Quality Management Interview Questions & Answers

  1. Question 1. What Is The Differences Between I.s.o And C.m.m Levels?

    Answer :

    The CMM is a way to communicate capabilities. CMM is a very specific way of classifying an organization’s software development methods.

    The ISO is a way to communicate the process. ISO-procedures describe a (possibly) definite development and process but gives no indication of the likely quality of the designs or whether multiple software efforts are likely to produce software of similar quality.

  2. Question 2. What Is A Quality Management Plan (qmp)?

    Answer :

    A QMP is a formal plan that documents an entity’s management system for the environmental work to be performed. The QMP is an “umbrella” document which describes the organization’s quality system in terms of the organizational structure, functional responsibilities of management and staff, lines of authority, and required interfaces with those planning, implementing, and assessing all environmentally related activities conducted.

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  4. Question 3. What Are The Benefits Of Quality Management System?

    Answer :

    1. Improvement in internal quality (reduction in scrap, rework and non-conformities in the shop)
    2. Improvement in external quality (customer satisfaction, claims of non-conforming products, returned products, warranty claims, penalty claims etc)
    3. Improvement in Production reliability (number of break downs, percentage down time etc)
    4. Improvement in Time performance (on-time delivery, time to market etc)
    5. Reduction in the cost of poor quality (external non-conformities, scrap, rework etc)
  5. Question 4. Which Steps Must Be Used In Implementing A Quality Management System?

    Answer :

    The Deming cycle ( PDCA ) is recommended to be followed in establishing & implementing a quality management systems.

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  7. Question 5. In The Region, Where There Is No Quality Management, What Would You Do To Introduce The Concept Of Tqm?

    Answer :

    Where Quality processes are not available, I would encourage them to identify and document their each and every task for each process. Then, I would encourage them to define and document what they can do for minimizing human or machine errors.

    I would encourage them to identify wastage’s like material or time wasters and define process to minimize these wastage’s. I would ask them to record and document each finding and strive to improve each process.

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  9. Question 6. What Is The Difference Between Quality Assurance And Quality Control?

    Answer :

    Quality Assurance :

    • It is a Assurance activity,emphasizing on the standards and procedures to be followed while developing an application
    • It is a Preventive action taken before hand to ensure the product that developed are defect free
    • It is a systematic actions necessary to provide enough confidence that a product or service will satisfy the given requirements for quality.

    Quality Control :

    • It is a Corrective action
    • Inspection if the developed application follows the standards and procedures by using the checklists.
  10. Question 7. What Are The Quality Principles?

    Answer :

    There are 8 quality principles such as

    1. Customer focus
    2. Leadership,
    3. Involvement of people,
    4. process approach,
    5. System approach to management
    6. Continual improvement
    7. Factual approach to decision making,
    8. Mutually beneficial supplier relationship
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  12. Question 8. What Are Six Mandatory Quality Procedures?

    Answer :

    1. Control of documents
    2. Control of records
    3. Control of Production Equipment, tools and CNC programs
    4. Control of Non-conforming products
    5. Preventive Action
    6. Corrective Action
  13. Question 9. What Is Quality Improvement Activities?

    Answer :

    Quality improvement activities is an opportunity for the practice’s GPs and staff members to come together as a team to consider quality improvement.

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  15. Question 10. How Do States Move From Discovery To Action?

    Answer :

    The purpose of the discovery process is to produce information that can inform decisions and point to actions for remediation and quality improvement. This paper has focused on ways to develop a reliable and robust set of discovery methods as a foundation for an overall quality management system. Moving from the production of accurate and reliable data to presentation of understandable and actionable information requires a number of additional techniques and tools.

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  17. Question 11. Do The Discovery Methods Produce Data That Informs Or Serves To Improve The Policy, Management, Or Operational Aspects Of The Program?

    Answer :

    Beyond the evidence required by CMS, program managers need information to develop their quality management plans and to monitor and manage their programs. The CMS framework provides a way to structure an assessment of whether current discovery methods can produce information to meet this need.

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  19. Question 12. Reduction Of Scrap Increases Profitability?

    Answer :

    True

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  21. Question 13. Differentiate Between Product Quality And Process Quality?

    Answer :

    Product quality means we concentrate always final quality but in case of process quality we set the process parameter

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  23. Question 14. What Is Meant By Risk? How You Can Avoid The Risks?

    Answer :

    Risk can be anything that leads to failure / defect / error in the application or process.
    We can avoid risk by applying proper risk matrix in the process. Risk Matrix shows the controls within application systems used to reduce the identified risk, and in what segment of the application those risks exist.
    Team members are leaving from the organization in the middle of the project is the risk for the Manager.For that he can take the preventive action by ask for the bond from the employee or can have the countable backups in the project.

  24. Question 15. What Is Defect Rejection Ratio (drr) And Defect Leakage Ratio (dlr)?

    Answer :

    DRR = # of Defects Rejected/Tester to assess the tester performance
    DRR = # of Defects Rejected/module to assess the module complexity
    DRR = # of Defects Rejected/Team/Project to assess the team performance. and
    DLR = # of Defects uncovered/Tester
    DLR = # of Defects uncovered/Module
    DLR = # of Defects uncovered/Project
    ( Uncovered- Defects missed out by the testing team)

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  26. Question 16. A Company Recruits Its First And Only Sqa “specialist”. The Person Is New To The Area. The Company Is Relatively Young, Operates In A Competitive Commercial Domain And Has No Previous Sqa Presence. The Sqa Specialist Feels He Needs To Show Some Results During The Next 6 To 9 Months. What Advice Will You Give Him?

    Answer :

    Start with a risk assessment, to identify the significant software risks and their business implications. Identify managers directly affected by these implications, who may be recruited as allies. 
    Select a small number of issues to address in the initial phase. Try to include some quick wins, as well as some improvements that could be achieved within 3-6 months. 
    Don’t try to do everything at once. At this stage, use whichever model you prefer (ISO 9000-3 or TickIT or SW-CMM or SPICE) merely as a framework, so that you know how what you?re doing fits into a larger picture.

     

  27. Question 17. Someone Complains That During System Testing The Application Often Crashes. What Likely Process Problem Does That Indicate?

    Answer :

    Systematic failure to carry out proper unit testing. 
    OR inconsistency between the development/unit test environment and the system test environment. 
    AND ALSO management failure to respond promptly to the situation with corrective and preventative action.

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  29. Question 18. What Quality Assurance And Quality Control Activities Are Done Differently For Cots / Gots Project Than For A Traditional Custom Development Project?

    Answer :

    The activities themselves are broadly the same, but with different stakeholders, and different detailed procedures for verification and validation. Often the challenge for SQA is to pin down the ownership of the requirements, which may be represented by a complex debate between marketing departments, technical eggheads, user groups, customer focus groups and other interested parties.

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  31. Question 19. What In Your Opinion Is The Role Of Sqa Personnel With Respect To Inspections Or Testing?

    Answer :

    Formally, the role is to make the inspection process or testing process visible, both to the participants (so they can see what they are achieving, how effective they are being) and to management (so that they can assess progress and risk).
    In practice, SQA personnel often need to act as facilitators or coaches. They are often regarded (wrongly) as the owners or custodians of the inspection or testing process, or even as the owners/custodians of the whole software process. Part of the trainee.

  32. Question 20. What Are The Most Likely Quality Consequences Of Choosing An Inappropriate Life Cycle Model For A Software Project?

    Answer :

    The most likely consequence is that the project will not deliver anything at all. Not because the lifecycle couldn?t be made to work technically, but because it will fail to contain the political tensions between stakeholders.

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  34. Question 21. What In Your Opinion Are The Most Significant Fundamental Differences Between Sei Sw-cmm And Iso 9000-3?

    Answer :

    The main difference is what the two models tell you. ISO 9000-3 gives you a yes/no answer, whereas SEI SW-CMM gives you a more complex assessment. This implies different ways of using the models for SQA and process improvement.

  35. Question 22. You Were Given A Chance To Implement Either Walkthroughs Or Inspections. Based On Your Personal Experience Which One Would You Choose? Please Share Your Reasons.

    Answer :

    It would depend on the culture and prior history of the organization, as well as the nature and source of the demand for software quality, but I have usually found it easier to get started with walkthroughs.
    In some cases, there is already a formal (but lapsed) procedure mandating either walkthroughs or inspections. In such cases, the first task is to unpick the reasons why the previous attempts have failed. Typically, past inspections have inspected the wrong things at the wrong times, using the wrong criteria at the wrong level of detail.

  36. Question 23. What In Your Opinion, Are The Most Important Changes That Occurred In The Role Of Software Quality Assurance During The Last 5 To 10 Years? How Would You Define The Main Mandate Of Sqa Today?

    Answer :

    rowing awareness and importance of public domain models such as SEI SW CMM, BOOTSTRAP and SPICE. 
    Changing nature of software development, especially model-based development (CASE) and component-based development (CBD). Growing need to connect software of different ages and sources. Software projects not pure software development, but including maintenance, package selection and implementation, and other software activities. (Perhaps software projects never were pure development, but such topics as project management, quality management and configuration management used to be taught as if they were.) 
    Faced with these changes, SQA needs to be both reductionist (giving close attention to the quality of components from various sources) and holistic (giving broad attention to the emergent properties of the whole assembled system, in terms of its overall fit to business requirements). 
    As I see it, the mandate of SQA is to make defects in software products and processes visible to management. SQA fits into a context of software quality management where this visibility leads to corrective and preventative action (not itself part of SQA), and to general software process improvement.

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  38. Question 24. What Real-life Experience Have You Had With Software Quality Assurance And/or Software Quality Control?

    Answer :

    I developed a software quality methodology for Texas Instruments Software, which included Software Quality Assurance and Software Quality Control, with a particular focus on software projects using CASE tools. I conducted quality training, quality planning, process assessment/improvement and other consultancy assignments using this methodology.

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  40. Question 25. What Advice Would You Give To Someone Who Asked You Where To Start To Introduce To Their Company A Metrics And Quality Reporting Program?

    Answer :

    Use the GQM approach to derive relevant metrics from personal and corporate goals. Select a small number of key metrics that will be directly relevant to project managers and/or software engineers. Put the metrics into the hands of the workers, as a tool for personal performance improvement.

  41. Question 26. In Your Experience, Who Are The Most Important Allies Of Sqa Within An Organization?

    Answer :

    SQA is a form of risk awareness, and is therefore potentially allied to any senior management with a risk management focus. 
    Within some companies/industries (e.g. insurance), software risks are seen as having mainly financial consequences, and so the main ally might be the financial director.
    Within other companies/industries (e.g. retail), software risks are seen as having mainly customer service implications, and so the main allies may be in marketing roles. 
    In one client, we had useful conversations with the Company Secretariat, because of the due diligence implications of some software risks. These conversations were triggered by Y2K issues, but ranged much more widely. In practice, SQA often fails to make these alliances, because it gets bogged down in obscure software technicalities and trivialities, which it is incapable of communicating effectively even to software engineers, let alone anybody else.

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  43. Question 27. What Is A Discovery Method?

    Answer :

    A discovery method is defined as a systematic and organized activity to assess, review, evaluate or otherwise analyze a process, program, operation, provider or outcome. The end product of a good discovery method is reliable data that provides evidence to support a conclusion or action either at the individual or system level. In order to produce systematic and reliable data, certain core features should be present in a discovery method.

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  45. Question 28. What Does 6 Sigma Represent?

    Answer :

    Meaning 99.999997% perfect; only 3.4 defects in a million.

  46. Question 29. Quality Control Is Reactive In Approach?

    Answer :

    Quality Control is not a reactive in approach quality is built into the product right from the design stage, and SPC charts indicates before the process goes out of control such that we can take the corrective action before defective products are produced.

  47. Question 30. What Is An Usl In A Control Chart?

    Answer :

    upper Specification Limit