Question 1. What Is Pollution Control?
Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil.
Question 2. What Are The Major Causes Of Pollution?
The burning of coal greatly contributes to air pollution because the smoke coming from factories, chimneys, wood burning and vehicles releases sulphur dioxide into the air. A major cause of water pollution is disposal of industrial waste in the ocean.
Question 3. How To Control Noise Pollution?
There are many methods which help to control the noise pollution. The source of noise must be reduced. The path of transmission of sound must be stopped and the receiver of noise must be safe guarded. The amount of traffic must be reduced near the residential homes, educational institutes and hospitals.
The machinery must be redesigned and the vehicles must be properly maintained. The acoustical furnishing must be done so that the sound can be absorbed. The voice must not be passed directly to the receiver and must be diverted upwards instead of downwards as in case of ear splitting jet exhaust noise.
The industries must be built away from the residential areas and the legal laws must be established and observed to protect the humans from noise pollution. A general awareness programme to educate the people must be done. It is basically a public nuisance which affects the human beings in almost all aspects.
Question 4. What Are The Effects Of Noise Pollution?
There are many side effects of the noise pollution. It affects the general health and hearing power of the human beings. The high intensity of noise and its continued use can cause injury to the ears. It may lead to the permanent loss of hearing. A large explosion can cause the injury to tympanic membrane.
It may cause anxiety and stress which may lead to the fright. It causes the disturbance in nervous systems of urban babies and lead to the emotional disturbances along with the abnormal behavior. It may increase the heart rate, decreased output, constriction of vessels and impaired vision. In case of animals it can affect the heart, liver and brain. It may also affect the brain by dilating the blood vessels. It may also affect the eyes by dilating the pupil and cause the digestive spasms. It may also lead to the increase in cholesterol level in blood.
Question 5. What Is Noise Pollution?
The noise pollution is defined as the unwanted sound which is released into the environment. It disturbs the human being and cause an adverse effect on the mental and psychological well being. It is measured in the units of decibels and is denoted by the dB. The noise which is more than 115 dB is tolerant.
The industrial limit of sound in the industries must be 75 dB according to the world health organization. A type writer can produce a sound at 60 dB. There are different sources of the noise pollution and include the agriculture machines, industries which produce a sound and the use of entertaining equipment, crackers, the blasting of dynamite, bull dozing, stone crushing, defense equipments and textile mills.
Question 6. How To Control Radioactive Pollution?
The radioactive pollution can be controlled by number of ways. It includes the stoppage of leakage from the radioactive materials including the nuclear reactors, industries and laboratories. The disposal of radioactive material must be safe and secure. They must be stored in the safe places and must be changed into harmless form.
The wastes with a very low radiation must be put into the sewage. The nuclear power plants must follow all the safe instructions. The protective garments must be worn by the workers who work in the nuclear plants. The natural radiation must be at the permissible limits and they must not cross it.
Question 7. What Is Salinization Of Soil?
The increase in concentration of salts in soil which are soluble lead to the process of salination. It depends on many factors. The poor drainage of soil leads to the accumulation of salts on the surface of soil. It may happen during the flood. The quality of irrigation water also plays a crucial role. In arid areas the ground water is saline. The irrigation water is rich in soluble salts. The salts can move from the lower to upper layers by the capillary action.
It happens in the summer season. The increase usage of fertilizers may also add up to the salt content of soil. The salt is transported from one area to the other with the help of wind. It occurs mainly in the arid area. The parent nature of rock material decides whether the soil is alkaline or acidic. Our country has 6 million hectares of saline land and in Punjab alone around 6 to 8 thousand hectares of land becomes unfit for agriculture every year.
Question 8. How To Control Soil Pollution?
There are many factors which control the soil pollution. It includes the limited use of fertilizers and pesticides. The biological control method must be known and implemented. The grazing must be controlled and forest management should be done properly. The afforestation and reforestation must be done. In areas of wind erosion wind breaks and shields must be used. The soil binding grass must be planted and the large trees must be placed along the banks. The industrial wastes must be dumped in the low lying areas. There is a definite technique of cropping which does not allow the weeds to settle on the fields. The mining ways must be improved along with their transportation. The area must not be left barren and dry.
Question 9. How To Control Water Pollution?
Water pollution can be controlled in the multiple ways. It is best controlled by the dilution of water. The pollutants must be treated chemically and must be converted into the non toxic substances. The low level of radioactive wastes in the water is removed by the oxidation of ponds. There are certain chemicals which act on the organic insecticide and are used in the pesticide. There are different techniques which are very helpful in the process of thermal pollution and involve the cooling, evaporation, water cooling; cooling can be wet or dry. Their main aim is to keep the water cool in rivers and streams. The shallow ponds must be used to store the domestic and industrial wastes. One must avoid the large ponds. The waste has a presence of sunlight and organic nutrients which may lead to the larger growth of bacteria which act on the waste matter.
The reclaimed polluted water can be used in making fertilizers as it is rich in phosphorous, potassium and nitrogen. It can also be used for the irrigation and factories purposes. The proper sewage treatment plans play a crucial role in the reclaimed polluted water. There must be a law which ensures that the industries must treat the waste before the water is discharged into the rivers and seas. The polluted water can be treated by the use of a plant known as water hyacinth which is also referred as kaloli. It deals with the biological and chemical waste. The heavy metals are also removed by it.
Question 10. What Are The Degrees Of Water Impurity?
There are different degrees of the water impurity. It can be due to the different organisms which differ in the tolerance level of temperature, ph, oxygen, calcium and phosphorous content. It also involves the organic matter, poisons and some pollutants. There are certain fishes known as daphnia which are sensitive to poison and metals. The study of aquatic life gives information regarding the water pollution. The bio chemical oxygen demand also helps in the measurement of organic wastes in the polluted water. It is denoted by BOD. It is defined as the requirement of oxygen by small organisms so that the organic matter which is easy to be decomposed can be stabilized under the oxygen rich environment.
The oxygen is measured in the milligrams for few days. It is measured in I liter of water at a temperature around twenty degree Celsius. More is the organic waste more is the BOD value. The water which is not rich in the organic matter has a value of BOD equal to 1500 milligram per liter. The water which is rich in the organic matter has a value of BOD more than 1500 milligram per liter. It relies only on the organic matter measurements and other factors are not taken into account. So, it is not a reliable method for the water pollution. Another method is there which can substitute this method and is known as the COD which refers to chemical oxygen demand. It takes into account all the oxygen consuming pollutants which are present in the water.
Question 11. How Can We Control Air Pollution In The Environment?
There are many factors which regulate the air pollution. It states that there should always be a distance between the industrial and residential area. The chimneys must be tall in size so that the emissions must be released higher up in the environment. The filters and precipitators must be used in the chimneys. The scrubber or spray collector must be used to remove the poisonous gases. The ash production must be reduced by the high temperature incinerators.
The sulphur must be removed after the combustion. The non combustive sources of energy are the nuclear power, geothermal power, solar, tidal and wind power. The gasoline must have anti knocking agents. The railway track must be electrified. The mining area must be rich in trees. The gas fuel must be used instead of the coal fuel. The emission control system must be present in the automobiles. The wastes must be removed and recycled in the industrial plants and refineries. The automobiles must be pollution free by making the fuel alcohol based and using the battery power.
There are certain plants which have the ability to fix the carbon monoxide. These should be grown in the larger numbers. It includes the ficus and coleus. There are certain plants which have the ability to metabolize the nitrogen oxides and other pollutants. It includes the pinus and ribes.
Question 12. What Is A Pollutant?
A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its chemical nature, the concentration and the persistence.
Question 13. What Are Sources Of Water Pollution And Waste Water Generation Scenario?
It is estimated that 75% to 80% of water pollution by volume is caused by domestic sewage. The major industries causing water pollution include: distilleries, sugar, textile, electroplating, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, pulp & paper mills, tanneries, dyes and dye intermediates, petro-chemicals, steel plants etc. Non-point sources such as fertilizer and pesticide run-offs in rural areas also cause pollution. Only 60% of chemical fertilizers are utilized in soils and the balance is leached into soil polluting the ground water. Excess phosphate run-off leads to eutrophication in lakes and water bodies.
Question 14. What Are The Details Of The Programme On Pollution Control In The Problem Areas?
A programme for pollution control through concerted efforts in polluted areas was started in 1989. The programme involves identification of the polluted areas, intensive surveys of these areas for identification of polluting sources, preparation of action plans for control of these polluting sources, and implementation of the action points by the concerned responsible agencies/industries.
Question 15. What Are The Incentives To The Industries For Pollution Control?
The steps taken by the various categories of the industries for reduction in the generation of the pollutants are as follows:
- Commissioning of the stand-by power supply systems by chlor-alkali plants reduce mercury emission due to power failures.
- Introduction of blending system for coal homogenisation in cement plants to ensure stable operation of the ESPs.
- Conversion of single hood to the double hood system in copper smelters to reduce the fugitive emissions.
- Biomethanation of the effluents in distillerie.
- Solar evaporation ponds in small-scale water polluting units not having CETPs in the proximity.
- Conversion of the open hearth furnaces (OHF) to the basic oxygen furnaces (BOF) and introduction of the dry system (instead of wet) for the quenching of the hot coke in iron & steel plants.
- Commissioning of chemical recovery plants (CRPs) by pulp & paper industries; and Change over the DCDA production method by sulphuric acid.
Question 16. What Is The Meaning Of Industrial Pollution?
Industrial pollution is the contamination of the environment by businesses, particularly plants and factories, that dump waste products into the air and water. Industrial waste is one of the largest contributors to the global pollution problem endangering people and the environment.
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