then releases the currently displayed list and activates the list created one step earlier. The system deletes the contents of the released list. To explicitly specify the list level, into which you want to place output, set the SY-lsind field. The system accepts only index values, which correspond to existing list levels. It then deletes all existing list levels whose index is greater or equal to the index specify. For example, if you set SY-LSIND to 0, the system deletes all secondary lists and overwrites the basic list with the current secondary list.


    1. Question 353. Can We Call Reports And Transactions From Interactive Reporting Lists?Answer :

      Yes. It also allows you to call transactions or other reports from lists. These programs then use values displayed in the list as input values. The user can, for example, call a transaction from within a list of change the database table whose data is displayed in the list.


    1. Question 354. What Is Interactive Reporting?Answer :

      A classical non-interactive report consists of one program that creates a single list. Instead of one extensive and detailed list, with interactive reporting you create basic list from which the user can call detailed information by positioning the cursor and entering commands. Interactive reporting thus reduces information retrieval to the data actually required.


    1. Question 355. How To Create User Interfaces For Lists?Answer :

      The R/3 system automatically, generates a graphical user interface (GUI) for your lists that offers the basic functions for list processing, such as saving or printing the list. If you want to include additional functionality, such as pushbuttons, you must define your own interface status. To create a new status, the Development Workbench offers the Menu Painter. With the Menu Painter, you can create menus and application toolbars. And you can assign Function Keys to certain functions. At the beginning of the statement block of AT END-OF-SELECTION, active the status of the basic list using the statement: SET PF-STATUS ‘STATUS’.


    1. Question 356. How To Select Valid Lines For Secondary List?Answer :

      To prevent the user from selecting invalid lines, ABAP/4 offers several possibilities. At the end of the processing block END-OF-SELECTION, delete the contents of one or more fields you previously stored for valid lines using the HIDE statement. At the event AT LINE-SELECTION, check whether the work area is initial or whether the HIDE statement stored field contents there. After processing the secondary list, clear the work area again. This prevents the user from trying to create further secondary lists from the secondary list displayed.


    1. Question 357. What Is Secondary List?Answer :

      It allows you to enhance the information presented in the basic list. The user can, for example, select a line of the basic list for which he wants to see more detailed information. You display these details on a secondary list. Secondary lists may either overlay the basic list completely or you can display them in an extra window on the screen. The secondary lists can themselves be interactive again.


    1. Question 358. Name The Function Modules To Read Data From Presentation Server Into An Internal Table?Answer :



    1. Question 359. Name The Abap/4 Key Words, Which Are Used To Change The Contents Of Database Table?Answer :



    1. Question 360. What Are Data Clusters?Answer :

      You can group any complex internal data objects of an ABAP/4 program together in data clusters and store them temporarily in ABAP/4 memory or for longer periods in databases. You can store data clusters in special databases of the ABAP/4 Dictionary. These databases are known as ABAP/4 cluster databases and have a predefined structure. Storing a data cluster is specific to ABAP/4. Although you can also access cluster databases using SQL statements, only ABAP/4 statements are able to decode the structure of the stored data cluster.


    1. Question 361. How Can Symbols Or R/3 Icons Be Output On The Screen?Answer :



    1. Question 362. Can You Assign A Matchcode Object To A Parameter? If So How?Answer :




    1. Question 363. How Would You Start The Printing Process From Within The Program While Creating A List?Answer :



    1. Question 364. What Is The Use Of The Raising Exception?Answer :

      The raising exception determines whether the calling program will handle the exception itself or leave the exception to the system.


    1. Question 365. What Is The Difference Between Field-group Header And Other Field Groups?Answer :

      The header field group is a special field group for the sort criteria. The system automatically prefixes any other field groups with the header field group.


    1. Question 366. Can A Filed Occur In Several Field Groups?Answer :

      Yes. But it leads to unnecessary data redundancy.


    1. Question 367. What Is The Difference Between Internal Tables And Extract Datasets?Answer :

      • The lines of an internal table always have the same structure. By using extract datasets, you can handle groups of data with different structure and get statistical figures from the grouped data.
      • You have to define the structure of the internal table at the beginning. You need not define the structure of the extract dataset.
      • In contrast to internal tables, the system partly compresses exact datasets when storing them. This reduces the storage space required.
      • Internal tables require special work area for interface whereas extract datasets do not need a special work area for interface.


    1. Question 368. What Happens If A Function Module Runs In An Update Task?Answer :

      The system performs the module processing asynchronously. Instead of carrying out the call immediately, the system waits until the next database update is triggered with the ‘COMMIT WORK’ command.


    1. Question 369. What Is An Update Task?Answer :

      It is an SAP provided procedure for updating a database.


    1. Question 370. What Is The Disadvantage Of A Call By Reference?Answer :

      During a call by reference damage or loss of data is not restricted to the subroutine, but will instantly lead to changes to the original data objects.


    1. Question 371. What Is A Function Group?Answer :

      A function group is a collection of logically related modules that share global data with each other. All the modules in the group are included in the same main program. When an ABAP/4 program contains a CALL FUNCTION statement, the system loads the entire function group in with the program code at runtime. Every function module belongs to a function group.


    1. Question 372. What Is The Difference Between The Function Module And A Normal Abap/4 Subroutine?Answer :

      In contrast to normal subroutines function modules have uniquely defined interface. Declaring data as common parts is not possible for function modules. Function modules are stored in a central library.


    1. Question 373. How Can One Distinguish Between Different Kinds Of Parameters?Answer :

      • Input parameters are used to pass data to subroutines.
      • Output parameters are used to pass data from subroutines.


    1. Question 374. What Are The Different Methods Of Passing Data?Answer :
      • Calling by reference– During a subroutine call, only the address of the actual parameter is transferred to the formal parameters. The formal parameter has no memory of its own, and we work with the field of the calling program within the subroutine. If we change the formal parameter, the field contents in the calling program also changes.
      • Calling by value– During a subroutine call, the formal parameters are created as copies of the actual parameters. The formal parameters have memory of their own. Changes to the formal parameters have no effect on the actual parameters.
      • Calling by value and result- During a subroutine call, the formal parameters are created as copies of the actual parameters. The formal parameters have their own memory space. Changes to the formal parameters are copied to the actual parameters at the end of the subroutine.


    1. Question 375. What Are The Different Types Of Parameters?Answer :

      Formal Parameters– Parameters, which are defined during the definition of subroutine with the FORM statement.
      Actual Parameters– Parameters which are specified during the call of a subroutine with the PERFORM statement.


    1. Question 376. What Are The Types Of Subroutines?Answer :
      • Internal Subroutines– The source code of the internal subroutines will be in the same ABAP/4 program as the calling procedure (internal call).
      •  External Subroutines– The source code of the external subroutines will be in an ABAP/4 program other than the calling procedure.


    1. Question 377. What Are Subroutines?Answer :

      Subroutines are program modules, which can be called from other ABAP/4 programs or within the same program.


    1. Question 378. Is It Possible To Pass Data To And From Include Programs Explicitly?Answer :

      No. If it is required to pass data to and from modules it is required to use subroutines or function modules.


    1. Question 379. How Can We Create Callable Modules Of Program Code Within One Abap/4 Program?Answer :

      • By defining Macros.
      • By creating include programs in the library.


    1. Question 380. Name The Abap/4 Modularization Techniques?Answer :

      • Source code module.
      • Subroutines.
      • Functions.


    1. Question 381. What Is Modularization And Its Benefits?Answer :

      If the program contains the same or similar blocks of statements or it is required to process the same function several times, we can avoid redundancy by using modularization techniques. By modularizing the ABAP/4 programs we make them easy to read and improve their structure. Modularized programs are also easier to maintain and to update.


    1. Question 382. Does Every Abap/4 Have A Modular Structure?Answer :



    1. Question 383. What Is Repository Info. Systems?Answer :

      It is a tool with which you can make data stored in the ABAP/4 Dictionary available.


    1. Question 384. What Are The Basic Functions Of Database Utility?Answer :

      The basic functions of database utility are:
      • Create database objects.
      • Delete database objects.
      • Adjust database objects to changed ABAP/4 dictionary definition.


    1. Question 385. What Is Database Utility?Answer :

      Database utility is the interface between the ABAP/4 Dictionary and the underlying the SAP system.


    1. Question 386. What Is Locking?Answer :

      When two users simultaneously attempt to access the same data record, this is synchronized by a lock mechanism.


    1. Question 387. How Many Types Of Views Are There?Answer :

      • Database View.
      • Help View.
      • Projection View.
      • Maintenance View.


    1. Question 388. What Is A View?Answer :

      A view is a logical view on one or more tables. A view on one or more tables i.e., the data from a view is not actually physically stored instead being derived from one or more tables.


    1. Question 389. What Is The Difference Between A Structure And A Table?Answer :

      Structures are constructed the almost the same way as tables, the only difference using that no database table is generated from them.


    1. Question 390. What Are Null Values?Answer :

      If the value of a field in a table is undefined or unknown, it is called a null value.


    1. Question 391. Can You Define A Field Without A Data Element?Answer :

      Yes. If you want to specify no data element and therefore no domain for a field, you can enter data type and field length and a short text directly in the table maintenance.


    1. Question 392. Can You Delete Data Element, Which Is Being Used By Table Fields?Answer :



    1. Question 393. Can A Domain, Assigned To A Data Element Be Changed?Answer :

      Yes. We can do so by just overwriting the entry in the field domain.


    1. Question 394. What Is The Function Of A Data Element?Answer :

      A data element describes the role played by a domain in a technical context. A data element contains semantic information.


    1. Question 395. What Are Conversion Routines?Answer :

      Non-standard conversions from display format to sap internal format and vice-versa are implemented with so called conversion routines.


    1. Question 396. Can You Delete A Domain, Which Is Being Used By Data Elements?Answer :



    1. Question 397. What Is The Function Of A Domain?Answer :

      • A domain describes the technical settings of a table field.
      • A domain defines a value range, which sets the permissible data values for the fields, which refers to this domain.
      • A single domain can be used as basis for any number of fields that are identical in structure.


    1. Question 398. What Are The Two Different Ways Of Building A Match Code Object?Answer :

      A match code can be built in two different ways:
      • Logical structure: The matchcode data is set up temporarily at the moment when the match code is accessed. (Update type I, k).
      • Physical Structure: The match code data is physically stored in a separate table in the database. (Update type A, S, P).


    1. Question 399. What Are The Update Types Possible?Answer :

      The following update types are possible:
      Update type A– The matchcode data is updated asynchronously to database changes.
      Update type S– The matchcode data is updated synchronously to database changes.
      Update type P– The matchcode data is updated by the application program.
      Update type I– Access to the matchcode data is managed using a database view.
      Update type L– Access to the matchcode is achieved by calling a function module.


    1. Question 400. Can Matchcode Object Contain Ids With Different Update Types?Answer :



    1. Question 401. What Is An Update Type With Reference To A Match Code Id?Answer :

      If the data in one of the base tables of a matchcode ID changes, the matchcode data has to be updated. The update type stipulates when the matchcode is to be updated and how it is to be done. The update type also specifies which method is to be used for Building matchcodes. You must specify the update type when you define a matchcode ID.


    1. Question 402. Can We Define Our Own Match Code Id’s For Sap Matchcodes?Answer :

      Yes, the number 0 to 9 are reserved for us to create our own Match Code Ids for a SAP defined Matchcode object.


    1. Question 403. What Is The Max No Of Match Code Id’s That Can Be Defined For One Match Code Object?Answer :

      A match code Id is a one character ID that can be a letter or a number.


    1. Question 404. What Are The Two Levels In Defining A Match Code?Answer :

      • Match Code Object.
      • Match Code Id.


    1. Question 405. What Is A Match Code?Answer :

      Match code is a tool to help us to search for data records in the system. Match Codes are an efficient and user-friendly search aid where key of a record is unknown.


    1. Question 406. What Are The 2 Other Types Of Views, Which Are Not Allowed In Release 3.0?Answer :

      • Structure Views.
      • Entity Views.


    1. Question 407. What Are Base Tables Of An Aggregate Object?Answer :

      The tables making up an aggregate object (primary and secondary) are called aggregate object.


    1. Question 408. What Are The Aggregate Objects In The Dictionary?Answer :

      • Views.
      • Match Code.
      • Lock Object.


    1. Question 409. What Are The Two Ways For Restricting The Value Range For A Domain?Answer :

      • By specifying fixed values.
      • By stipulating a value table.


    1. Question 410. Can We Include Customizing Include Or An Append Structure With Pooled Or Cluster Tables?Answer :



    1. Question 411. If A Table That Is To Be Extended Contains A Long Field, We Cannot Use Append Structures Why?Answer :

      Long fields in a table must always be located in the end, as the last field of the table. If a table has an append structure the append line must also be on the last field of the table.


    1. Question 412. To How Many Tables Can An Append Structure Be Assigned?Answer :



    1. Question 413. What Is The Difference Between A Substructure And An Append Structure?Answer :

      • In case of a substructure, the reference originates in the table itself, in the form of a statement include….
      • In case of an append structure, the table itself remains unchanged and the reference originates in the append structure.


    1. Question 414. What Are Two Methods Of Modifying Sap Standard Tables?Answer :

      • Append Structures.
      • Customizing Includes.


    1. Question 415. What Is The Max. No. Of Structures That Can Be Included In A Table Or Structure?Answer :



    1. Question 416. What Is The Significance Of Delivery Class?Answer :

      • The delivery class controls the degree to which the SAP or the customer is responsible for table maintenance.
      • Whether SAP provides the table with or without contents.
      • Determines the table type.
      • Determines how the table behaves when it is first installed, at upgrade, when it is transported, and when a client copy is performed.


    1. Question 417. What Is A Table Attribute?Answer :

      The table’s attributes determine who is responsible for maintaining a table and which types of access are allowed for the table. The most important table attributes are:
      • Delivery class.
      • Table maintenance allowed.
      • Activation type.


    1. Question 418. What Is The Significance Of Technical Settings (specified While Creating A Table In The Data Dictionary)?Answer :

      By specifying technical settings we can control how database tables are created in the database. The technical settings allows us to
      • Optimize storage space requirements.
      • Table access behavior.
      • Buffering required.
      • Changes to entries logged.


    1. Question 419. A Field Containing Quantity Amounts (data Type Quan) Must Be Assigned To A Reference Table And A Reference Field. Explain?Answer :

      As a reference table, a system table containing all the valid quantity units is assigned or any other table, which contains a field with the format or quantity units (data type UNIT). This field is called as reference field.
      The assignment of the field containing quantity amounts to the reference field is made at runtime. The value in the reference field determines the quantity unit of the amount.


    1. Question 420. A Field Containing Currency Amounts (data Type Curr) Must Be Assigned To A Reference Table And A Reference Field. Explain.Answer :

      As a reference table, a system containing all the valid currencies is assigned or any other table, which contains a field with the currency key format. This field is called as reference field. The assignment of the field containing currency amounts to the reference field is made at runtime. The value in the reference field determines the currency of the amount.


    1. Question 421. What Are The Aggregate Objects In The Data Dictionary?Answer :

      • Views.
      • Match codes.
      • Lock objects.


    1. Question 422. What Are The Basic Objects Of The Data Dictionary?Answer :

      • Tables.
      • Domains.
      • Data elements.
      • Structures.
      • Foreign Keys.


    1. Question 423. What Are The Uses Of The Information In The Data Dictionary?Answer :

      The following information is directly taken from the Data dictionary:
      • Information on fields displayed with F1 help.
      • Possible entries for fields displayed with F4 help.
      • Matchcode and help views search utilities.


    1. Question 424. What Are The Features Of Abap/4 Dictionary?Answer :

      The most important features are:
      • Integrated to aABAP/4 Development Workbench.
      • Active in the runtime environment.


    1. Question 425. What Functions Does A Data Dictionary Perform?Answer :

      In a data management system, the principal functions performed by the data dictionary are:
      • Management of data definitions.
      • Provision of information for evaluation.
      • Support for s/w development.
      • Support form documentation.
      • Ensuring that the data definitions are flexible and up-to-date.


    1. Question 426. What Is A Data Dictionary?Answer :

      Data Dictionary is a central source of data in a data management system. Its main function is to support the creation and management of data definitions. It has details about:
      • What data is contained?
      • What are the attributes of the data?
      • What is the relationship existing between the various data elements?.


    1. Question 427. What Is A Development Class?Answer :

      Related objects from the ABAP/4 repository are assigned to the same development class. This enables you to correct and transport related objects as a unit.


    1. Question 428. What Are Local Objects?Answer :

      Local objects (Dev class$TMP) are independent of correction and transport system.


    1. Question 429. What Is The Function Of The Correction System?Answer :

      The correction system manages changes to internal system components. Such as objects of the ABAP/4 Dictionary.


    1. Question 430. How Can We Set The Table Spaces And Extent Sizes?Answer :

      You can specify the extent sizes and the table space (physical storage area in the database) in which a transparent table is to be stored by setting the size category and data class.


    1. Question 431. What Are The Data Types Of The Abap/4 Layer?Answer :

      Possible ABAP/4 data types:
      C: Character.
      D: Date, format YYYYMMDD.
      F: Floating-point number in DOUBLE PRECISION (8 bytes).
      I: Integer.
      N: Numerical character string of arbitrary length.
      P: Amount of counter field (packed; implementation depends on h/w platform).
      S: Time Stamp YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.
      V: Character string of variable length, length is given in the first two bytes.
      X: Hexadecimal (binary) storage.


    1. Question 432. What Are The Data Types Of The External Layer?Answer :



    1. Question 433. How Is Conversion Of Data Types Done Between Abap/4 & External Level?Answer :

      Conversion between the external layer and the ABAP/4 layer is done in the SAP dialog manager DYNP.


    1. Question 434. How Is Conversion Of Data Types Done Between Abap/4 & Db Layer?Answer :

      Conversion between ABAP/4 data types and the database layer is done within the database interface.


    1. Question 435. Which Objects Are Independent Transport Objects?Answer :

      Domains, Data elements, Tables, Technical settings for tables, Secondary indexes for transparent tables, Structures, Views, Matchcode objects, Matchcode Ids, Lock objects.


    1. Question 436. How Can We Access The Correction And Transport System?Answer :

      Each time you create a new object or change an existing object in the ABAP/4 Dictionary, you branch automatically to the Workbench Organizer or correction and transport system.


    1. Question 437. What Is A Table Cluster?Answer :

      A table cluster combines several logical tables in the ABAP/4 Dictionary. Several logical rows from different cluster tables are brought together in a single physical record. The records from the cluster tables assigned to a cluster are thus stored in a single common table in the database.


    1. Question 438. What Are Pooled Tables?Answer :

      These are logical tables, which must be assigned to a table pool when they are defined. Pooled tables can be used to store control data (such as screen sequences or program parameters).


    1. Question 439. What Is A Table Pool?Answer :

      A table pool (or pool) is used to combine several logical tables in the ABAP/4 Dictionary. The definition of a pool consists of at least two key fields and a long argument field (VARDATA).


    1. Question 440. What Is The Function Of The Transport System And Workbench Organizer?Answer :

      The function of the transport system and the Workbench Organizer is to manage any changes made to objects of the ABAP/4 Development Workbench and to transport these changes between different SAP systems.


    1. Question 441. What Are Control Tables?Answer :

      The values specified for the size category and data class are mapped to database-specific values via control tables.


    1. Question 442. What Is The Typical Structure Of An Abap/4 Program? Answer :



    1. Question 443. What Is Sapscript And Layout Set? Answer :

      The tool which is used to create layout set is called SAPscript. Layout set is a design document.


    1. Question 444. What Are The Abap/4 Commands That Link To A Layout Set? Answer :

      control commands,system commands.