Question 1. Is Staff Appraisals Reduces Absenteeism?
No, Non-financial incentives reduces absenteeism. Staff appraisals assess the potential for promotion.
Question 2. Is Principles Of Unity Of Command And Unity Of Principle Mean The Same Thing?
No, Principle of unity of command and unity of principle are different. Principle of unity of command refers to receiving order from one superior.
Question 3. Is Management Is A Social Process?
True, It is a social process as it utilizes the best combination of human & non-human resources.
Question 4. Is Organization And Management Mean The Same Thing?
No, Organization is a function Organization and management are different terms.
Question 5. Is Written Communication Is The Transmission Of Message / Information Through Written Words In
No, Electronic mail is a tool for written communication. Written communication may be through any media.
Question 6. Define The Term ‘organization’?
There is need for an organization whenever groups of people work together to reach common goals. Thus, in essence, organization is a group of individuals with a common goal, bound together by a set of authority-responsibility relationships. One of the functions of management is to coordinate available resources of an organization for effective operations.
Thus, organizing is the management function that establishes relationships between activity and authority. It refers to four distinct activities :
- It determines work activities that are to be to done to achieve organizational goals.
- It classifies the type of work needed in various categories and then groups the work into several managerial work units.
- It assigns the works to individuals and delegates the appropriate authority.
- It designs a hierarchy of decision-making roles and relationships. An organization is the end result of the organizing process. Thus an organization is a whole consisting of unified parts (a system) acting in harmony to execute tasks to achieve goals- both effectively and efficiently.
‘Organisation’ is a broad term. Therefore, study of the organizing process is based on a number of important concepts; such as
- Division of labour, or specialization,
- Use of formal organization charts,
- Chain of command,
- Unity of command,
- Communication channels,
- Levels of hierarchy,
- Span of management,
- Use of committees,
- Bureaucracy, and
- The inevitability of informal groupings.
Question 7. Write A Short Note On Organization Charts?
Organization charts are an endeavor to record the formal relationships in an organization, showing some of the relationships, the main lines of communication and the downward flow of authority and responsibility through all the levels of the management hierarchy.
- Thought is needed in constructing charts, as this exercise forces executives to think more specifically about organizational relationships.
- Records and charts provide information to people who wish to know about the enterprise and are useful in instructing new personnel on company organization.
- They form a basis for organizational change and, by projection into the future, can aid the evaluation of organizational planning as strengths and weaknesses can be observed.
- They soon become out-of-date.
- Human relationships cannot be shown on paper, even when they can be defined and described.
- They introduce rigidity into relationships, as people tend to keep within their charted area and become too conscious on boundary lines. (This is one reason why the American Chrysler Corporation deferred using orgainsation charts for a long time. They wished to encourage the crossing of lines of authority and to retain flexibility).
- Costs of preparation, storing and studying charts may be more than their benefits are worth.
- They introduce status problems. People may not wish comparisons to be made between themselves and others. (The author recently asked a human resources manager why his company had no organization chart. He replied in one word, ‘Politics’.)
If the above disadvantages are considered carefully most of them can be overcome and, if the charts are carefully compiled, kept up-to-date and regarded purely as an aid, they can be of assistance to management.
There are certain conventions which are generally in use in the compilation of charts. Line relationships are shown by a continuous line. A position, function or unit is often enclosed by a ‘box’. Sometimes names of personnel occupying positions are also included in the box. Broken or dotted lines are used to denote functional relationships and vertical and horizontal lines link boxes.
Question 8. What Is Functional Departmentation? What Are Its Advantages And Disadvantages?
In order to decie upon the method of grouping or division of work, the main objectives of the business must be considered. The grouping of functions or tasks is referred to as departmentation.
This is the most widely used basis of departmentation. Three main categories occur in most enterprises, i.e., production (the creation of, or addition to utility of, a good or service), selling (finding customers for goods and services at a price), and finance (obtaining and expending funds). As types of enterprise vary, department names vary, e.g., a wholesaler does not produce, he buys, and therefore his departments may be buying, selling and finance. Often the amount of money spent may determine the department and the chief business activity are usually made a separate unit, e.g., the auditing department in an accountancy firm.
- This method is easy and logical to decide and usually effective in practice.
- It follows the principle of specialization and economies result.
- Functions may not be so important as the area covered by the organization, e.g., the territory may be widespread and another grouping (geographical) may be better.
- Such specialization may invoke narrowness of outlook, i.e., inability to see the business as a whole.
- Management positions need of wide experience and this is not readily available in a rigid department system which affords poor training grounds for managers.
Question 9. What Do You Mean By Committee Organization?
Committees are a controversial device of organization. They consist of a group of persons to which some matter is committed. Some undertake management functions, e.g., policy making; others do not, e.g.,
operating committees. Some make decisions, others deliberate but do not decide, some have authority to make recommendations to a superior, others are formed purely to receive information without recommending or deciding.
Ad hoc committees are usually temporary, as they are created for a specific purpose, or to solve shortrange problems, rather than for administrative purposes. If they are established as part of the organizational structure, with specifically delegated duties and authority, they are called formal.
- (i) Actions and ideas of related company units are coordinated.
- (ii) Communications are improved.
- (iii) Judgement and executive talents are pooled and full use is made of specialization.
- (iv) Responsibilities for decisions are shared, rather than borne by a person.
- They are often a waste of time and resources, especially if there are unsatisfactory compromises, or delays by a few members.
- Executives may hide behind committee decisions and avoid responsibility for their individual actions.
Confusion as to the nature of committees has arisen because of the variation of authority assigned to them. They, therefore, should have a clear purpose and be effectively led.
Question 10. Why Do Managers Often Fail To Delegate Authority?
It goes without saying that delegation is crucial to effective management. But in practice, we observe that
some managers do fail to delegate and others delegate weakly. Some proximate reasons for these are :
- Managers often develop a feeling that they are more powerful if they retain decision-making privileges for themselves.
- There is also a feeling among most managers that employees lack the ability to exercise good judgment. A manager often feels that he can perform a task better than his subordinates. Since he considers himself indispensable for a job he is reluctant to delegate.
- Some managers are also guided by the philosophy that workers would not prefer to have broader decision-making power.
- Finally, there is an apprehension among some weak-minded managers that employees may outperform then-they will perform so effectively that the managers will be overshadowed and their own positions will be threatened.
However, the supervisors alone should not be blamed for their failure to delegate. In other words, all the (four) barriers to effective delegation of authority are to be found in managers and their supervisors.
The problem may lie with the employees. In fact, employees themselves may, sometimes, resist accepting delegation of authority. There are three reasons for this:
Firstly, if authority is delegated the employees feel that they are entrusted with added responsibilities.
They also feel that delegation adds to their accountability. An employee usually finds it easier to go to his (her) manager to resolve a problem than to make the decision himself (herself).
Secondly, there is always the danger that an employee will exercise his new authority poorly and invite criticism. This is what employees attempt to protect themselves from.
Finally, most employees lack self-confidence and feel that if they are granted greater decision-making authority they are always under pressure.
Question 11. Compare Line Organization With Staff Organization. Is There Any Link Between The Two?
Line organization is a type of structure consisting of direct vertical relationships connecting the positions at each level with those above and below. These line relationships are the channels through which authority flows form its source to point of action.
This structure forms a basic framework for the whole organization. The other types of structure are, in effect, modifications of it and must rely on it for authoritative action. It is usually depicted on charts by solid lines connecting the positions.
Line relations or direct or executive relations are those existing between a senior and his subordinates at all levels of command. The senior’s instructions are to be complied with as authority is direct. When organization is small, the leaders can effectively direct and control-line structure is usually adopted. All major functions, therefore, must be performed or supervised by the owner.
As business grows, time must be allocated among many functions and those which the owner prefers are more efficiently performed. The others will sooner or later be given to specialists and their abilities can be included in the organization by applying concepts of (a) staff, or (b) functional structures.
Staff structure occurs in two forms, staff assistant and specialist. Staff assistants perform their work subject to the approval of their superior; they have no formal authority to command the actions of others and act in the name of their superior.
Question 12. What Is Training? What Is The Role Of An Effective Training Programmer?
An effective training programme can :
- improve efficiency and morale;
- introduce new techniques;
- provide for succession, enabling qualified replacements to be available;
- raise the standard of unskilled personnel, thus helping over-come labour shortages;
- develop supervisors and decrease the amount of supervision needed;
- lead to a reduction in scrap rates and improve machine utiliza-tion.
Before discussing methods of training, the concept of the learning curve can be considered. This curve seeks to present in diagrammatic form the progress of an individual. It ascends quickly, showing increasing profi-ciency, then levels out later. There are various plateaux in the curve, where a person is consolidating and developing his knowledge. Where a group of persons is being trained can be considered as the creation of learning opportunities.
The required needs of managers and supervisors can be said to consist of :
- Knowledge. Basic knowledge for the job; this usually comes from education early in his work, or before employment. Reading assign-ments, seminar discussions aid the post-experience manager, espe-cially drawing examples from the working environment. A senior colleague could act as tutor, or programmed learning could be used to teach specific techniques.
- Skill and experience. These are related closely to the job content. Preparation for new jobs can be made by giving a person assign-ments, case studies, decision-making exercises and management games to simulate real conditions. Group projects and role playing can supplement planned work experience to enable a person to increase his effectiveness.
- Attitude. The development and conditioning of attitudes and pat-terns of behavior depend more upon learning experiences. A person will, for example, benefit more by experiencing co-operation than reading about it, and a person’s ability to adapt t6 change, cooperate with others and be more self-confident, comes partly from the work situation. The development of attitudes can be quickened by organisational development training. These methods, briefly, teach a group to monitor its own performance, identify and agree problems and their resolution. Other business exercises can be operated under condi-tions of stress to improve the effectiveness of the individual, the group and the company.
Managers learn better when they see the relevance of what they are learning in relation to their own jobs. In everyday work, there is no time to conceptualise.
A person should be given an opportunity to try out his ideas in situation as near as possible to real life life conditions and practices. Therefore training that is relevant and provides persons or groups with an oppor-tunity to use the ideas learnt will be preferred.
Question 13. What Is Leadership? What Are Its Different Types?
Leadership is a means of directing. A leader’s actions are devoted to helping a group to attain its objectives.
Leadership is the ability of management to induce subordinates to work towards group goals with confidence and keenness. Leadership also implies that the leader accepts responsibility for the achievement of the group objective and it is, there-fore, essential for trust and cooperation from both sides to be in evidence — all the time.
It must be noted that leadership is not synonymous with administrative ability and that numerous attempts have been made to analyse the nature of leadership. One is to contrast authoritarian and democratic leadership.
The authoritarian leader gets others to do things by giving them little scope to influence decisions. He uses fear, threats, rewards, and his authority and personality to get his way. His policy is the ‘stick and carrot’ policy — as used for mules!
The democratic leader seeks to persuade and considers the feelings of persons and encourages their participation in decision-making.
Studies have shown that the democratic method gives followers greater job satisfaction and enables them to cooperate better, but there is doubt as to whether decisions taken, under this sort of leadership are better. Recent studies are more doubtful about democratic leadership because outside influences, e.g., government and consumers, exert pressure and, if a leader becomes too employee-centered, production may suffer and morale fall.
Leadership can be formal i.e., having delegated authority, and can exert great influence. Informal leaders can initiate action, but do not have the same authority. The choice of leader, therefore, should be based on an accurate diagnosis of the environment, i.e., its reality, noticing that effec-tive leadership depends upon many conditions.
Question 14. Distinguish Between Organisation Theory And Organisational Behavior ?
Organization theory is the study of structure and design of organizations. It explains how organizations are designed and how can they be constituted to improve organizational effectiveness. On the other hand organizational behavior is he study of the behavior of the individuals and groups in organizational setting. The main points of difference between organization theory and organizational behavior are as follows :
Nature : Organization theory is descriptive and predictive about a particular state of affairs in the organization. On the contrary, organization behavior provides ways of influencing human behavior in desired direction on the basis of such description and prediction.
Purpose : Organization theory attempts to analyse and improve the design of organizations. Organization behavior attempts to explain and predict the behavior of individuals and group in organizations.
Scope of analysis : Organization theory is a macro analysis of organizations designed to integrate people with the organization. On the other hand, organization behavior deals with micro aspects of the organization, i.e. individual and group behavior in the organization.
Focus : In organization theory focus is on the sociology of organization whereas organization behavior stresses upon applied psychology of organizations.
There is, however, a close interrelationship between organization theory and organization behavior. It is not possible that an organization be structured and designed without regard to the people and their needs, feelings, behavioural process, etc. Similarly, one can rarely study and understand behavior in organizations without understanding the structure within which the behavior takes place.
Question 15. Differentiate Between Objectives And Goals?
Objectives are ends which the organization seeks to achieve by its existence and operation. Objectives may be classified into two categories viz.
- external institutional objectives, and
- Internal objectives.
External institutional objectives are those which define the impact of the organization on its environment.
External objectives are those which define how much is expected to be achieved with the available resources.
Goals are targets. Goals emerge from a coalition of interest and individuals who bargain with each other over objectives using money, status and power to press their views. Goal formation is a process wherein individuals seek to expert power to attain acceptable to them.
Question 16. What Is Morale? How Can It Be Maintained?
Morale can be a combination of many factors. A simple definition is that it is the state of a person’s (or a group’s) feelings and attitudes. In a more military sense, it is the quality that exists in a group of people, which arises from faith in their efficiency and discipline, and in the competent and fair way with which they are led. A rather broader meaning is given when it is used in business management — it is the collective attitude of workers towards each other, their work and man-agement.
When morale is high, work is done willingly, and with less supervision; when it is low, work is of poor quality and problems arise, e.g., with a low labour turnover and absenteeism. When groups emerge in industry, each person must sacrifice some part of his individuality, as he, in effect, joins the group to serve the group purpose, thereby (impliedly or other-wise) agreeing to obey those who are in charge. Each group has a particular kind of acceptable behaviour, which is implanted in the mem-ber’s thoughts, and this participation tends to give the members a feeling of superiority over non-group members. Craftsmen often adopt this attitude over non-craftsmen.
If a group can constantly work towards the common purpose, morale can be maintained. The purpose of the group, e.g., to win a race, or to produce an article, becomes accepted as the purpose of the individual.
Individual interests, though, must be subordinated to the group interest and, if this can be done, morale will be high. If morale is good, team spirit should be good as this arises where all members of the group know every member is working to achieve the group goal and obeys internal author-ity. But, if some members are aware that others are more interested in personal success, morale will be low and team spirit will be low.
In industry, for example, the manufacturing department may not achieve its target because of lack of material, and the planning department may be blamed. Many similar cases occur daily, in business — morale may be high (as everyone is trying to achieve the desired goal), but team spirit may be low because people (rightly or wrongly) are aware that some members are not pulling their weight.
The remedy for lack of team spirit is to give the staff better education and knowledge of the other person’s or section’s problems and to make them aware of the fundamental interrelations between department.
Question 17. What Is The Basis For Effective Discipline?
A basis for effective discipline is good motivation and sound, clearly-given instructions. It is essential for good communications to be used in order to let staff know what they are required to do.
Ideally, discipline should be based upon cooperation and a high morale, which will ensure that rules and conditions are obeyed willingly. By virtue of his position, a superior has the right to command and enforce obedience, if necessary. This gives him the right to punish, because of the harm which may be done to the group’s purpose.
Discipline can be obtained by rewards as well as by punishment, but, usually, punishment is expected if accepted norms of behavior are not upheld. Disciplinary action should contribute towards improved behavior, but certain matters must be noted :
- behavior expected must be made known and this is best done in the period of induction;
- discipline should be exercised fairly, with no favoritism or excessive penalties and as soon after the breach as possible. (Some methods of disciplining are by reprimand, downgrad-ing, suspension, refusing a wage increase, transfer or dismissal).
- management should not break rules itself. A good example is essential;
- the quality of discipline can vary with the type of leadership and the understanding of the common purpose of the organization.
Question 18. What Is The Importance Of Control?
Planning, both at management level and at operational level, looks to the future and lays down what has to be achieved: control checks whether the plans are being realised and puts into effect corrective measures where deviation or shortfall is occurring.
Without effective controls an enterprise will be at the mercy of all the internal and external forces that can disrupt its efficiency and will be unaware of, and therefore unable to combat such forces.
Control is exercised over every aspect of an organisation’s functions— from management performance to the activities carried on at every stage right down to the shop-floor.
Effective control ensures that efforts produced at all levels are commen-surate with those required to achieve the goals and objectives of manage-ment and of the different functions throughout the organization.
Question 19. What Is The Difference Between Coordination And Cooperation?
Sometimes the two terms ‘coordination’ and ‘c reveals that these two terms do not imply the same thing. There is, in fact, a considerable difference between the two. Cooperation signifies the desire or willingness of people within the organisation to help one another. It is largely the result of voluntary attitudes and spirit of fellow-feeling on the part of organis-ational people or groups of people. By contrast, coordination cannot be achieved voluntarily by the participation of a group of people within the organisation. It requires something more than the willingness or the desire of the persons extending cooperation to one another. Nobel Lau-reate Herbert Simon writes: “Cooperation will be ineffective — will not reach its goal, whatever the intention of the participants — in the absence of coordination”.
D. McFarland has pointed out the difference between coordination and co-operation thus :
“Cooperation is far. More inclusive term embaracing the idea of coopera-tion. Cooperation is mere willingness of individuals to help each other. It cannot be a satisfactory substitute for coordination.
Cooperation is for the most part the result of voluntary attitudes on the part of people in an Coordination, on the other hand, cannot be voluntarily ensured by a number of cooperating persons. Coordination is a state of affairs which an executive brings about through deliberate action on his part. Cooperation is a valuable element in coordination but cannot substitute for it.”
Question 20. Suggest Measures For Improving The Quality Of Managerial Decisions?
In order to improve the quality of decisions it is important to evaluate them at the time of deciding. One approach, advocated by Norman Maier, is to decide.
- What is the objective quality of the decision? Was the full process of decision-making adopted, i.e., diagnosing all facts, evaluating them, developing alternatives; it so, the decision should be high-quality. The more technical the problem, the more a quality decision will solve it.
- What is the amount of acceptance of the decision by subordinates? Difficulty would ensue if quality considerations conflicted with acceptance. Subordinates may resist a decision they thought was made with insufficient facts or inaccurate logic. A manager can, of course, compel or persuade subordinates to accept the decision. The more people are involved in a problem, the less likely a decision based on ‘quality’ would be sufficient.
Maier suggested managers should evaluate each problem to see how they can increase the effectiveness of decisions by seeing how important it was to have quality and/or acceptance :
- Where high quality is important, not high ( in financial areas, for example, acceptance is not so important);
- Where acceptance is more important than quality (group decisions help here to ensure a solution is made to work);
- Where both high quality and acceptance is needed, e.g., a change in the wage payment system. This could be solved by management stating its views, but a better (more acceptable) way would be to lead group discussions to reach an acceptable solution.
Question 21. What Is Meant By The Structure Of An Organization?
The organization structure is the basic framework within which the executive’s decision-making behaviour occurs. The quality and nature of the decisions made are influenced by the nature of the structure.
Organization, as an element of management, is concerned with the grouping of activities in such a manner that enterprise objectives are attained- the assignment of these activities to appropriate departments and the provision for authority, delegation and coordination. It is important to note that, in order to accomplish goals, activities must be grouped logically and authority should be granted so that conflicts do not occur.
Question 22. Write The Full Form Of The Following Abbreviation :
(ii) Sobc Model
(i) OD – Organization Development
(ii) SOBC Model – Stimulus – Organism – Behaviour – Consequence Model
(iii) CSF – Critical Success Factor
(iv) NRF – National Renewal Fund
(v) OJT – On-the-job training
Question 23. What Is Loyalty?
Loyalty implies the faithful dedication of a person to the firm, colleagues and duty without manipulation of second intentions.
Question 24. What Is Scalar Chain?
It suggests that each communication going up or coming down must follow through control of the employer.
Question 25. What Is Group Dynamics?
When people are joined together in a group, ‘synergy’ will come into play and this strength of the group will not be a mere arithmetical addition but many more i.e. 1+1 will not be 2 but much more. Group dynamics refers to the forces operating in the group.
Question 26. What Is Unfreezing?
It involves discarding the conventional methods and orthodox behavior patterns.
Question 27. What Is Span Of Control?
It refers to the limit of number of employees that a superior can effectively manage at a specific time.
Question 28. Difference Between Personnel Management And Human Resource Management?
According to the National Institute of Personnel Management, “Personnel Management, Labour Management or Staff Management means quite simply the task of dealing with human relationships within an organisation. Academically, the three aspects of Personnel Management are :
- The welfare aspect concerned with working conditions and amenities such as canteens, crèches, housing, personal problems of workers, schools and recreation;
- The labour or personnel aspect concerned with recruitment, placement of employees, remuneration, promotion, incentives, productivity, etc.
- The industrial relations aspects concerned with trade union negotiation, settlement of industrial disputes, joint consultation and collective bargaining. All these aspects are concerned with the human element in industry as distinct from the mechanical.”
- Personnel management is the management of people.
- Personnel management views man as economic person.
- Employee is treated as cost centre and hence controls cost of “Personnel” in the organisation.
- Employee is viewed as a tool or equipment, which can be purchased and used.
Human Resource Management:
- HRM is the management of employees’ skills, knowledge, abilities, talents, aptitude, and creative abilities.
- HRM views man not only as economic person but looks at him as a full person-taking social and psychological factors in views.
- Employees are treated as profit centre and hence they invest in Human Resource Development – and future accrues from this resource.
- Employee is treated as a resource.
Question 29. What Are The Different Methods Of Selection?
There are a variety of methods of selection. An organization must choose the option(s), which it feels, suits its particular needs. The methods of selection may be analysed as follows :
- Employing anyone who applies (possibly with the qualification that they meet simple defined criteria): It must be acknowledged that in certain occupations at certain times the selection method need not to be too sophisticated.
- Past experience or past education only: Sometimes the organization need not pursue an expensive formal selection process. The application form (properly verified) may constitute sufficient evidence to employ an individual. As long as the person has sufficient experience and/ or education he or she may be deemed suitable to do the job. Under such circumstances they may decide to attract that one person to apply for the job.
- Head hunting: There is a limited number of cases where the normal procedure is radically altered. A person may be “head hunted”. That is, the organization feel they know not just the type of person to do a job but the very person they think is best suited to the job. Under such circumstances they may decide to attract that one person to apply for the job.
- I.Q. test: It may be that the intelligence of a person is deemed to be sufficient evidence to justify employment. Under such circumstances as assessment of level of intelligence alone will constitute sufficient authority to employ. It is more likely that this will form only part of the selection method; it is commonly used as a complement to, not a substitute for, other methods.
- Aptitude tests: In some cases the successful holder of a job may need certain abilities or aptitudes. For instance, the person working in a computer department may need to have an aptitude for computers.
- Personality test: In most jobs the personality of the person is a major constituent feature in predicting occupational success. In such cases it will be necessary to assess the personality of the applicant. Formal personality tests may be considered to be a more reliable assessment of an individual’s personality than will be judgement by, for instance, an interviewer. Unfortunately there is no one universally accepted authority on the assessment of an individual’s personality.
- Scenarios: In some cases the work situation can be modelled in some way: an example might be a hypothetical management problem. Individuals can be observed and assessed on their ability to cope with the resolution of these problems. They are often used where group discussion and the ability to communicate with others is being assessed.
- Presentations: It might be that, under certain circumstances, the presentation of a topic of concern to the organization affords some extra source of information as to the qualities of individual, short-listed candidates. This form of selection would help isolate those candidates who have useful ideas, which the organization can use. Similarly, if communication skills are considered to be an important factor of the job, this form of selection provides extra information from which an informed choice can be made.
- The selection interview: This is the most commonly used of all selection methods. A panel could conduct the interview or an individual could conduct it. The candidate might have one, or more than one, interview. It presents one of the most obviously useful ways of assessing an individual’s capabilities.
- Other methods: There are a number of less frequently used selection methods. They include telephone interview, complete application forms in their own handwritings, accompany recent photograph with the application forms and etc.
Question 30. Distinguish Between Administration And Management?
Administration usually refers to the activities of the higher level of the management group who determine major aims and policies. This can be called the broader use of the term which is often used in governmentdepartments ( e.g., the Civil Services). It is also used in the narrower sense of controlling the day-to-day running of the enterprise.
An administrator can also be a manager; this occurs when the administrator is concerned with implementing policy in dealings with employees to whom responsibilities have been delegated.
Brech defines administration as : ‘That part of the management process concerned with the institution and carrying out of procedures by which the programme is laid down and communicated, and the progress of activities is regulated and checked against targets and plans. ‘ Management has even more meanings than administration. Management can mean :
- A process by which scarce resources are combined to achieve given ends. This describes an activity which can be better described by the word managing;
- The management referring to those people carrying out the activity. This should really be the managers;
- The body of knowledge about the activity of managing, regarded here as a special field of study, i.e., a profession.
Of these three, the first is preferable, management referring to the process of management. A useful approach is to consider management to be a process whereby a suitable environment is created for effort to be organized to accomplish desired goals.
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