Question 1. What Is The Difference Between The Qa And Software Testing?
Quality Assurance (QA): QA refers to the planned and systematic way of monitoring the quality of process which is followed to produce a quality product. QA tracks the outcomes and adjusts the process to meet the expectation.
Quality Control (QC): Concern with the quality of the product. QC finds the defects and suggests improvements. The process set by QA is implemented by QC. The QC is the responsibility of the tester.
Software Testing: is the process of ensuring that product which is developed by the developer meets the user requirement. The motive to perform testing is to find the bugs and make sure that they get fixed.
Question 2. What Are Verification And Validation And Difference Between These Two?
Verification: process of evaluating steps which is followed up to development phase to determine whether they meet the specified requirements for that stage.
Validation: process of evaluating product during or at the end of the development process to determine whether product meets specified requirements.
Difference between Verification and Validation:
- Verification is Static Testing where as Validations is Dynamic Testing.
- Verification takes place before validation.
- Verification evaluates plans, documents, requirements and specifications, where as Validation evaluates product.
- Verification inputs are checklist, issues list, walkthroughs and inspection, where as in Validation testing of actual product.
- Verification output is set of documents, plans, specifications and requirement documents where as in Validation actual product is output.
Question 3. What Is Destructive Testing, And What Are Its Benefits?
Destructive testing includes methods where material is broken down to evaluate the mechanical properties, such as strength, toughness and hardness.
For example, finding the quality of a weld is good enough to withstand extreme pressure and also to verify the properties of a material.
Benefits of Destructive Testing (DT):
- Verifies properties of a material
- Determines quality of welds
- Helps you to reduce failures, accidents and costs
- Ensures compliance with regulations
Question 4. What Is Testware?
The testware is:
- The subset of software which helps in performing the testing of application.
- Testware are required to plan, design, and execute tests. It contains documents, scripts, inputs, expected results, set-up and additional software or utilities used in testing.
- Testware is term given to combination of all utilities and application software that required for testing a software package.
Testware is special because it has:
1. Different purpose
2. Different metrics for quality and
3. Different users
Question 5. What Is Difference Between Retesting And Regression Testing?
The difference between Retesting and Regression testing are as follows:
- Retesting is done to verify defects fixes where as regression is perform to check if the defect fix have not impacted other functionality that was working fine before doing changes in the code.
- Retesting is planned testing based on the defect fixes listed where as regression is not be always specific to any defect fix. Also regression can be executed for some modules or all modules.
- Retesting concern with executing those test cases that are failed earlier whereas regression concern with executing test cases that was passed in earlier builds.
- Retesting has higher priority over regression, but in some case retesting and regression testing are carried out in parallel.
Question 6. What Are The Key Challenges Of Software Testing?
Following are some challenges of software testing:
- Application should be stable enough to be tested.
- Testing always under time constraint
- Understanding requirements, Domain knowledge and business user perspective understanding
- Which tests to execute first?
- Testing the Complete Application
- Regression testing
- Lack of skilled testers.
- Changing requirements
- Lack of resources, tools and training
Question 7. Why You Choose Automated Testing Over Manual Testing?
The reasons for choosing automation testing over manual testing are following:
- Frequency of use of test case
- Time Comparison (automated script run much faster than manual execution.)
- Re-usability of Automation Script
- Adaptability of test case for automation.
- Exploitation of automation tool.
Question 8. What Is The Basis For Choosing The Sdlc Model For Development Of Software?
The choice of SDLC depends on the various factors and how stable are the requirements:
- When the requirements are very clearly known, documented and not subject to change then we can follow the waterfall model.
- Most of the companies follow the V mode for the development because this model includes both verification and validation activities and testing is involved in earlier phase.
- Iterative model can be used to build application where requirement changes after a period of times or application features or added on with smaller release. When the client is ready for the delivery of the product in parts or phases.
Question 9. Explain Bug Leakage And Bug Release?
Bug Leakage: When customer or end user discovered a bug which can be detected by the testing team. Or when a bug is detected which can be detected in pervious build then this is called as Bug Leakage.
Bug release: is when a build is handed to testing team with knowing that defect is present in the release. The priority and severity of bug is low. It is done when customer want the application on the time. Customer can tolerate the bug in the released then the delay in getting the application and the cost involved in removing that bug. These bugs are mentioned in the Release Notes handed to client for the future improvement chances.
Question 10. What Is Data Driven Testing?
Data Driven is an automation testing part in which test input or output values, these values are read from data files. It is performed when the values are changing by the time. The different data files may include data pools, csv files, Excel files. The data is then loaded into variables in recorded or manually coded scripts. For data driven testing we use Parameterzing and Regular expression Technique.
Ex: To evaluate login functionality, we use different user name and password combinations, variables are used to access different username and password. The list of username and password are stored in a data table or excel sheet.
Question 11. What Are Test Driver And Test Stub And Why We Need Them?
- The Stub is called from the software component to be tested. It is used in top down approach.
- The driver calls a component to be tested. It is used in bottom up approach.
- Both test stub and test driver are dummy software components.
We need test stub and test driver because of following reason:
- Suppose we want to test the interface between modules A and B and we have developed only module A. So we cannot test module A but if a dummy module is prepare, using that we can test module A.
- Now module B cannot send or receive data from module A directly so, in these cases we have to transfer data from one module to another module by some external features. This external feature used is called Driver.
Question 12. What Is Monkey Testing?
Monkey testing is a type of Black Box Testing used mostly at the Unit Level. In this tester enter the data in any format and check the software is not crashing. In this testing we use Smart monkey and Dumb monkey.
- Smart monkeys are used for load and stress testing, they will help in finding the bugs. They are very expensive to develop.
- Dumb monkey, are important for basic testing. They help in finding those bugs which are having high severity. Dumb monkey are less expensive as compare to Smart monkeys.
Example: In phone number filed Symbols are entered.
Question 13. What Is The Role Of Bug Tracking System?
The Bug Tracking System role is discussed below:
- Testers and developers can know the status of the bug at every stage.
- Changes to the Status will be available to all team members.
- Developers and Testers can easily interact with bugs.
- Repetition of bugs will be avoided.
- Easy to distribute the bug among the developer.
- It will act as a centralized one for defects.
Question 14. Describe Bottom-up And Top-down Approach In Testing?
Bottom Up Approach:
- The bottom up approach testing approach is carried out with the help of the test driver. The test driver calls a component to be tested.
- The modules in the lower level of call hierarchy are tested independently. Then the next level modules are tested that call previously tested modules. This is done repeatedly until all the modules are included in the testing.
- Bottom up testing stops when the top module in the call hierarchy is tested with all lower call hierarchy modules.
Top Down Approach:
- The top down approach is carried out with the help of the test stub. Test stub are the dummy programs. The Stub is called from the software component to be tested.
- Tests top layer of controlling subsystem first. Then combine modules that are called by the tested modules and test resulted collection of modules.
- Do this until all the modules are combined and tested.
Question 15. What Is Validation And Verification In Software Testing?
In verification, all the key aspects of software developments are taken in concern like code, specifications, requirements and document plans. Verification is done on the basis of four things list of issues, checklist, walkthroughs and inspection meetings. Following verification, validation is done, it involves actual testing, and all the verification aspects are checked thoroughly in validation.
Question 16. What Is Thread Testing?
A thread testing is a top-down testing, where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.
Question 17. What Is Configuration Management?
It is a process to control and document any changes made during the life of a project. Release control, Change control and Revision control are the important aspects of configuration management.
Question 18. Explain Cmm?
Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is divided in five levels:
1. Initial: The organization is characterized by an adhoc set of activities. The processes aren’t defined and success depends on individual effort and heroics.
2. Repeatable: In this level some processes are repeatable, possibly with consistent results.
3. Defined: In this level, we define all processes are documented for both management and engineering activities, and standards.
4. Managed: Detailed measures of each process are defined and product quality data is routinely collected. Both process and products are quantitatively understood and controlled.
5. Optimizing: In this we optimize the application by following improvement process.
Question 19. What Is The Difference In Responsibilities Of Programmers And Qa Analyst?
The differences in responsibilities are listed below:
- QA is concern for Process Quality and Programmers are concern for Product Quality.
- QA ensure that the processes used for developing the product of high quality where as programmers used these processes so that end product is of good quality.
- Processes are decided by QA. Programmers are supposed to follow the processes so that they can produce a good quality product.
- Any issue found during execution of process by the programmers is communicated to the QA so that they can improve the process.
Question 20. What Are The Main Attributes Of Test Automation?
The main attributes are discussed below:
- Maintainability: For each new release need to update the test automation suites.
- Reliability: Accuracy and repeatability of the test automation.
- Flexibility: Ease of working with all the different kinds of automation test ware.
- Efficiency: Total cost related to the effort needed for the automation.
- Portability: Ability of the automated test to run on different environments.
- Robustness: Effectiveness of automation on an unstable or rapidly changing system.
- Usability: Extent to which automation can be used by different types of user.
Question 21. What Is Traceability Matrix?
Traceability Matrix is a method used to validate the compliance of product with requirements for that product. The requirement is written in a row of the matrix and the columns of the matrix. Now they are used to identify how and where each requirement has been addressed.
It is in the form of table that correlates two base lined documents that require a many-to-many relationship. It is used with high level requirement and detailed requirement of the software product to the matching parts of high level design, detailed design, test plan, and test cases. The relationship to the source documents is required for both backward traceability and forward traceability.
Question 22. What Is Random Testing?
When test inputs are selected randomly from the input domain of the system, this is Random Testing.
Random testing involves following procedure:
- The input domain is selected.
- Test inputs are selected independently from the domain.
- The system under test is executed on these inputs. The inputs constitute a random test set.
- The results are compared to the system specification. The test is a failure if any input leads to incorrect results, otherwise it is a success.
Question 23. What Are The Benefits Of Automated Testing?
The benefits of Automation Testing are as below:
- Test engineer productivity.
- Coverage of regression testing.
- Re-usability of test cases.
- Consistency in testing.
- Test interval reduction
- Reduced software maintenance cost
- Increased test effectiveness
Question 24. Explain Paradigms For Interfacing Module?
The paradigms for interfacing modules:
- Procedure Call Interface: A procedure from one module calls to procedure of another module. The caller can pass data to the called procedure while calling and also the called procedure can pass data to the caller while returning control back to the caller procedure.
- Shared Memory: When a block of memory is shared between two modules. The memory block may be allocated by one of the two modules or third module of the same application.
- Message Passing Interface: One module generates a message and sends the message to another module. It helps in building up the communication between different process or modules.
Question 25. Describe Use Case Testing?
Use Case: A use case is a description of the process which is performed by the end user for a particular task. Use case contains a sequence of step which is performed by the end user to complete a specific task or a step by step process that describe how the application and end user interact with each other. Use case is written by the user point of view.
Use case Testing: the use case testing uses this use case to evaluate the application. So that, the tester can examines all the functionalities of the application. Use case testing cover whole application, tester performs this testing in step by step process to complete one task.
Question 26. What Is Gantt Chart?
A Gantt Chart is used to represent a project schedule that includes duration of individual tasks or phases, their dependencies and ordering.
- It displays the start and end points of each task and the percentage of completion of each task
- It allows the planner to assess the duration of a project, identify the resources needed, and lay out the order in which tasks need to be performed.
- It is useful in managing the dependencies between tasks.
- Using Gantt chart each team member can view the product development schedule.
Question 27. What Are The Dimensions Of The Risks?
The dimensions of the risk are described below:
Schedule: Unrealistic schedules. to develop a huge software in a single day..
Client: Ambiguous requirements definition, requirement and not clear, changes in the requirement etc.
Human Resources: Non-availability of sufficient resources with the skill level expected in the project.
System Resources: Non-availability of procuring all critical computer resources either hardware and software tools or licenses for software will have an adverse impact.
Quality: Compound factors like lack of resources along with a tight delivery schedule and frequent changes to requirements will have an impact on the quality of the product tested.
Question 28. What Is The Role Of Qa In A Project Development?
QA stands for QUALITY ASSURANCE. QA team assures the quality by monitor the whole development process. QA tracks the outcomes and adjusting process to meet the expectation.
The role of Quality Assurance is discussed below:
- QA team is responsible for monitoring the process to be carried out for development.
- Responsibilities of QA team are planning testing execution process.
- QA Lead creates the time tables and agrees on a Quality Assurance plan for the product.
- QA team communicated QA process to the team members.
- QA team ensures traceability of test cases to requirements.
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