## Mechanical Interview Questions & Answers

1. Question 1. What Parameters Influence The Tool Life ?

1. Tool material
2. Work material
3. Speed, feed and depth of cut
4. Tool geometry work system
5. Cutting fluid 6. Built up edge
6. Vibration behaviour of the machine tool.
2. Question 2. Mention The Function Of Intermediate Stage In A Generalised Measurement System?

1. Amplify signal without affecting its waveform
2. Remove unwanted noise signals that tend to obscure the input
3. Capable of doing other conditioning like differentiation/integration, A/D conversion etc.
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4. Question 3. What Is A Signal Flow Graph ?

A signal flow graph of a system is a graphical model in which nodes represent the system variables and directed branches between the nodes represent relationship between the variables. In a signal flow graph, a forward path originates from the input mode and terminates at output mode without encountering any mode more than once.

5. Question 4. Explain The Difference Between Rotational And Irrotational Flow?

In rotational flow the vorticity is non zero and in irrotational flow it is zero. In irrotational flow the net rotation of a fluid element about its own mass centre is zero as it moves from one place to another. For it, dv/dx = du/dy.

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7. Question 5. Define The Term Stability Of A Feed Back Control System ?

A system is said to be stable if the output of a system after fluctuations, variations or oscillations, settles at a reasonable value for any change in input.

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9. Question 6. What Is Meant By Precision ?

Precision is defined as the ability of instrument to reproduce a certain set of readings within a given accuracy.

10. Question 7. What Is Boundary Layer ?

Boundary layer is the fluid layer in the neighbourhood of a solid boundary where the effects of fluid friction are predominant.

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12. Question 8. On What Account The Boundary Layer Exists ?

Boundary layer m fluid flow exists on account of fluid density.

13. Question 9. Explain The Difference Between Laminar Flow And Turbulent Flow?

In laminar flow the fluid particles move along smooth, regular paths which can be predicted in well advance. Turbulent flow is characterised by random and erratic movements of fluid particles resulting in formation of eddies. For flow to be laminar in a pipe, the Reynold’s number is less than 2000 and for flow to be turbulent it is greater than 4000.

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15. Question 10. What Is The Difference Between Path Line And Stream Line ?

A path line is a curve traced by a single fluid particle during its motion. A stream line is an imaginary line drawn in a flow field such that a tangent drawn at any point on this line represents the direction of the velocity vector. There is no flow across the stream line.

16. Question 11. What Is The Difference Between Steady And Unsteady Flow ?

In steady flow the velocity at a given point does not change with time whereas in unsteady flow it changes with time.

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18. Question 12. What Is Stagnation Point And Stagnation Pressure ?

A stagnation point is one at which velocity is zero. Stagnation pressure is the sum of static pressure and dynamic pressure.

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20. Question 13. What Is The Hydraulic-grade Line ?

It is the line which shows the variation of piezometric head.

21. Question 14. Under What Condition The Thickness Of Thermal Boundary Layer And Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer Is Same ?

When Prandtl number is equal to unity.

22. Question 15. What Keeps The Shaft In Floating Condition In Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing ?

Hydrodynamic pressure developed in the lubricant.

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24. Question 16. Why The Elements Of Higher Pairs Must Be Force Closed ?

This is necessary to provide completely constrained motion.

25. Question 17. What Is The Value Of Coefficient Of Friction For Ball Bearing ?

0.1 to 0.25.

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27. Question 18. Why Belts Are Subject To Creep ?

Due to uneven extension and contraction of belt.

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29. Question 19. What Is The Ratio Of Damping Coefficient To Critical Damping Coefficient Called ?

Damping factor.

30. Question 20. In Which Type Of Lubrication The Starting Friction Is Low ?

In hydrostatic lubrication.

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32. Question 21. Whether Bernoulli’s Equation Is Applicable For Streamline Straight And Rotational Flows ?

Yes.

33. Question 22. When A Plate Slides Over A Parallel Plate, What Is The Relationship Between Viscous Force And The Lubricant Thickness ?

They are directly proportional.

34. Question 23. How The Stability Of Empty Ship Increased?

By adding ballasts at the bottom level.

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36. Question 24. Define Froude Number?

It is the square root of ratio of inertial force to gravity force.

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38. Question 25. What For Manning’s Formula Used ?

It is used to determine velocity of flow in pipe.

39. Question 26. What Is The Maximum Efficiency Of Power Transmission Through A Pipe ?

66.67%.

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41. Question 27. What Is The Necessary And Sufficient Condition For Bodies In Floatation To Be In Stable Equilibrium ?

Centre of gravity of body should be located below metacentre.

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43. Question 28. Under What Condition The Thermal Boundary Layer Thickness Will Be Equal To The Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer Thickness ?

When Prandtl number is unity.

44. Question 29. How Laminar Boundary Layer Thickness Varies On A Flat Plate ?

It is proportional to the square root of the distance from the leading edge.

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46. Question 30. Name The Axial Flow Reaction Turbine With Adjustable Vanes?

Kaplan turbine.

47. Question 31. Define The Degree Of Reaction Of A Turbomachine?

It is the ratio of total pressure change in the rotor to that in the stage.

48. Question 32. What Is Meant By Relative Stability ?

If the system is found to be stable, then it is necessary to know the stable strength or degree of stability which is called relative stability. Phase margin and gain margins are the measures of relative stability.

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50. Question 33. On What Factors The Efficiency Of A Centrifugal Pump Depends ?

The efficiency of a centrifugal pump depends on size, speed and type number.

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52. Question 34. Define Transducer ?

Transducer is an element which converts the signal from one physical form to another without changing the information content of the signal.

53. Question 35. A 200 Mm Impeller Of Centrifugal Pump Develops Discharge Head Of 2 Kg/cm2. If Discharge Head Is Required As 8 Kg/cm2, What Should Be Diameter Of Impeller?

400 mm.

54. Question 36. Why Thin-plate Orifice Is Frequently Recommended For Flow Measurement In Most Of The Cases ?

It is recommended because of its high accuracy, low cost, and extreme flexibility.

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56. Question 37. How The Water Flow From A Hydrant In A City Water System Measured ?

It can be measured by allowing the flow of water from a hydrant and noting down the horizontal distance (x) where jet strikes the ground and the vertical distance (y) of outlet from ground. Then flow = area of hydrant x

57. Question 38. For The Same Size, Length And Condition Of Pipe, How The Friction Head Loss Changes If Pipe Size Is Varied?

Under same flow conditions the friction head loss increases as the size change to the 4.8th power.

58. Question 39. How Does The Capacity Changes In Pipe Flow With Increase In Pipe Diameter If Head Is Constant ?

At constant head, capacity is proportional to d25.

59. Question 40. How Does The Head Change In Pipe Flow With Change In Diameter, If Capacity Is Constant?

At constant capacity, head is proportional to

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61. Question 41. How Head Varies In Pipe Flow With Change In Flow, If Pipe Diameter Is Same?

At constant diameter, head is proportional to (flow)2.

62. Question 42. Give Some Properties Of Errors ?

1. Errors give the difference between the measured-value and the true value
2. Accuracy of a measurement system is measured in terms of error
3. A study of error helps in finding the reliability of the results.
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64. Question 43. Define The Term Contraction Coefficient?

The ratio of area of jet (contracted) and the cross section of the orifice.

65. Question 44. What For Pycnometer Is Used ?

Pycnometer is used to measure specific gravity of the liquid.

66. Question 45. How May Types Of Bonded Strain Gauges Used ?

1. Fine wire strain gauge
2. Metal foil strain gauge
3. Piezoresistive gauge.
67. Question 46. Name Various Functional Elements Of An Instrumental System ?

1. Primary sensing element
2. Variable conversion (or) transducer element
3. Variable manipulation element
4. Data transmission element
5. Data processing element
6. Data presentation element
7. Data storage and playback element.
68. Question 47. Name The Three Stages Of A Generalised Measuring System?

1. Sensing and converting the input to a convenient and practicable form.
2. Processing/manipulating the measured variable.
3. Presenting the processed measured variable in quantitative form.
69. Question 48. How Is A Pelton Turbine Braked ?

A pelton wheel is broken by a nozzle directing a jet on the back of the buckets.

70. Question 49. What Is Static Pressure ? How Is It Measured?

The pressure caused on the walls of a pipe due to a fluid at rest inside the pipe or due to the flow of a fluid parallel to walls of the pipe is called static pressure. This static pressure is measured by inserting a pressure measuring tube into the pipe carrying the fluid so that the tube is at right angle to the fluid flow path.

71. Question 50. What Are The Requirements Of A Control System ?

Stability, accuracy and speed of response are the three requirements of control system.

72. Question 51. What Is The Difference Between Weir, And Submerged Weir?

Any obstruction of a streamflow over which water flows is weir. When the downstream water level rises over the weir crest, it is called submerged weir.

73. Question 52. What Is The Difference Between Spillway And Siphon Spillway ?

Spillway is an essential part of a large dam and provides an efficient and safe means of releasing flood water that exceeds the design capacity of the reservoir. Siphon spillway is spillway designed to discharge water in a closed conduit under negative pressure.

74. Question 53. What Is The Difference Between Culverts, Stilling Basin, And Standpipe ?

Culverts are built at the points of lowest valley to pass water across the embankments of highways or railroads.

Stilling basin is transitional energy dissipating structure to avoid the damaging process by a highly accelerated spilled water.

Standpipe is used principally for alleviating the transient pressures in large pipeline system. It also works as a pressure relief valve for the upstream pipe during the turbine shut off.

75. Question 54. What Do You Understand By Run-of-river Scheme In Hydro Power Generation ?

A scheme in which the discharge is varying and only that much water can be utilised for conversion as available in the river.

76. Question 55. What Is The Difference Between Firm Power And Secondary Power In Hydro Power Plants ?

The approximate constant and continuous power which is assured at power station and would be available throughout the year is called firm power.

In run-of-the river schemes which are generally designed for % availability of water, the firm power would be available for at least % of the years during the life of the scheme. However in some years discharge in the river may be more than % availability discharge and some extra power known as secondary power can be generated.

77. Question 56. What Is The Criterion For Determining Economic Diameter Of Power Tunnel ?

The economic diameter of a power tunnel is determined such that the total value of following two factors is least

1. annual loss of revenue on account of power head lost due to friction.
2. recurring annual expenditure.
78. Question 57. What Are The Three Functions Served By A Surge Tank In A Hydro Plant ?

The three functions served by a surge tank are

1. flow regulation – act as a reservoir for acceptance or delivery of water to meet requirements of load changes.
2. water-hammer relief or pressure regulation.
3. improvement in speed regulation.

79. Question 58. What Is The Criterion To Determine The Economic Diameter Of Penstock ?

The economic diameter of a penstock required to carry a discharge is the one at which annual costs due to the greater investment do not exceed the annual value of resulting increment energy output.

80. Question 59. If Jet Ratio For A Pelton Wheel Is 12 Then Number Of Buckets Should Be ?

0.5 x 12+ 15 = 21.

81. Question 60. What Is The Difference Between Anti-friction And Hydrostatic Bearings ?

In anti-friction bearings rolling components are introduced between the sliding surfaces. In hydrostatic bearings lubricant is supplied at a high pressure to a pocket in the bearing.

82. Question 61. What Is Inviscid Fluid ?

It is the frictionless fluid.

83. Question 62. State Law Of Conservation Of Momentum ?

The ratio of change of momentum of a mass of fluid is equal to the vector sum of all external forces acting on it.

84. Question 63. Define Turbulent Flow ?

Flow in which adjacent layers mix continuously, so that the flow pattern is unsteady, full of eddies, and apparently without any mathematically expressible regularity.

85. Question 64. Define Reynolds Law Of Similitude ?

Two geometrically similar flow systems subject only to friction and inertia forces are dynamically similar if both have the same ‘Reynolds’ number.

86. Question 65. What Is The Difference Between Boundary Lubrication And Fluid Film Lubrication ?

In boundary lubrication condition the ratio of thickness of lubrication film to surface roughness (CLA value) is less than 1 and for fluid film lubrication condition this ratio is greater than 5 and less than 100.

87. Question 66. A Bearing In Which Hydrodynamic Pressure Is Generated Due To Rotation Of Jour¬nal Is Called.?

Journal bearing.

88. Question 67. For A Journal Running In A Bearing Clockwise At Steady State, Where Will Be The Minimum Clearance ?

To the left of the load line.

89. Question 68. Out Of Impulse And Reaction Type Hydraulic Turbines, Which Has Higher Specific Speed ?

Reaction turbine.

90. Question 69. What Is Order Of The System?

The order of the system is the order of the highest derivative of the ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients which defines the system mathematically.

91. Question 70. What Is Bode Plot ?

Bode plot is a logarithmic plot used to represent transfer functions. The Bode plot consists of two plots namely.

1. The plot of magnitude in db (on linear scale) vs. frequency to (on log scale)
2. The plot of phase angle in degrees (on linear scale) vs. frequency co (on log scale)
92. Question 71. Navier Stokes Equation Represents The Conservation Of Which Quantity ?

Momentum.

93. Question 72. What Are The Characteristics Of Precision ?

1. If a number of measurements are made on same true value, the degree of closeness of these measurements gives precision
2. It is a measure of the degree of repeatability or reproducibility of the measuring system.

During the act of measurement the measuring instrument takes energy from the signal source or measured medium and thus the signal source is altered. This effect is called loading.

95. Question 74. Give Two Uses Of Bode Plots?

1. They are the logarithmic plots used to represent transfer functions
2. They are used in the calculation of gain margin and phase margin.
96. Question 75. What Is The Name Of Nondimensional Group For Ratio Of Inertia Force To Gravity Force?

Froude number.

97. Question 76. The Head Loss In A Fully Developed Laminar Flow In A Circular Pipe Due To Friction Is Directly Proportional To ?

Square of mean velocity.

98. Question 77. For What Type Of Flow, The Streamlines, Pathlines And Streaklines Are Virtually Identical ?

99. Question 78. How The Streamlines And Equipotential Lines Are Related In A Flow Field ?

They are orthogonal everywhere in the flow field.

100. Question 79. Under What Kind And Condition Of A Fluid The Velocity Potential Exists ?

Irrotational flow.

101. Question 80. Where Should Centre Of Gravity Of A Body Lie For It To Float In Stable Equilibrium ?

e.g. should be located below the metacentre.

102. Question 81. For Fully Developed Flow Through A Pipe, What Is The Ratio Of Maximum To Average Velocity ?

2.

103. Question 82. Out Of Centrifugal, Axial And Positive Displacement Pumps, Which Has Maximum Specific Speed And Which Has Minimum ?

Axial pump has maximum specific speed and reciprocating pump has minimum.

104. Question 83. Specific Speed Of A Turbine Is 800. What Type Of Turbine Is This ?

Kaplan turbine.

105. Question 84. In Which Type Of Lubrication System The Starting Friction Is Low ?

Hydrostatic lubrication.

106. Question 85. At Which Point The Cavitation Is Most Likely To Occur In A Hydel Plant ?

At turbine rotor exit.

107. Question 86. What Is The Difference Between Lower Pair And Higher Pair ?

In a kinematic pair, if the elements have surface contact when in motion, the pair is called lower pair and if elements have line or point contact the pair is called higher pair.

108. Question 87. What Do You Understand By Inversions And How Many Inversions Are Possible In A Kinematic Chain Having ‘n’ Links ?

Inversions are different mechanisms obtained by fixing different links in a kinematic chain but keeping relative motions of links unchanged with respect to one another. A kinematic chain with ‘n’ links can have ‘n’ inversions.

109. Question 88. What Is The Difference Between Basic Kinematic Chain And Compound Kinematic Chain ? What Is The Criteria For A Chain To Be Constrained ?

A basic kinematic chain consists of four kinematic links and a compound kinematic chain is a constrained chain of more than four links. A chain is constrained if no. of binary joints and half of number of higher pairs is equal to 3/2 of no. of links minus 2.

110. Question 89. What Is The Difference Between A Machine And A Mechanism ?

A mechanism consists of links forming a constrained kinematic chain. Its function is basically to transmit or modify motion. A machine is a mechanism but here we are concerned with forces to be transmitted and it is used to modify mechanical work.

111. Question 90. In Which Type Of Motion, Acceleration Is Directly Proportional To Displacement ?

SHM.

112. Question 91. What Is The Function Of A Transducer Element ?

The function of a transducer element is to sense and convert the desired input into a more convenient and practicable form to be handled by measurement system.

113. Question 92. What Is The Direction Of Tangential Acceleration ?

The direction of tangential acceleration may be same or opposite to that of angular velocity.

114. Question 93. What Is The Number Of Degrees Of Freedom Constrained In Each Case By The Kinematic Pairs.

1. Re Volute Pair,
2. cylindrical Pair,
3. screw Pair,
4. Spherical Pair.

1. Revolute pair—single degree of freedom.
2. cylindrical pair—two degrees of freedom.
3. Screw pair—one degree of freedom.
4. spherical pair—three degrees of freedom.
115. Question 94. What Is The Purpose Of D-slide Valve In Steam Engines ?

It controls the piston position for cut off of steam, for release of steam and compression position for steam in cylinder.

116. Question 95. What Is The Purpose Of Corliss Valve In Place Of D’-slide Valve In Steam Engine ?

Corliss valve reduces condensation, provides independent control on admission, cut off, release and compression, and reduces driving power requirements.

117. Question 96. On What Factor The Size Of Cam Depends ?

Size of cam depends on base circle.

118. Question 97. If Base Circle Diameter Of Cam Increases, What Happens To Pressure Angle ?

It decreases.

119. Question 98. If Angular Speed Of Cam Is Increased Two Times, How Much Jerk Will Be Increased ?

Eight times.

120. Question 99. Define Primary And Secondary Transducers ?

A primary transducer senses a physical phenomena and converts it to an analogue output.

The analogue output is then converted into an electrical signal by secondary transducer.

121. Question 100. What Is The Relationship Between

1. Axes Of Spin, Precession, And Applied Gyroscopic Torque And
2. in Between Their Planes ?

The axes of spin, precession, and applied gyroscopic torque are contained in two planes perpendicular to each other, and planes of spin, precession, and applied gyroscopic torque in the three planes perpendicular to one another.

122. Question 101. How Shear Forces Are Incurred In Fluid Flow ?

Shear forces between fluid particles and boundary walls and between the fluid particles themselves, result from the viscosity of the real fluid.

123. Question 102. In Laminar Flow, How Discharge Is Related To Viscosity ?

Discharge varies inversely as viscosity.

124. Question 103. What Is Best Hydraulic Section ?

Best hydraulic section is one in which for a given cross-section area, the channel section has least wetted perimeter.

125. Question 104. What Is Best Hydraulic Trapezoidal Section ?

It is a half-hexagon in shape.

126. Question 105. What Is Specific Energy In A Channel Section ?

It is defined as the energy head measured with respect to the channel bottom at the section. At any section, it is equal to sum of the velocity head and the water depth at the section.

127. Question 106. What Is Critical Depth And Critical Flow ?

Critical depth is the depth, at which the discharge may be delivered through the section at minimum energy.

Critical flow is the flow in open channel corresponding to critical depth.

128. Question 107. What Causes Boundary Layer Separation ?

129. Question 108. What Is The Importance Of Nose Radius ?

Nose radius is favourable to long tool life and good surface finish. A sharp point on the end of a tool is highly stressed, short lived and leaves a groove in the path of cut.

130. Question 109. At What Point Below Free Surface In A Uniform Laminar Flow In A Channel The Point Velocity Is Equal To Mean Velocity Of Flow ?

At 0.577 depth of channel.

131. Question 110. What Is The Value Of Friction Factor For Smooth Pile When Reynolds Number Is Approximately = 10g ?

0.01.

132. Question 111. How Hydraulic Grade Line And Free Surface Of Open Channel Flow Related ?

They coincide.

133. Question 112. What Are The First And Last Elements Of Tool Signatures ?

Back rake angle and nose radius.

134. Question 113. What Is Open Channel Flow ? Explain 4 Types Of Open Channel Flows?

Open channel flow has a free water surface which is normally subject to the atmospheric pressure.

Steady open channel flow : In this case the discharge and water depth at any section in the reach do not change with time during the period of interest.

Unsteady open channel flow : In this case the discharge and the water depth at any section in the reach change with time.

Uniform open channel flow : In this case the discharge and the water depth remain the same in energy section in the channel reach. It is mostly steady.

Varied open channel {low : In this case the water depth and/or the discharge change along the length of the channel. It may be steady (such as flow over a spillway crest) or unsteady (as in the case of flood waves or tidal surge).

135. Question 114. When Does Wake Occur ?

It occurs after a separation point.

136. Question 115. In Straight Polarity, To Which Terminal The Electrode Is Connected ?

Negative.

137. Question 116. What Is Hydraulic Radius ?

It is the ratio of fluid flow area/shear perimeter.

138. Question 117. Define Flow Work?

Flow work is the amount of mechanical energy required to push or force a flowing fluid across a section boundary.

139. Question 118. What Do You Understand By Dimensional Analysis ?

Dimensional analysis is the mathematics of dimensions and quantities and provides procedural techniques whereby the variables that are assumed to be significant in a problem can be formed into dimensionless parameters, the number of parameters being less than the number of variables.

140. Question 119. What Is Hydraulic Depth For Open Channel Flow ?

It is the ratio of area and the top width of the channel section.

141. Question 120. Which Welding Set Will You Select For Welding Both Ferrous And Non Ferrous Materials?

D.C. generator set.

142. Question 121. Which Welding Process Is A Combination Of Arc Welding And Gas Welding Processes?

Atomic hydrogen welding.

143. Question 122. What Is Hydraulic Jump ?

It is a natural phenomenon in open channel. It is an abrupt reduction in flow velocity by means of a sudden increase of water depth in the down stream direction. Through a hydraulic jump, and high-velocity supercritical flow is changed to a low-velocity subcritical flow.

144. Question 123. What Is Gradually Varied Flow ?

The changes in water depth in the open channel take place very gradually with distance. Depending on the channel slope, the surface conditions, the sectional geometry, and the discharge, these may be classified into five categories : steep channel, critical channel, mild channel, horizontal channel, and adverse channel.

145. Question 124. Explain 5 Types Of Channels?

Steep channel : In this case normal depth < critical depth.
Critical channel : In this case normal depth = critical depth.
Mild channel : In this case, normal depth > critical depth.
Adverse channel : In this case, the slope of channel bed < 0
Horizontal channel : In this case, the slope of channel bed = 0.

146. Question 125. What Is Similarity Between Normal Shock Wave And Hydraulic Jump ?

Both are analogous and irreversible.

147. Question 126. For What Purpose Chills Are Used In Moulds ?

Chills are used to achieve directional solidification.

148. Question 127. What Is Tumbler Gear Mechanism ?

Tumbler gear mechanism is a mechanism consisting of number of different sized gears keyed to the driving shaft in the form of cone and is used to give the desired direction of motion of the lathe spindle.

149. Question 128. What Is Relative Roughness Of Pipe ?

It is the ratio of the size of the surface imperfections to the inside diameter of the pipe.

150. Question 129. What Is Conicity ?

The ratio of the difference in diameter of the taper to its length is termed conicity.

151. Question 130. Under What Condition The Effect Of Compressibility Of Fluid Can Be Neglected ?

When Mach number is less than 0.4.

152. Question 131. For Which Type Of Flow The Velocity Distribution In A Pipe Is Parabolic?

For uniform laminar flow.

153. Question 132. What Is The Relationship Between Center Line Velocity And Average Velocity For A Laminar Flow In A Pipe ?

Average velocity = 1/2 centre line velocity.

154. Question 133. On Which Factor The Friction Factor For A Smooth Pipe In Turbulent Flow Depends ?

Reynolds number.

155. Question 134. What Do You Understand By Pipe Branchings ?

When water is brought by pipes to a junction where more than two pipes meet, them the total amount of water brought by pipes to a junction must always be equal to that carried away from the junction by other pipes, and all pipes that meet at the junction must share the same pressure at the junction.

156. Question 135. What Is Pipe Networks And What Are The Condition For Network ?

Pipe network comprises a number of pipes connected together to form loops and branches. For a network,

1. at any junction, Y.Q = 0 and
2. between any two junctions the total head loss is independent of the path taken.
157. Question 136. What Is Hardy-cross Method ?

It is a commonly used computer program for a pipe network.

158. Question 137. Explain Water Hammer?

The force resulting from changing the speed of the water mass (say in a pipe due to sudden change of flow rate) may cause a pressure rise in the pipe with a magnitude several times greater than the normal static pressure in the pipe. Pressure head caused by water hammer = C (V – velocity in pipe, C = celerity).

159. Question 138. What Happens To Impurities In Centrifugal Casting ?

They get collected at the center of the casting.

160. Question 139. Define The Terms Hydraulic Similitude And Dimensional Analysis?

Hydraulic similitude is the principle on which the model studies are based.

Dimensional analysis is the analysis of the basic relationship of the various physical quantities involved in the static and dynamic behaviors of water flow in a hydraulic structure.

161. Question 140. Explain The Difference Between Geometric Similarity, Kinematic Similarity And Dynamic Similarity?

Geometric similarity : It implies similarity of form. The model is a geometric reduction of the prototype and is accomplished by maintaining a fixed ratio for all homologous lengths between the model and the prototype.

Kinematic similarity : It implies similarity in motion. Kinematic similarity between a model and the prototype is obtained if the homologous moving particles have the same velocity ratio along geometrically similar paths. It involves the scale of time as well as length.

Dynamic similarity : It implies similarity in forces involved in motion.

162. Question 141. Define Reynolds Law ?

When the inertial force and the viscous force are considered to be the only forces governing the motion of the water, the Reynolds number of the model and the prototype must be kept at the same value.

163. Question 142. When A Built Up Edge Is Formed While Machining ?

While machining ductile materials at high speed.

164. Question 143. On What Factor The Friction Factor For A Rough Pipe In Turbulent Flow Depends ?

Relative roughness.

165. Question 144. What Is Unit Power Of A Turbine ?

PHP12.

166. Question 145. How Cavitation Causes Damage ?

In a a closed system (pipelines, or pumps), water evaporates rapidly in regions where the pressure drops below the vapour pressure. This phenomenon is called cavitation. The vapour bubbles formed in cavitation usually collapse in a violent manner, which may cause considerable damage to the system.

167. Question 146. In Milling Process, How The Arbor Torque Can Be Smooth End ?

Arbor torque can be smooth end by increasing number of teeth, using higher spiral angle of teeth, using higher cutting depth.

168. Question 147. What Are Webs In A Twist Drill ?

Webs are the metal column in the drill which separates the flutes.

169. Question 148. What Is Bluff Body ?

It is a body with such shape that the flow is separated much ahead of its rear end resulting in a large wake, the pressure drag being much greater than the friction drag.

170. Question 149. What Is Bulk Modulus ?

It is the ratio of hydrostatic stress to volumetric strain within the elastic limits.

171. Question 150. Define Boundary Layer?

It is the fluid layer in the neighborhood of a solid boundary where the effects of fluid friction are predominant.

172. Question 151. What Is Creep Flow ?

It is flow at very low Reynolds number where viscous forces are larger than the inertia forces.

173. Question 152. What Is Torricellis Theorem ?

According to it velocity of jet flowing out of a small opening is proportional to the square root of head of liquid above it.

174. Question 153. How Does Cavitation Manifest Itself In A Centrifugal Pump ?

Usual symptoms of cavitation of pump are noise, vibration, a drop in head and capacity with a decrease in efficiency, accompanied by pitting and corrosion of the impeller vanes.

175. Question 154. What Happens If Centrifugal Pump Is Operated At Excessive Speeds ?

When a pump is operated at excessive speeds, the differential pressure developed increases and causes a powerful pulsating vacuum on the underside of the blade tips and each particle of water is pulled away from the blade, taking away with it a small particle of metal, producing pitting/grooved effect. Repeated erosive action results in complete honey combing and total destruction of blade, with resultant loss in pump performance.

176. Question 155. On What Parameters The Head Developed By A Centrifugal Pump Depends ?

It depends upon the impeller diameter and its rotation speed.

177. Question 156. Which Factors Determine The Selection Of Electrolyte For Electrochemical Machining Process ?

Electrolyte should be chemically stable and have high electrical conductivity.

178. Question 157. What Is The Disadvantages Of Centrifugal Pump Having Very Low Specific Speed ?

For a.centrifugal pump having very low specific speed, the impeller diameter is large and narrow having excessively high disc friction and excessive hydraulic losses.

179. Question 158. On What Factors The Efficiency Of Pump Depends ?

Efficiency of a pump (centrifugal) depends on the size, speed, and proportions of the impeller and casing.

180. Question 159. On What Factors The Cavitation In Centrifugal Pumps Is Dependent ?

Cavitation in centrifugal pumps depends on the velocity of water entering the impeller and on the relative velocity of the impeller blades where the water is picked up.

181. Question 160. What Are The Losses In A Centrifugal Pump ?

The losses in a centrifugal pump are : Friction losses due to eddies in flow, leakage, friction loss due to rotation of impeller in chamber of water, gland and bearing power losses.

182. Question 161. What Should Be Done To Avoid Cavitation In Pumps ?

In order to avoid cavitation, the suction lift and the operating speed must be carefully chosen.

183. Question 162. What Will Happen If Speed Of Reciprocating Pump Is Increased ?

If speed of a reciprocating pump is increased beyond a limit, then atmospheric pressure would be insufficient to force water into the pump at the same speed as the piston. This would a break in the continuity of the water in suction pipe (cavitation) and give rise to vibration, noise, and chemical attack by any dissolved gases which may be released from the water owing to the high vacuum and the breaking of the water column.

184. Question 163. What Is The Order Of Efficiency Of Cenetrifugal And Reciprocating Pumps ?

The efficiency of centrifugal pump is of the order of 45% whereas that of reciprocating pump is around %.

185. Question 164. What Are The Basic Operations Performed In A Slotter ?

The different operations done in slotter are :

1. Machining grooves
2. Machining cylindrical surface
3. Machining irregular profiles.
186. Question 165. How The Positive Displacement Is Obtained In Rotary Pumps ?

Positive displacement in rotary pumps is achieved in two ways :

1. A rotor carries radially adjustable vanes, the outer tips of which are constrained by a circular casing, whose centre is remote from that of the rotor.
2. Various combinations of gears, lobes, helices, etc. within a casing arranged so that the lobes or teeth attached to each rotor pass in sequence through the same pumping space.
187. Question 166. Under What Condition The Flow And Power Of Pump Vary As Square Of The Size ?

The flow and power vary as size2 when the geometric size changes as inverse of change of speed.

188. Question 167. How The Incidence Of Cavitation Detected ?

The incidence of cavitation is detected by the following in order of appearance.

1. stroboscopic observation of bubble appearance and size
2. sensitive acoustic tests of cavitation noise
3. reduction of efficiency and/or head of 3%.
189. Question 168. How Cavitation Erosion Is Assessed ?

Cavitation erosion is assessed by depth of attack or weight of metal removed.

190. Question 169. At Which Temperature The Cavitation Erosion Is Negligible And Why ?

Cavitation erosion is negligible at above 300°C because the water and steam have same densities at critical temperature of 374°C and thus there is no volume change or bubble collapse in the vicinity of this range.

191. Question 170. What Is An Arbor ?

An arbor is an accurately machined shaft for holding and driving the arbor type cutter. It is tapered at one end to fit the spindle nose and has two slots to fit the nose keys for locating and driving it.

192. Question 171. What Is The Condition For A Flow To Be Fully Developed Through A Pipe ?

Ratio of maximum velocity to average velocity should be 2.

193. Question 172. When A Fluid Is Moving With Uniform Velocity, Whether The Pressure Of Fluid Will Depend On Its Depth And Orientation ?

194. Question 173. How Much Is The Vertical Component Of Force On A Curved Surface Submerged In A Static Liquid ?

It is equal to weight of the liquid above the curved surface.

195. Question 174. On Which Factors Depends The Friction Factor In A Rough Turbulent Flow In A Pipe?

It depends on pipe diameter and the condition of the pipe.

196. Question 175. What Does The Realisation Of Velocity Potential In Fluid Flow Indicate ?

It indicates that flow is irrotational.

197. Question 176. What Is The Difference Between Potential Flow And Creep Flow ?

Potential flow assumes viscous forces to be zero but same is considered larger than inertia forces in creep flow.

198. Question 177. For Which Application Mach Number And Froude Numbers Are Significant ?

Mach no. is significant in the study of projectiles and jet propulsion. Froude number is significant in the study of ship hulls.

199. Question 178. What Is The Difference Between Geometric, Kinematic, And Dynamic Similarities Between Model And Prototype ?

Geometric similarity is mainly for same shape for model and prototype, kinematic similarity is concerned with streamline pattern, whereas dynamic similarity concerns the ratio of forces.

200. Question 179. A Body Is Floating In Water. If It Is Displaced Slightly Then About Which Point It Will Oscillate?

It will oscillate about centre of buoyancy.

201. Question 180. Why Uniform Ramming Is Considered Desirable In Green Sand Moulding Process ?

Uniform ramming results in greater dimensional stability of a casting.

202. Question 181. On What Account The Friction Drag Is Experienced ?

Friction drag is experienced on separation of boundary layer.

203. Question 182. What Is The Characteristic Of Centrifugally Cast Components ?

These have fine grain structure with high density.

204. Question 183. Under What Condition The Separation Of Flow Occurs ?

205. Question 184. What Is The Criterion For Shaping Of Streamlined Body ?

It is shaped to suppress the flow separation about the body and to shift the boundary layer separation to near most part of body to reduce the wake size.

206. Question 185. What Do You Understand By Entrance Length And What Is Its Value For Turbulent Flow In Smooth Pipe ?

Entrance length of flow is the initial length in which the flow develops fully such that the velocity profile remains unchanged downstream. For turbulent flow in smooth pipe, entrance length is taken as 50 x diameter of pipe.

207. Question 186. Explain The Difference Between Friction Drag And Pressure Drag?

Friction drag is the drag force exerted by a fluid on the surface due to friction action when the flow occurs past a flat surface at zero incidence. Pressure drag is the additional drag force on account of the differences of pressure over the body surface when flow occurs past a surface which is not everywhere parallel to the fluid stream. Pressure drag depends upon separation of boundary layer and the size of wake. Friction drag is due to shear stresses generated due to viscous action.

208. Question 187. What Do You Understand By Choking In Pipe Line ?

When specific mass flow is not able to take place in a pipe line.

209. Question 188. What Is The Difference Between Streamline Body And Bluff Body ?

In streamline body the shape is such that separation in flow occurs past the nearmost part of the body so that wake formed is small and thus friction drag is much greater than pressure drag. In bluff body the flow gets separated much ahead of its rear resulting in large wake and thus pressure drag is much greater than the friction drag.

210. Question 189. What Is The Difference Between Dressing And Truing Of A Grinding Wheel ?

Dressing is the process used to clear the cutting surface of the grinding wheel of any dull grits and embedded swarf in order to improve the cutting action. Truing is the process employed to bring the wheel to the required geometric shop and also to restore the cutting action of a worn wheel.

211. Question 190. Whether Hard Grade Or Softer Grade Is Required For Internal Grinding Than External Grinding?

Softer graders of wheel are required for internal grinding than for external grinding.

212. Question 191. How Is The Velocity Profile And Stress Distribution Due To Laminar Flow Of An Incompressible Flow Under Steady Conditions In A Circular Pipe?

Velocity profile is parabolic with zero velocity at boundary and maximum at the centre. Shear stress distribution is linear, being maximum at boundary and zero at centre.

213. Question 192. Where The Maximum Velocity Occurs In Open Channels ?

Near the channel bottom.

214. Question 193. Define Hydraulically Efficient Channel Cross Section?

The shape of such section is that which produces minimum wetted perimeter for a given area of flow and carries maximum flow.

215. Question 194. What Is Follower Rest ?

For slender work a travelling or follower rest is used. This fits on the lathe – saddle and travels to and fro with it. By this means support is constantly provided at the position of cut. Thus the work piece being turn is rigidly held against the tool.

216. Question 195. What Is The Meaning Of The Term Sensitive Drill Press ?

A sensitive drilling press is a light, simple, bench type machine for light duty working with infinite speed ratio.

217. Question 196. Why Carburised Machine Components Have High Endurance Limit ?

In carburised machine components, the process of carburisation introduces a compressive layer on the surface and thus endurance limit is increased.

218. Question 197. What Is Anisotropy ?

The phenomenon of different properties in different directions is called anisotropy.

219. Question 198. What Is Vapour Pressure And When It Becomes Important ?

Vapour pressure is the partial pressure created by the vapour molecules when evaporation takes place within an enclosed space. It becomes important when negative pressures are involved.

220. Question 199. Explain Absolute Viscosity ?

It is the ratio of shear stress and the gradient of velocity with distance between a fixed plate and moving plate (Its unit is Pa . s).

221. Question 200. Define Surface Tension ?

Surface tension of a liquid is the work that must be done to bring enough molecules from inside the liquid to the surface to form one new unit area of that surface. (Its unit is Nm/m2 or N/m).

222. Question 201. What Is Capillarity And When Liquid Rises Or Falls ?

Capillarity : The rise or fall of a liquid in a capillary tube caused by surface tension. The magnitude of rise or fall depends on the relative magnitudes of the cohesion of the liquid and adhesion of the liquid to the walls of the containing vessels. Capillarity is of importance in tubes smaller than 10 mm diameter.

Rise of liquid : Liquids rise (in capillary tube) when they wet and adhesion of the liquid to the walls is greater than the cohesion of the liquid.

Fall of liquid : Liquids fall (in capillary tube) when they do not wet and the cohesion of the liquid is greater than the adhesion of the liquid to the walls.

223. Question 202. What Is The Difference Between Perfect And Real Fluids ?

Perfect fluids are treated as if all tangential forces created by friction can be ignored.

Real fluids refer to the cases in which friction must properly be taken into account.

224. Question 203. Which Factors Affect Tool Size ?

Following factors influence tool size :

1. Process variable (speed, feed and depth of cut)
2. Tool material
3. Tool geometry
4. Workpiece material, its hardness, microstructure and surface condition
5. Cutting conditions.
225. Question 204. When The Motion Of Fluid Is Fully Known ?

The motion of a fluid is fully known when the velocity of each of its particles can be specified.

226. Question 205. Define Fluid?

A fluid is a substance that can’t remain at rest under the action of any shear force.

227. Question 206. How Is The Size Of A Vertical Boring Machine Designated ?

The specifications of vertical boring machine are :

1. Column height
2. Table size
3. Floor area
4. Weight of the job
5. Spindle of the motor.
228. Question 207. What Do You Mean By Drill Sleeve And A Drill Socket ?

The drill sleeve is suitable for holding only one size of shank. If the taper shank of the tool is smaller than the taper in the spindle hole, a taper sleeve is used.

When the taper tool shank is larger than the spindle taper, drill sockets are used to hold the tools. Drill sockets are much longer in size than the drill sleeves.

229. Question 208. What Is Non Barotropic Fluid ?

Fluid such as air for which the density is not a single-valued function of the pressure (aerostatics).

230. Question 209. On Account Of Which Property, The Falling Drops Of Rain Acquire Superical Shape?

Surface tension.

231. Question 210. How You Can Define Standard Atmospheric Pressure ?

By international agreement, the standard atmospheric pressure is defined as 101.325 kN/m2.

232. Question 211. What Do You Understand By Acoustic Velocity ?

Acoustic velocity is the speed of a small pressure (sound) wave in a fluid.

233. Question 212. Explain The Difference Between Centipoise And Centistoke ?

Centipoise is the unit of dynamic viscosity. It is equal to 1/100 of poise, and poise = 0.1 Pa . s. Value of dynamic viscosity of water at 20°C is approximately equal to 1 Centipoise. Centistoke is the unit of kinematic viscosity and is equal to 1/100 x stoke. Stoke is defined as 1 square centimeter per second.

234. Question 213. What Is Saybolt Seconds Universal ?

Saybolt Seconds Universal (SSU) is the unit of viscosity and is equal to the time required for a gravity flow of 60 cc through saybolt universal viscometer.

235. Question 214. Explain Difference Between Cohesion, Adhesion And Capillarity ?

Cohesion is the attraction of like molecules.

Adhesion is the attraction of unlike molecules for each other.

Capillarity is the elevation or depression of a liquid surface in contact with a solid.

236. Question 215. Differentiate Between Gear Hobbing And Gear Shaping With Reference To Various Relative Motions And Applications?

Gear hobbing is a continuous indexing process in which both cutting tool (a hob) and work piece rotate in a constant relationship while the hob is being fed into work. Hob is also imparted a radial feed.

Gear shaping uses a pinion type of cutter which is reciprocated with required cutting speed along the face of workpiece and is gradually fed radially to plunge. Continuous generation motion is obtained by feeding cutter to full depth and rotating the cutter and workpiece slowly.

237. Question 216. What Is Bulk Modulus Of Elasticity ?

It represents the compressibility of a fluid. It is the ratio of the change in unit pressure to the corresponding volume change per unit of volume.

238. Question 217. What Is Isentropic Exponent ?

It is the ratio of the specific heat of a gas at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume.

239. Question 218. The Best Shape Of A Runner In Sand Casting Is An Inverted Frustum Of A Cone Why ?

Tapered shape with bigger diameter at top and smaller at bottom ensures avoidance of entrainment or absorption of air/gases into the metal while passing through the runner.

240. Question 219. Explain Difference Between Ideal Fluid And Non-newtonian Fluid?

Ideal fluid is one for which resistance to shearing deformation is zero.

Non-newtonian fluids deform in such a way that shear stress is not proportional to the rate of shearing deformation.

241. Question 220. Explain The Difference Between Poise And Stoke?

Poise is the unit of viscosity in CGS unit and is measured in dyne sec/cm2.1 poise = 10_1 Pa s.

Stoke is the unit of kinematic viscosity in CGS units and is measured in cm2/s.

242. Question 221. How Does The Pressure In An Isothermal Atmosphere Behave ?

It increases exponentially with elevation.

243. Question 222. The Centre Of Pressure For A Plane Surface Immersed Vertically In A Static Liquid Compared To Centroid Of Area Is Always?

Below.

244. Question 223. What Is Buoyant Force Equal To ? Define Centroid Of The Area?

Volume of liquid displaced.

Centroid of the area : The point at which the area might be concentrated and still leave un¬changed the first moment of the area around any axis. It is also the centre of gravity.

245. Question 224. Define Vapour Pressure And On What Parameters It Depends ?

The pressure exerted when a solid or liquid is in equilibrium with its own vapour is called vapour pressure. It is a function of the substance and its temperature.

246. Question 225. Explain The Difference Between Steady Flow, One Dimensional Flow, Two Dimensional Flow And Three Dimensional Flow ?

If at every point in the continuum, the local velocity and other fluid property, remains unchanged with time, it is referred to as steady flow.

One dimensional flow is one in which a line is necessary to describe the velocity profile.

Two dimensional flow is one in which an area is necessary to describe the velocity profile.

Three dimensional flow is one in which a volume is necessary to describe the velocity profile.

247. Question 226. What Is Aquifer And Explain Difference Between Confined And Unconfined Aquifers?

Groundwater occurs in permeable, water-bearing geologic formations known as aquifers.

Confined aquifer : It is a relatively high-permeable, water-bearing formation.

Unconfined aquifer : It is a water-bearing formation with a free water table, below which the soil is saturated.

248. Question 227. What Do You Understand By Fluvial Hydraulics ?

The channels may be classified as rigid boundary or mobile boundary channels. Mobile boundary channels include rivers and unlined alluvial canals, the boundaries of which are made of loose soil which can be easily eroded and transported by flowing water. The study of flow of water in mobile boundary channels is dealt in fluvial hydraulics.

249. Question 228. By Which Instruments The Shear Stress In Fluids Can Be Measured Directly ?

By Stanton tube or Preston tube.

250. Question 229. On What Factors Does The Pressure At A Point As A Static Mass Of Liquid Depends Upon?

Specific weight of liquid and the depth below the free liquid surface.

251. Question 230. What Is The Difference Between Hoop Or Longitudinal Tension And Circumferential Tension ?

Hoop tension is created in the walls of a cylinder subjected to internal pressure. For thin walled cylinder (t < 0.1 d), hoop stress = pressure x radius/thickness.

Longitudinal tension in thin-walled cylinders closed at the ends is equal to half the hoop tension.

252. Question 231. How Much Force Is Exerted By Liquid ?

Force exerted by a liquid on a plane area A is equal to the product of the unit weight pg of the liquid, the depth hcg of the centre of gravity of the area, and the area.

253. Question 232. State Standard Point Angle And Helix Angle Of A Twist Drill?

Standard point angle of twist drill is 118° and helix angle varies from 16° to 30° depending as diameter of hole.

254. Question 233. Explain The Difference Between Horizontal And Vertical Components Of Hydrostatic Force ?

The horizontal component of the hydrostatic force on any surface is equal to the normal force on the vertical projection of the surface and acts through the center of pressure for the vertical projection.

Vertical component of the hydrostatic force on any surface is equal to the weight of the volume of liquid above the area and passes through the e.g. of the volume.

255. Question 234. What Should Be Diameter Of Capillary Tube To Avoid Correction For Effect Of Capillarity In Manometer ?

Greater than 6 mm.

256. Question 235. How Much Hydrostatic Pressure Acts On A Curved Surface ?

The horizontal component of the total hydrostatic pressure force on any surface is always equal to the total pressure on the vertical projection of the surface, and can be located through the center of pressure of this projection.

The vertical components of the total hydrostatic pressure force on any surface is always equal to the weight of the entire water column above the surface extending vertically to the free surface, and can be located through the centroid of this column.

257. Question 236. How Much Is The Horizontal Component Of Force On A Curved Surface ?

Force on a vertical projection of the curved surface.

258. Question 237. State Archimedes Principle?

Any weight, floating or immersed in a liquid, is acted upon by a buoyant force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. This force acts through the center of buoyancy, i.e. the e.g. of the displaced liquid.

259. Question 238. What Do You Understand By Center Of Buoyancy ?

Center of buoyancy is the center of gravity of the displaced liquid and buoyant force acts through it.

260. Question 239. How One Can Establish Stability Of Submerged Body And Floating Body ?

A submerged body floats in stable equilibrium when the center of gravity of the body lies directly below the center of buoyancy.

261. Question 240. What Is Neutral Equilibrium ?

A submerged body is in neutral equilibrium for all positions when the center of gravity of body coincides with the center of buoyancy.

262. Question 241. On What Factors The Stability Of Floating Objects Depends ?

Stability of floating objects depends upon whether righting or overturning moment is developed when the center of gravity and center of buoyancy move out of vertical alignment due to the shifting of position of center of buoyancy.

263. Question 242. State Two Products Each Produced By Forward Extrusion And Reverse Impact Extrusion?

Two examples of products made by direct extrusion are : gear profile, solder wire.

Two examples of reverse impact extrusion are : Short tubes of soft alloys, tooth paste containers.

264. Question 243. What Are The Best Geometrical Shapes Suggested For Sheet Metal Drawing And Spinning?

Cup shape is best suited by drawing operation. Conical shape is easiest to produce by spinning operation.

265. Question 244. What Are The Conditions For Stability Of Buoyant Bodies ?

A floating body is stable if the center of gravity is below the metacentre.

A submerged body is stable if the center of gravity is below the center of buoyancy.

266. Question 245. Define Pipe Flow ?

It refers to full water flow in closed conduits of circular cross section under a certain pres¬sure gradient.

267. Question 246. How Much Is Vertical Component Of Pressure Force On A Submerged Curved Surface ?

The weight of liquid vertically above the curved surface.

268. Question 247. Multiple Coated, Disposable Carbide Tips Have More-or-less Replaced Brazed Carbide Tipped Tools In Cnc Applications. Why ?

Disposable tips are usually indexable type and have a number of cutting edges. Very convenient gripping devices for holding such inserts on tool holders are available. A wide variety of ready made inserts are available which require no grinding or adjustment.

269. Question 248. State, Sequentially Elements Of A Canned Cnc Drilling Cycle?

Canned cycles are fixed cycles for general sequences of operations. For drilling operation, sequence of operations will be movement of drill or workpiece to position of actual drilling, movement of drill downwards till it is in the proximity of workpiece, the movement of drill at desired feed rate to sufficient depth of hole, retracting the drill above the workpiece.

270. Question 249. Explain The Difference Between One And Two Dimensional Flow ?

True one-dimensional flow occurs when the direction and magnitude of the velocity at all points are identical. Velocities and accelerations normal to the streamline are negligible. Two dimensional flow occurs when the fluid particles, move in planes or parallel planes and the stream-line patterns are identical in each plane.

271. Question 250. What Is The Difference Between Irrotational And Rotational Flow ?

Irrotational flow : An ideal fluid flow in which no shear stresses occur and hence no torques exist. Rotational motion of fluid particles about their own mass centers can not exist. It can be represented by a flow net.

Rotational flow occurs when the velocity of each particle varies directly as the distance from the center of rotation.

In steady flow, at any point, the velocity of successive fluid particles is the same at successive periods of time.

Flow is unsteady when conditions at any point in a fluid change with time,

273. Question 252. What Is The Difference Between Uniform And Non-uniform Flows ?

Uniform flow occurs when the magnitude and direction of the velocity do not change from point to point in the fluid.

Non uniform flow occurs when velocity, depth, pressure, etc. change from point to point in the fluid flow.

274. Question 253. Explain The Difference Between Stream Lines And Stream Tube?

Stream lines are imaginary curves drawn through a fluid to indicate the direction of motion in various sections of the flow of the fluid system. There can be no flow across a streamline at any point.

Stream tube represents elementary portions of a flowing fluid bounded by a group of streamlines which confine the flow.

275. Question 254. What Is The Advantages Of Independent Jaw Chuck ?

Irregular job can be fixed.

276. Question 255. Define Vorticity ?

It equals twice the angular velocity.

277. Question 256. What Is Irrational How ?

If a flow is uniform in one region (without rotation), this property is conserved as the fluid moves into a region of space where the motion is not uniform, and the flow is termed irrotational flow.

278. Question 257. What Is One-seventh Power Law ?

According to one-seventh power law of turbulent, velocity variation corresponds to a much favoured velocity profile and the mean velocity increases as the one-seventh power of the distance from the boundary wall.

279. Question 258. What Is The Magnitude Of Buoyant Force And Where Does The Line Of Action Of Buoyant Force Act ?

It is equal to the volume of the liquid displaced. The line of action of buoyant force acts through the centroid of the displaced volume of the fluid.

280. Question 259. What Is Metacentre ?

Metacentre is the point at the intersection of the buoyancy with the vertical axis of the body.

281. Question 260. Define Prandtl’s Pitot-static Tube?

It is a combination of pressure probe and pitot tube. It is widely used for pressure measurements in wind-tunnel installations.

282. Question 261. Define The Term Fluid Friction?

The deformation of real fluids is resisted by forces caused by internal friction or viscosity. Viscosity is that property of a real fluid which creates shear forces (fluid friction) between two liquid elements.

283. Question 262. Why Are Hydrodynamic Bearings Used For Grinding Machines In Preference To Ball Or Roller Bearings ?

Hydrodynamic bearings are more suitable at high speed, better tolerances, quiet operation, higher capacity to withstand shock, lesser space requirement, better life under fatigue conditions etc.

284. Question 263. Distinguish Between A Jig And Fixture?

Jig clamps and locates parts in positive manner and guides cutting tools (drills, reamers, taps etc). Fixture is bolted or fixed securely to the machine table so that work is in correct location ship to the cutter. Fixtures are used for mass milling, turning and grinding, etc.

285. Question 264. State The Similarities And Differences Between A Fixture And A Jig?

Both jig and fixture positively locate, hold and clamp the workpiece. Jigs guide the tool for drilling etc but fixture has no facility to guide the cutting tools. Jigs are used for drilling etc and fixture for mass milling, turning, grinding, etc.

286. Question 265. Explain The Difference Between Relative Density, Viscosity And Kinematic Viscosity ?

Relative density is that pure number which denotes the ratio of the mass of a body to the mass of an equal volume of a substance taken as a standard. This standard is usually water (at 4°C) for solids and liquids, and air free or C02 or hydrogen (at 0°C and 1 atmosphere = 1.013 x 105 Pa pressure) for gases.

Viscosity of a fluid is that property which determines the amount of its resistance to a shearing force. It is due primarily to interaction between fluid molecules.

Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of absolute viscosity and mass density. (Its unit is m2/s).

287. Question 266. A Right Hand Helical Gear Is Being Cut On A Milling Machine. What Changes In Machine Settings Have To Be Made To Cut A Left Hand Helical Gear Of Same Pitch And Number Of Teeth ?

For cutting right hand helical gear right side of milling table is tilted up from normal position by the helix angle. For cutting left hand helical gear, right side of table needs to be tilted down at helix angle, all other settings remaining unchanged.

288. Question 267. Explain What You Understand By The Term Hydrostatic Paradox ?

Hydrostatic paradox is the phenomenon that the floor load of water in vessels of different shapes carrying water at same level depends only on the area of the bottom surface and not on the shape of the vessel.

289. Question 268. Define Buoyancy In Brief?

Buoyancy is the vertical force exerted on the body by the fluid at rest. The buoyancy of a submerged body in a fluid at rest is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body and it acts upward through the center of gravity of the displaced volume (the center of buoyancy).

290. Question 269. What Is The Necessary Condition For A Body To Float In Stable Equilibrium ?

Meta center should be above the center of gravity.

291. Question 270. If Liquid Rotates At Constant Angular Velocity About A Vertical Axis As A Rigid Body, Then How Its Pressure Varies At Various Radial Distances ?

As square of the radial distance.

292. Question 271. How Does The Velocity Vary Along Radius In A Few Vortex ?

293. Question 272. What Type Of Flow Will Occur When Liquid Discharges At Constant Rate Through A Long, Straight Tapering Pipe ?

294. Question 273. What Does Continuity Equation Represent ?

It relates mass rate of flow along a stream tube.

295. Question 274. Under What Condition Steady Flow Occurs ?

When conditions do not change with time at any point.

296. Question 275. Why A Drill Can Not Drill Deeper Than Its Flute Length ?

If flute submerged in a drilled hole, the chips disposal passage is blocked and the drill will get jammed in the hole.

297. Question 276. When Do You Recommend The Use Of Straight Fluted Drill ?

Drills used for brass and other soft materials and thin sheets need not be provided with any helix angle, to prevent the lips digging into the workpiece.

298. Question 277. Explain Velocity Distribution For Laminar And Turbulent Flows?

In case of laminar flow, the velocity distribution follows a parabolic law of variation. The maximum velocity at center of pipe is twice the average velocity. For turbulent flow, more uniform velocity distribution results.

299. Question 278. In Which Type Of Flow The Stream Lines, Streak Lines And Path Lines Are Identical ?

300. Question 279. Under What Condition A Drill May Not Cut ?

When the cutting lips are not provided with clearance angles. It will cut if 12° clearance angle is ground.

301. Question 280. Some Drills Have Straight Shanks And Some Have Tapered Shank. Why ?

Small drills (less than 12 mm diameter) are provided with straight shanks which can be held in Dhiren chucks. Bigger drills have tapered shank using self holding Morse tapers which prevent gravitational fall of drill.

302. Question 281. What Are The Main Factors That Are Responsible For The Formation Of Built Up Edge ?

The main factors that are responsible for the formation of built up edge are :

1. Extreme pressure in the cutting zone
2. High friction in the tool chip interface
3. High local temperature.
303. Question 282. In Which Type Of Flow The Navier-stokes Equation Is Useful ?

Viscous flow.

304. Question 283. Explain The Difference Between Energy Line And Hydraulic Grade Line ?

The energy line is a graphical representation of the energy at each section.

Hydraulic grade line lies below the energy line by an amount equal to the velocity head at the section.

305. Question 284. What Is The Characteristic Of Equipotential Line ?

It has no velocity component tangent to it.

306. Question 285. How Specific Cutting Pressure Behaves With Feed Rate And What Conclusion Can Be Drawn From This ?

As feed rate increases, the specific cutting pressure decreases. It leads to conclude that feed rates be maximised in metal cutting process.

307. Question 286. What Is Hydraulically Rough Pipe ?

When Reynolds number is very small, friction factor f becomes independent of the Reynolds number and depends only on the relative roughness height. Such a pipe behaves as hydraulically rough pipe.

308. Question 287. What Are The Qualities Of Ideal Tool Material ?

It should be hard to resist flank wear and deformation, have high toughness to resist fracture, be chemically inert to the workpiece, be chemically stable to resist oxidation and dissolution, and have good resistance to thermal shocks.

309. Question 288. What Are The Factors To Be Considered While Evaluating The Machinability ?

1. Tool life
2. Rate of metal removal
3. Power required
4. Surface texture and size of component
5. Temperature of tool (or) chip.
310. Question 289. Which Equation Is Satisfied By Ideal Or Real, Laminar Or Turbulent Flow ?

Continuity equation.

311. Question 290. How To Judge The Unsatisfactory Performance Of Cutting Tool ?

Unsatisfactory performance of cutting tool leads to loss of dimensional accuracy, increase in surface roughness and increase in power requirements.

312. Question 291. What Are The Criteria For Judging Machinability ?

Cutting speed, tool life, surface finish, cutting force/energy required, temperature rise at cutting point.

313. Question 292. What Is Critical Velocity ?

It is the velocity below which all turbulence is damped out by the viscosity of the fluid.

314. Question 293. What Is Laminar Flow ?

In laminar flow the fluid particles move along straight, parallel paths in layers or laminae. Laminar flow is governed by the law relating shear stress to rate of angular deformation i.e. the product of the viscosity of the fluid and velocity gradient.

315. Question 294. Why Excess Air Is Required To Burn A Fuel Completely ?

Excess air is required to ensure adequate mixing of fuel and air, avoid smoke, minimize slagging in coal burning, and to ensure maximum steam output.

316. Question 295. What Is Factor Of Evaporation ?

It is the ratio of heat change from feed water to steam and the heat of vaporization of steam at atmospheric pressure.

317. Question 296. Materials Which Absorb Neutrons And Produce Fissionable Material Are Called ?

Fertile materials, such as U28 and Th22.

318. Question 297. What Is The Process Which Produces Fissionable Material From A Fertile Material ?

Breeding.

319. Question 298. What Is Burn Up In Connection With Fissionable Material ?

Burn up corresponds to destruction of fissionable material when it undergoes nuclear fission.

320. Question 299. What Kind Of Nuclear Fuel Is Used In Narora, Kalpakkam And Rana Pratap Sagar Nuclear Plants ?

Natural uranium.

321. Question 300. Which Type Of Plant Will You Recommend For Remote Location If Power Is Required In Six To Twelve Months Time ?

Diesel engine power plant.

322. Question 301. Under What Condition A Nuclear Reaction Is Said To Be Critical ?

For critical condition, the reaction should continue at a steady rate which is possible when rate of production of neutrons is same as the combined rate of absorption of neutrons and the rate of leakage of neutrons.

323. Question 302. If A Nuclear Reactor Generates More Fuel Than It Consumes, It Is Called ______ ?

Fast breeder reactor.

324. Question 303. Natural Uranium Contains Only 0.7% U25 Which Is Capable Of Switching Chain Nuclear Reaction. How This Percentage Is Increased ?

Percentage of U25 in natural uranium is increased by a process called uranium enrichment.

325. Question 304. Why The Vane Passages Are Gradually Increased In Size In Successive Wheels In Steam Turbine ?

The velocity of steam decreases in successive stages and to accommodate same flow per unit time, the area of flow must increase.

326. Question 305. At What Pressure And Temperature The Density Of Water And Steam Is Same ?

At 225 kg/cm2 and 74.6° C.

327. Question 306. What Is The Latent Heat Of Evaporation At Critical Point ?

Zero.

328. Question 307. How Much Space Steam Will Occupy At Atmospheric Pressure Corresponding To 1 Kg Of Water ?

100 times the space occupied by 1 kg of water.

329. Question 308. What Is Meant By Quality Of Steam ?

It refers to amount of unevaporated moisture in steam. If steam is perfectly dry, it’s quality is 100%.

330. Question 309. What Is Diagram Efficiency In Steam Turbine_______ ?

Diagram efficiency = Change in K.E./kg / Energy supplied/kg.

331. Question 310. What Do You Understand By Effectiveness Of Heat Exchanger ?

Effectiveness of heat exchanger = actual heat transfer/maximum possible heat transfer.

332. Question 311. If Superheat And Condenser Temperatures Are Unchanged And If Pressure Of Steam Is Increased, Then What Happens To Dryness Fraction Of Steam After Isentropic Expansion ?

It will decrease.

333. Question 312. As Pressure Of Steam Is Increased, Why Reheating Is Necessary?

As pressure is increased, the dryness fraction of steam lowers on isentropic expansion. Therefore, steam has to be reheated after partial expansion so that dryness fraction remains within limits after expansion.

334. Question 313. What Is Boundary Layer Thickness In Free Convection Case ?

Velocity of fluid flow at solid surface is zero and it increases rapidly as distance from solid surface becomes greater, reaches a maximum value and then decreases to that of undisturbed fluid. The distance between the solid surface and point where boundary layer velocity equals undisturbed flow (edge) is called boundary layer thickness.

335. Question 314. What Do You Understand By Forced Convection ?

When convection heat transfer occurs between a solid body and a fluid and where circulation of fluid is caused and controlled by some mechanical.

336. Question 315. In Radiative Heat Transfer, A Gray Surface Is One Whose Emissivity Is _____ ?

Independent of wavelength.

337. Question 316. What Is The Effect Of Water Injection And Steam Injection In Gas Turbine Of Heat Rate And Power Output ?

Water injection results in higher mass flow rate through turbine section and as rich electrical output is increased. However it increases gas turbine heat rate because of the additional heat consumption required to vaporise the water.

Steam injection increases power output and decreases heat rate because of its higher energy entering the combustion zone.

338. Question 317. Water/steam Injection In Gas Turbines Increases Power Output. What Is The Limit And Reasons For Same ?

Water/steam injection is not allowed beyond 5% of compressor flow to avoid flame out in combustion and to minimise operating cost and impact on inspection intervals.

339. Question 318. What Are The Advantages And Drawbacks Of Centrifugal Compressor And Axial Flow Compressors In Gas Turbines?

Centrifugal compressors have following advantages :

• short length due to high pressure ratio obtained in a single stage.
• simple in design, easy to manufacture, rugged in construction, less costly.
• more reliable in operation under all operating condition.
• less susceptible to the effects of deposits left on flow path.
• less sensitive to the fouling of the flow path.
• Good efficiency over a wide range of operation.

Drawback is larger cross-section area for same capacity and its unsuitability for high pressure ratios. Axial flow compressor is more popular due to high delivery capacity, high compression ratio due to many stages, high efficiency (85-90%), low cross sectional area. Its drawback is sophisticated design and appreciable length due to large number of stages, narrow operating range for good efficiency, higher weight and cost, high starting power.

340. Question 319. How The Efficiency Of Heat Recovery In Iirsg Increased ?

It can be increased by generating steam at more than one pressure.

Further improvement is possible by heating make up water/condensate in HRSG, generating low pressure saturated steam or deaeration steam in HRSG using a low pressure evaporator, preheating the make up water in a heat ex-changer before it enters deaerator, and circulate more water than necessary through the economizer and recirculate excess to the deaerator.

341. Question 320. No.,, Reduction In Gas Turbines Is Challenge To Meet Environmental Regulations. What Measures Are Taken In This Regard ?

NO* in gas turbines is controlled by

1. injecting water/steam into combustor,
2. using selective catalytic redaction (SCR) and non-catalytic reduction system (NRS), and
3. better combustor design.
342. Question 321. What Is The Difference Between Fuel Nox And Thermal Nox ?

Fuel NO* is formed by the gas phase oxidation of char nitrogen (CN~ compounds) in the fuel and thermal NO* is formed by high temperature reaction between the nitrogen and oxygen in the combustion air.

343. Question 322. How Steam/water Injection In Combustion Zone Lowers Nox Formation?

It lowers the flame and gas temperatures.

344. Question 323. What Are Disadvantages Of Injecting Steam/water In Combustion Zone In Gas Turbine ?

• Increased CO at lower loads
• Increased fuel consumption
• Loss of extensively treated water
• Increased complexity of engine control
• Short life of major turbine components.
345. Question 324. What For Water/steam Is Injected In Combustion Zones Of A Gas Turbine ?

Water/steam is injected to limit the amount of NOx formed by lowering the flame and gas temperatures.

346. Question 325. What Are Improved Low Nox Combustors ?

Dry low NOx combustors result in improved air/fuel mixing and reduced flame temperature. The main type are lean premixed combustors, rich/quench lean combustors and catalytic combustors. Variable guide vanes are used to control the fuel-air mixture. In one design combustion chamber is designed into a series of small, lean premixed chambers.

347. Question 326. What Is Selective Catalytic Reduction (scr) Method For No* Control In Gas Turbines ?

SCR is a post combustion method in which a catalyst is installed in flue gas where temperature could be of the order of 15-400°C. It enables vaporised NH to react with NO* in exhaust gas to form N2 and H20. Vaporised NH is injected into exhaust gases before it passes through the catalyst bed. This process can achieve in excess of 90% NOx reduction.

348. Question 327. What Catalyst Is Used In Scr Process For Control Of Nox In Gas Turbines ?

V2O5 supported by titanium or a mixture of titanium and silica is generally used as catalyst. Oxides of Ti and Mo are often incorporated as moderators.

349. Question 328. Measure To Minimise Formation Of Nox Inhibit Complete Combustion And This Results In Formation Of Co And Volatile Organic Compounds (vocs). How These Are Controlled ?

Catalytic oxidation, a post combustion treatment at 470°-600° temperature is used to reduce emission of CO and VOCs.

350. Question 329. It Is Usual Practice To Report Performance Characteristics Of Gas Turbine At Iso Conditions. What Are These ?

ISO conditions for GT performance are : Ambient dry bulb temperature : 15°C, Relative humidity – 60%. Ambient barometric pressure 1.0 kg/cm2.

351. Question 330. Which Parameters Influence The Heat Rate Of Gas Turbines And How ?

Various parameters affecting heat rate of GT are :

1. Lower the gas turbine inlet temperature, lower the heat rate.
2. Higher the compression ratio, lower the heat rate.
3. Higher the turbine firing temperature, lower the heat rate.
4. Lower the exhaust temperature, lower the heat rate.
5. Exhaust gas flow, inlet pressure loss, exhaust pressure loss also affect heat rate.
352. Question 331. Which Parameters Influence The Performance Of Gas Turbines ?

Ambient conditions, inlet/ exhaust pressure losses, fuels, and water/ steam injection flow rates’ influence the performance of gas turbines.

353. Question 332. Why The Efficiency Of Superheat Rankine Cycle Is Higher Than That Of Simple Rankine Cycle ?

Because the mean temperature of heat addition is higher for superheat cycle.

354. Question 333. A Carnot Cycle Is To Be Designed To Attain Efficiency Of 0.75. If Temperature Of High Temperature Reservoir Is 727°c, Then Low Temperature Reservoir Will Have To Be Maintained At______°c ?

– 2°C.

355. Question 334. A Gas Having A Negative Joule-thomson Coefficient, When Throttled, Will Become …. ?

hotter.

356. Question 335. What Is Boundary Layer Thickness In Turbulent Boundary Layer ?

In ease of turbulent boundary layer, boundary layer thickness is defined as the distance from solid surface at which the fluid velocity is 99% of the undisturbed free stream velocity. Near the surface of solid, there is laminar flow which changes to buffer zone and finally turbulent region.

357. Question 336. Stirling Cycle With Regenerative Arrangement And Carnot Cycle Operate Within Same Temperature Limits. What Can Be Said About Thermal Efficiencies Of These Two ?

Thermal n of both will be same.

358. Question 337. How Does The Stagnation Temperature Behave Along A Streamline In Adiabatic Flow With Friction ?

It remains constant.

359. Question 338. What Is The Frequency Of Secondary Imbalance In Four-stroke Engine ?

Two times the engine speed.

360. Question 339. What Would Be The Order Of Boundary Layer In Pipe Flow

1. laminar
2. Transition, And
3. Fully Turbulent ?

In laminar flow, boundary layer extends right from surface upto centre. In fully turbulent it may extend 5-10% of radius only whereas in transition flow, boundary layer may be from 50-60% of radius of pipe.

361. Question 340. In General How The Boundary Layer And Local Film Coefficient Of Heat Transfer Are Related ?

In general, the thinner the boundary layer, higher the value of local heat transfer film coefficient.

362. Question 341. Out Of Constant Volume And Constant Pressure Line, Which Line On T-s Diagram Has Higher Slope ?

Constant volume.

363. Question 342. A Heat Engine And A Refrigeration Cycle Operate Between Two Temperature Limits T1 And T2(t1 > T2). The Product Of Efficiency Of Heat Engine And Cop Of Refrigeration Cycle Will Be ?

T2/TX.

364. Question 343. Refrigerator And A Heat Pump Are Working On The Reversed Carnot Cycle Between The Same Temperature Limits. How Cop Of Refrigerator And Heat Pump Related ?

COP of refrigerator = COP of heat pump -1.

365. Question 344. For A Given Set Of Operating Pressure Limits Of A Rankine Cycle, For Which Cycle The Efficiency Will Be Highest ?

For regenerative cycle which approaches Carnot cycle. 1

366. Question 345. A Steam Pipe Is To Be Insulated By Two Different Insulating Materials Of Same Thickness. What Arrangement Is Preferred ?

Material with lower thermal conductivity should be used for inner layer and material with higher thermal conductivity for the outer layer.

367. Question 346. Why Steam Is In Open Space And Water Inside Tube In Condensers Used In Power Plants ?

Overall heat transfer coefficient can be increased by increasing velocity of water in tube. Further steam needs more space due to higher specific volume.

368. Question 347. Why A Refrigeration Compressor Designed To Operate With R22 Refrigerant Can’t Be Operated With R12 ?

Condensing pressure of R22 at any given temperature is higher than that of R12.

369. Question 348. Leakage Of Freon-12 Refrigerant Can Not Be Easily Detected, Still It Is Preferred For Air-conditioning. Why ?

Leakage of Freon-12 can’t obtain total concentration but it has all desirable characteristics as good refrigerant.

370. Question 349. In Which Season The Process Of Humidification And In Which Season Dehumidifi-cation Is Used In Air-conditioning ?

Humidification in summer and dehumidification in winter.

371. Question 350. What Is The Name Given To Combined Process Of Cooling And Humidifying ?

Evaporative Cooling.

372. Question 351. Which Refrigerant Is Used For Ice Plant And Transport Refrigeration ?

Ammonia and CO2 respectively.

373. Question 352. Which Cycle Is Used In Vapour Compression And Gas Cycle Refrigeration System ?

Brayton cycle, and Bell-Coleman cycle.

374. Question 353. In What Connection Wilson Line And Willans Line Used ?

Wilson line represents saturation line on the Mollier diagram. Willans line is connected with determination of frictional power in IC engines.

375. Question 354. How The Characteristics Of Fuel Like Front End Volatility, Mid-range Volatility And Tail End Volatility Affect S.i. Engines ?

These characteristics affect SI engines in cold starting, icing of carburettor and dilution in crankcase respectively.

376. Question 355. What Would Be The Approximate Air Fuel Ratio At Time Of Cold Start, Part Load Operation, Full Load, And Idling ?

10, 12.5 and 16 respectively.

377. Question 356. Name Pressure Compounded And Velocity Compounded Turbine?

Rateau and Curtis respectively.

378. Question 357. What Is The Nature Of Curve In Case Of Transfer Of Heat By Conduction Through A Cylindrical Wall And Through A Spherical Wall ?

Logarithmic and hyperbolic.

379. Question 358. What Is Radiosity ?

It is the rate at which radiation leaves a surface.

380. Question 359. When The Compressibility Effects Become Significant In Heat Transfer Problems In High Speed Flow ?

Compressibility effects usually become significant at gas flow velocities greater than 0.5 times the velocity of sound.

381. Question 360. What Is The Name Given To Process Of Removing Non Condensables In Steam And Other Vapour Cycles ?

Deaeration process.

382. Question 361. We Often Come Across Use Of Jet Pumps In Process Industry ? What Is The Reason For This ?

Jet pumps are easy to maintain and can be used to transport gases, liquids and mixtures of both.

383. Question 362. When It Can Be Said That A Fluid Is Newtonian ?

When the shear stress is directly proportional to velocity gradient.

384. Question 363. Why Alcohol Can’t Be Used In Diesel Engine ?

Alcohol has low cetane number and thus its ignition is prevented by compression.

385. Question 364. Out Of 2 Stroke Si Engine, 4 Stroke Si Engine, And 4 Stroke Ci Engine, How The Brake Thermal Efficiency Behaves If These Are To Be Used For Road Vehicles ?

4 stroke CI engine has highest brake thermal efficiency followed by 4 stroke SI engine and the 2 stroke SI has lowest brake thermal efficiency.

386. Question 365. A Jet Engine Is Used To Drive A Vehicle. When Its Mechanical Efficiency Will Be Maximum ?

It will be maximum when vehicle speed approaches the relative velocity of gases at nozzle exit.

387. Question 366. The Knocking Tendency In A S.i. Engine Can Be Reduced By Increasing ?

Speed

388. Question 367. How You Define The Emissivity Of A Body ?

Emissivity of a body is the ratio of the emitted radiant energy flux density to the emitted radiant energy flux density of a blackbody at the same temperature.

389. Question 368. What Is Gray Body ?

When the emissivity of material does not change with temperature, it is called gray body.

390. Question 369. Define Fin Efficiency For Extended Heat Transfer Surfaces?

Fin efficiency is defined as the ratio of the mean temperature difference from surface to fluid divided by the temperature difference from fin to fluid at the base or root of the fin.

391. Question 370. What Are The Harmful Effects Of Sulphur In Coal Used For Power Generation ?

Sulphur in coal gives rise to number of ecological problems ranging from acid mine drainage to ash waste problems and air pollution due to SO2 emission. Emission of S02 is the cause of acid rain and is responsible for severe environmental damage.

392. Question 371. What Do You Understand By Microbial Desulphurisation? Sulphur From Coal Can Be Removed By Physical, Chemical And Microbial Me

Microbial means has a number of advantages over other methods. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is the most widely used micro organism studied for coal desulphurisation. This bacteria can remove 90-98% of pyritic sulphur from coal. The reaction, of course, is slow and may take several days to several weeks to complete the reaction.

393. Question 372. What Causes Rotation Of Steam Turbine Rotor ?

Rotation of turbine rotor is caused by centrifugal force created due to change of direction of fast flowing jet of steam.

394. Question 373. What Do You Understand By The Term Coagulation ?

Impurities in water are usually in finely divided state which takes long time to settle and these usually pass through the filtering media. By adding certain chemicals (coagulants), gelatinous substances are formed which cause small particles to coalesce into groups large enough to be checked during filtering.

395. Question 374. What Is Equivalent Evaporation In A Boiler Plant ?

It is the amount of water that would be evaporated from water at 100°C to steam at 100°C by the same amount of heat which was actually absorbed by water and steam under operating conditions.

396. Question 375. What Is Meant By Balanced Draft In Boiler ?

Balanced draft refers to combination of forced and induced draft fans controlled to keep the furnace under slightly vacuum condition.

397. Question 376. How Is Dryness Fraction Of Steam Measured ?

By using throttling calorimeter.

398. Question 377. What Is The Difference Between Isentropic Process And Throttling Process ?

In isentropic process, heat transfer takes place and in throttling process, enthalpy before and after the process is same.

399. Question 378. What Is The Difference Between Pyrometer, Pyranometer And Pyrheliometer?

Pyrometer measures temperature by radiation principle. Pyranometer is used to measure total hemispherical solar radiation. Pyrheliometer is used to measure beam intensity by collimating the radiation.

400. Question 379. What Is The Name Given To Useful Part Of Available Energy Which Is Available For Conversion To Useful Work ?

Exergy.

401. Question 380. Does The Area On Pv Diagram For A Process Represent Work For Both Reversible And Non-reversible Process ?

No. Same is true for only reversible process.

402. Question 381. Why Work Is Considered As High Grade Of Energy And Heat As Low Grade Energy ?

While work can be completely converted to heat, heat cannot be converted fully to work.

403. Question 382. When Coulomb Friction Comes Into Existence Between Two Surfaces ?

When there is relative motion between them.

404. Question 383. Under What Condition A Number Of Forces Acting At A Point Are In Equilibrium ?

When sum of the resolved parts in any two perpendicular directions is zero.

405. Question 384. What Happens To Two Equal And Opposite Coplanar Couples ?

They balance each other.

406. Question 385. To Slide A Heavy Block Over A Rough Floor By A Rope With Minimum Force By A Man, At What Angle The Rope Should Be Inclined With The Level Of Floor ?

He should incline the rope with horizontal at angle of friction between floor and block.

407. Question 386. A Body Is Dropped From A Certain Height. If Same Body Were To Move Down A Smooth Inclined Plane From Same Height, Which Parameters Will Be Same On Reaching The Ground ?

Velocity, kinetic energy and momentum.

408. Question 387. A Test Specimen Is Stressed Slightly Beyond The Yield Point And Then Unloaded. What Happens To Its Yield Strength ?

It will increase.

409. Question 388. Out Of Circular, Square, Channel, I Sections, Which Is Most Economical For A Component Subjected To Bending ?

I section.

410. Question 389. What Does The Area Under The Stress-strain Curve Represent ?

Energy required to cause failure.

411. Question 390. A Tension Member Of Certain Diameter Is To Be Replaced By A Square Bar Of The Same Material. Side Of Square Compared To Diameter Will Be ?

Smaller.

412. Question 391. A Circular Bar Subjected To Tension Is Designed For A Particular Safety Factor. If Both Load And Diameter Are Doubled, Then Factor Of Safety Will Be ?

doubled.

413. Question 392. What Is The Difference Between Scavenging And Supercharging ?

Scavenging is process of flushing out burnt gases from engine cylinder by introducing fresh air in the cylinder before exhaust stroke ends. Supercharging is the process of supplying higher mass of air by compressing the atmospheric air.

414. Question 393. What Are The Names Given To Constant Temperature, Constant Pressure, Constant Volume, Constant Internal Energy, Constant Enthalpy, And Constant Entropy Processes?

Isothermal, isochoric, isobaric, free expression, throttling and adiabatic processes respectively.

415. Question 394. In A Rankine Cycle If Maximum Steam Pressure Is Increased Keeping Steam Temperature And Condenser Pressure Same, What Will Happen To Dryness Fraction Of Steam After Expansion ?

It will decrease.

416. Question 395. Why Entropy Change For A Reversible Adiabatic Process Is Zero ?

Because there is no heat transfer in this process.

417. Question 396. What Are Two Essential Conditions Of Perfect Gas ?

It satisfies equation of state and its specific heats are constant.

418. Question 397. Enthalpy And Entropy Are Functions Of One Single Parameter. Which Is That ?

Temperature.

419. Question 398. Why Rate Of Condensation Is Higher On A Polished Surface Compared To Rusty Surface ?

Polished surface promotes dropwise condensation and does not wet the surface.

420. Question 399. How Much Resistance Is Offered To Heat Flow By Drop Wise Condensation ?

Nil

421. Question 400. What Is The Relationship Between Cop Of Heating And Cooling ?

COP of heating is one(unity) more than COP of cooling.

422. Question 401. How Much Is The Work Done In Isochoric Process ?

Zero.

423. Question 402. When Maximum Discharge Is Obtained In Nozzle ?

At the critical pressure ratio.

424. Question 403. Under What Condition The Work Done In Reciprocating Compressor Will Be Least ?

It is least when compression process approaches isothermal. For this purpose, attempts are made to cool the air during compression.

425. Question 404. What Is The Difference Between Stalling And Surging In Rotary Compressions ?

Stalling is a local phenomenon and it occurs when How breaks away from the blades. Surging causes complete breakdown of flow and as such it affects the whole machine.

426. Question 405. Why The Electric Motor Of A Fan With Backward Curved Blades Is Never Got Overloaded Under Any Condition ?

The maximum power is consumed at about 70% of maximum flow in case’of fan with backward blades. For higher flow, power consumption gets lower.

427. Question 406. Why The Work Per Kg Of Air Flow In Axial Flow Compressor Is Less Compared To Centrifugal Compressor For Same Pressure Ratio ?

Isentropic efficiency of axial flow compressor is higher.

428. Question 407. What Is The Name Given To Portion Of Thermal Energy To Be Necessarily Rejected To Environment ?

Anergy.

429. Question 408. What Is Pitting ? How It Is Caused ?

Non uniform corrosion over the entire metal surface, but occurring only in small pits is called pitting. It is caused by lack of uniformity in metal.

430. Question 409. What Is Caustic Embrittlement ?

It is the actual physical change in metal that makes it extremely brittle and filled with minute cracks. It occurs particularly in the seams of riveted joints and around the rivet holes.

431. Question 410. Which Impurities Form Hard Scale And Which Impurities Soft Scale ?

Sulphates and chlorides of lime and magnesium form hard scale, and carbonates of lime and magnesium form soft scale.

432. Question 411. What Is The Difference Between Hard Water And Soft Water ?

Hard water contains excess of scale forming impurities and soft water contains very little or no scale forming substances.

433. Question 412. Which Two Elements In Feed Water Can Cause Corrosion Of Tubes And Plates In Boiler ?

Acid and oxygen in feed water lead to corrosion.

434. Question 413. What Should Be Done To Prevent A Safety Valve To Stick To Its Seat ?

Safety valve should be blown off periodically so that no corrosion can take place on valve and valve seat.

435. Question 414. Why Large Boilers Are Water Tube Type ?

Water tube boilers raise steam fast because of large heat transfer area and positive water circulation. Thus they respond faster to fluctuations in demand. Further single tube failure does not lead to catastrophe.

436. Question 415. What Type Of Boiler Does Not Need A Steam Drum ?

Super-critical pressure boiler.

437. Question 416. Why Manholes In Vessels Are Usually Elliptical In Shape ?

Elliptical shape has minimum area of opening and thus plate is weakened the least. Further it is very convenient to insert and take out the cover plate from elliptical opening.

438. Question 417. Low Water In Boiler Drum Is Unsafe Because It May Result In Overheating Of Water Tubes In Furnace. Why It Is Unsafe To Have High Water Condition In Boiler Drum ?

High drum level does not allow steam separation to be effective and some water can be carried over with steam which is not desirable for steam turbine.

439. Question 418. Why Boiler Is Purged Everytime Before Starting Firing Of Fuel ?

Purging ensures that any unburnt fuel in furnace is removed, otherwise it may lead to explosion.

440. Question 419. What Is The Principle Of Mechanical Refrigeration ?

A volatile liquid will boil under the proper conditions and in so doing will absorb heat from surrounding objects.

441. Question 420. Why High Latent Heat Of Vaporization Is Desirable In A Refrigerant ?

A high latent heat of vaporization of refrigerant results in small amount of refrigerant and thus lesser circulation system of refrigerant for same tonnage.

442. Question 421. What Is The Critical Temperature Of A Refrigerant ?

Critical temperature is the maximum temperature of a refrigerant at which it can be condensed into liquid and beyond this it remains gas irrespective of pressure applied.

443. Question 422. Maximum Combustion Temperature In Gas Turbines Is Of The Order Of 1100 To 10°c Whereas Same Is Around 00°c In I.c. Engine ? Why ?

High temperature in I.C. engine can be tolerated because it lasts for a fraction of second but gas turbines have to face it continuously which metals can’t withstand.

444. Question 423. Why Efficiency Of Gas Turbines Is Lower Compared To I.c. Engines ?

In gas turbines, 70% of the output of gas turbine is consumed by compressor. I.C. engines have much lower auxiliary consumption. Further combustion temperature of I.C. engines is much higher compared to gas turbine.

445. Question 424. What Do You Understand By Timed Cylinder Lubrication ?

For effective lubrication, lub oil needs to be injected between two piston rings when piston is at bottom of stroke so that piston rides in oi during upward movement. This way lot of lub oil can be saved and used properly.

446. Question 425. What Is Iiucr In Relation To Petrol Engine ?

HUCR is highest useful compression ratio at which the fuel can be used in a specific test engine, under specified operating conditions, without knocking.

447. Question 426. In Some Engines Glycerine Is Used In Place Of Water For Cooling Of Engine. Why ?

Glycerine has boiling point of 90°C which increases its heat carrying capacity. Thus weight of coolant gets reduced and smaller radiator can be used.

448. Question 427. Why Consumption Of Lubricating Oil Is More In Two-stroke Cycle Petrol Engine Than Four-stroke Cycle Petrol Engine ?

In two-stroke engine lub oil is mixed with petrol and thus some lub oil is blown out through the exhaust valves by scavenging and charging air. There is no such wastage in four stroke petrol engine.

449. Question 428. As Compression Ratio Increases, Thermal N Increases. How Is Thermal N Affected By Weak And Rich Mixture Strength ?

Thermal n is high for weak mixture and it decreases as mixture strength becomes rich.

450. Question 429. How Engine Design Needs To Be Changed To Burn Lean Mixture ?

Engine to burn lean mixture uses high compression ratio and the highly turbulent movement of the charge is produced by the geometry of the combustion chamber.

451. Question 430. Horse Power Of I.c. Engines Can Be Expressed As Rac Rating, Sae Rating, Or Din Rating. To Which Countries These Standards Belong ?

U.K., USA and Germany respectively.

452. Question 431. What Is The Use Of Flash Chamber In A Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle To Improve The Cop Of Refrigeration Cycle ?

When liquid refrigerant as obtained from condenser is throttled, there are some vapours. These vapours if carried through the evaporator will not contribute to refrigerating effect. Using a flash chamber at some intermediate pressure, the flash vapour at this pressure can be bled off and fed back to the compression process. The throttling process is then carried out in stages. Similarly compression process is also done in two separate compressor stages.

453. Question 432. Why Pistons Are Usually Dishes At Top ?

Pistons are usually hollowed at top to

1. provide greater space for combustion,
2. increase surface for flue gases to act upon, and
3. better distribution of stresses.
454. Question 433. What Is The Function Of Thermostat In Cooling System Of An Engine ?

Thermostat ensures optimum cooling because excessive cooling decreases the overall efficiency. It allows cooling water to go to radiator beyond a predetermined temperature.

455. Question 434. What Are The Causes Of Failure Of Boiler Tubes ?

Boiler tubes, usually are made from carbon steel and are subject to

1. high rates of heat transfer,
2. bending stresses due to uneven heating, especially at expanded or welded joints into headers or drums,
3. external erosion from burners and flue gas,
4. possible corrosion on the boiler side, and
5. occasional manufacturing defects.

Failure may occur due to following reasons :

1. High thermal ratings may lead to rapid failure if the internal fluid flow is reduced for any reason. The resultant overheating leads to a failure by creep, characterised by the bulging of the tube with the eventual development of a longitudinal split.
2. Fatigue cracking due to bending stresses occur. These are associated with change of section and/or weld undercut, where tubes are expanded or welded into headers.
3. Failure may arise due to overstressing of a reduced section of metal.
4. Sudden failure of the boiler tube due to corrosion arises from embrittlement of the carbon steel due to interaction between atomic hydrogen from the corrosion process and the iron carbide present in the steel.
5. Defects in tube manufacture, although far from being a regular occurrence, can be a cause of serious trouble. Lamination in boiler tubes or score marks arising from the cold drawing of tubes, give rise to premature failure and may promote corrosion at these regions.
456. Question 435. What Are The Causes Of Failure Of Superheater Tubes ?

Superheater tubes are subjected to the most severe combination of stress, temperature and corrosive environment. In addition to high-temperature strength, resistance to corrosion is also important. For example, low-alloy ferritic steel such as -1/% Cr, 1% Mo would not be used at metal temperatures above 580°C because of inadequate resistance to corrosion and oxidation over a full service life of 100,000/150,000 hr.

Failures in superheater tubes may arise from :

1. Prior fabrication history
2. Faulty heat treatment
3. Consequences of welding
4. Overheating of the tube metal
5. Gas-side corrosion
6. Stress corrosion (austenitic steels).
457. Question 436. Why Supercritical Boilers Use Less Amount Of Steel Compared To Non-supercritical Boilers ?

Supercritical boilers do not head heavy drum for separation of steam from mixture of water and steam.

458. Question 437. Out Of Electric Heater And Heat Pump, Which Is Economical In Operation ?

Heat pump.

459. Question 438. Which Furnace Burns Low-ash Fusion Coal And Retains Most Of The Coal Ash In The Slag?

Cyclone furnace.

460. Question 439. How The Thickness Of Thermal Boundary Layer And Thickness Of Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer Related ?

Ratio of their thickness = (Prandtl number)-1/3.

461. Question 440. What Is The Effect Of Friction On Flow Of Steam Through A Nozzle ?

To decrease both mass flow rate and wetness of steam.

462. Question 441. Why Gas Turbine Power Plant Needs Efficient Compressor ?

Because a large portion of turbine work is eaten away by compressor and its inefficiency will affect net power output and cost of generation.

463. Question 442. Why Rockets Using Liquid Hydrogen Have Higher Specific Impulse Compared To Liquid Hydrocarbon ?

Liquid hydrogen has higher burning velocity.

464. Question 443. Why Axial Flow Compressor Is Preferred For Gas Turbines For Aeroplanes ?

Because it has low frontal area.

465. Question 444. What Is The Effect Of Inter Cooling In Gas Turbines ?

It decreases thermal efficiency but increases net output.

466. Question 445. Why Iso-octane Is Chosen As Reference Fuel For S.i. Engines And Allotted 100 Value For Its Octane Number ?

Iso-octane permits highest compression without causing knocking.

467. Question 446. Why Thermal Efficiency Of I.c. Engines Is More Than That Of Gas Turbine Plant ?

In I.C. engine maximum temperature attained is higher than in gas turbine.

468. Question 447. Which Are The Reference Fuels For Knock Rating Of S.i. Engines ?

n-heptane and ISO-octane.

469. Question 448. When Effect Of Variations In Specific Heats Is Considered Then How Do Maximum Temperature And Pressure Vary Compared To Air Standard Cycle ?

Temperature increases and pressure decreases.

470. Question 449. Quantities Like Pressure, Temperature, Density, Viscosity, Etc. Are Independent Of Mass. What Are These Called ?

Intensive properties.

471. Question 450. The Amount Of Radiation Emitted Per Scm Per Sec Is Called …. ?

Emissive power.

472. Question 451. In Convection Heat Transfer, If Heat Flux Intensity Is Doubled Then Temperature
Difference Between Solid Surface And Fluid Will ?

Get doubled.

473. Question 452. How You Can Define Coal ?

Coal is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon that consists of the fossilised remains of buried plant debris that have undergone progressive physical and chemical alteration, called coalification, in the course of geologic time.

474. Question 453. Which Pollutant Is Major Greenhouse Gas And What Is Its Effect ?

CO is major greenhouse gas and it traps the radiation of heat from the sun within earth’s atmosphere.

475. Question 454. In Order To Increase Efficiency And Reduce Co Emissions And Other Emissions, Clear Coal Technologies Are Receiving Major Attention. What Are These ?

1. Advanced pulverised and pressurised pulverised fuel combustion.
2. Atmospheric fluidised bed combustion and pressurised fluidised bed combustion.
3. Supercritical boilers.
4. Integrated gasification combined cycle systems.
5. Advanced integrated gasification, including fuel cell systems.
6. Magneto hydrodynamic electricity generation.
476. Question 455. What Are The Important Operational Performance Parameters In Design Of Fuel Firing Equipment ?

Fuel flexibility, electrical load following capability, reliability, availability, and maintenance ease.

477. Question 456. What Is The Difference Between Total Moisture And Inherent Moisture In Coal ?

The moisture content of the bulk as sampled is referred to as total moisture, and that of the air dried sample is called inherent moisture.

478. Question 457. Proximity Analysis Of Coal Provides Data For A First, General Assessment Of A Coal’s Quality And Type. What Elements It Reports ?

Moisture, volatile matter, ash and fixed carbon.

479. Question 458. Ultimate Analysis Of Coal Is Elementary Analysis. What It Is Concerned With ?

Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulphur in coal on a weight percentage basis.

480. Question 459. What For Schmidt Plot For Is Used In Heat Transfer Problems ?

Schmidt plot is a graphical method for determining the temperature at any point in a body at a specified time during the transient heating or cooling period.

481. Question 460. In Which Reactor The Coolant And Moderator Are The Same ?

Pressurised water reactor.

482. Question 461. Which Reactor Has No Moderator ?

Fast breeder reactor.

483. Question 462. What Are Thermal Neutrons ?

Thermal neutrons are slow neutrons (having energy below 1 eV) which are in thermal equilibrium with their surroundings.

484. Question 463. What Is Big Advantage Of Fast Breeder Reactor ?

It has rapid self breeding of fissile fuel during the operation of the reactor, and thus, it offers about sixty times the output with same natural uranium resources through ordinary non-breeder nuclear reactor.

485. Question 464. What Is The Purpose Of Biological Shield In Nuclear Plants ?

Biological shield of heavy concrete prevents exposure to neutrons, beta rays and gamma rays which kill living things.

486. Question 465. Which Two Elements Have Same Percentage In Proximate And Ultimate Analysis Of Coal?

Moisture and ash.

487. Question 466. On Which Analysis Is Based The Dulong’s Formula For The Heating Value Of Fuel ?

On ultimate analysis.

488. Question 467. Which Element Causes Difference In Higher And Lower Heating Values Of Fuel ?

Hydrogen.

489. Question 468. Which Heating Value Is Indicated By A Calorimeter And Why ?

Gross heating value because steam is condensed and heat of vapour formed is recovered.

490. Question 469. State The Difference Between Ultimate And Proximate Analysis Of Coal ?

In ultimate analysis, chemical determination of following elements is made by weight: Fixed and combined carbon, H, O, N, S, water and ash. Heating value is due to C, H and S.

In proximate analysis following constituents are mechanically determined by weight. Moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash. Heating value is due to fixed carbon and volatile matter.

491. Question 470. What Is Fuel Ratio ?

Fuel ratio is the ratio of its % age of fixed carbon to volatile matter.

492. Question 471. How The Analyses And Calorific Values Of Fuels Can Be Reported ?

It may be reported as

1. as received or fired (wet) basis
2. dry or moisture free basis
3. combustible or ash and moisture free basis
493. Question 472. What Is The Difference Between Nuclear Fission And Fission Chain Reaction?

The process of splitting of nucleus into two almost equal fragments accompanied by re¬lease of heat is nuclear fission. Self sustained, continuing, sequence of fission reactions in a controlled manner is fission chain reaction.

494. Question 473. Explain Difference Between Fissile And Fertile Materials?

The materials which can give nuclear fission e.g. U 35, Pu 39, U 33 are fissile materi¬als. Fertile material itself is not fissionable, but it can be converted to a fissionable material by irradiation of neutrons in a nuclear reactor.

495. Question 474. What Do You Understand By Fuel Cycle In Nuclear Plants ?

Fuel cycle a series of sequential steps involved in supplying fuel to a nuclear power reactor. The steps include : Mining, refining uranium, fabrication of fuel elements, their use in nuclear reactor, chemical processing to recover remaining fissionable material, re-enrichment of fuel from recovered material, refabrication of new fuel elements, waste storage etc.

496. Question 475. What Is Heavy Water And What Is Its Use In Nuclear Plants ?

Water containing heavy isotopes of hydrogen (Deuterium) is known as heavy water. Heavy water is used as a moderator. Heavy water has low cross section for absorption of neutrons than ordinary water. Heavy water slows down the fast neutrons and thus moderates the chain reaction.

497. Question 476. What Is A Converter Reactor ?

A reactor plant which is designed to produce more fuel than it consumes. The breeding is obtained by converting fertile material to fissile material.

498. Question 477. Explain Nuclear Reactor In Brief?

A plant which initiates, sustains, controls and maintains nuclear fission chain reaction and provides shielding against radioactive radiation is nuclear reactor.

499. Question 478. Which Nuclear Reactor Uses Water As A Coolant, Moderator And Reflector ?

Pressurised water reactor.

500. Question 479. Which Reactor Produces More Fissionable Material Than It Consumes ?

Breeder reactor.

501. Question 480. Which Reactor Uses Natural Uranium As Fuel ?

Gas cooled reactor.

502. Question 481. Which Reactor Uses Heavy Water As Moderator ?

CANDU.

503. Question 482. Which Reactor Requires No Moderator ?

Breeder reactor.

504. Question 483. Which Reactor Uses Primary Coolant As Fluoride Salts Of Lithium, Beryllium, Thorium And Uranium ?

Molten salt breeder reactor.

505. Question 484. Why An Increase In Area Is Required To Produce An Increase Of Velocity In Case Of Supersonic Flow ?

Increase in area for increase in velocity for supersonic flow is required because the density decreases faster than velocity increases at supersonic speeds and to maintain continuity of mass, area must increase.

506. Question 485. Under What Circumstances Would There Be An Increase In Pressure In A Diver¬gent Nozzle ?

For subsonic flow at inlet section of a diffuser a lower velocity and higher pressure will exist at the exit section. For supersonic isentropic flow at the inlet section a higher velocity and lower pressure will exist at the exit but if a shock wave occurs in the diffuser then a higher pressure will exist at the exit.

507. Question 486. Why Water Can’t Be Used As Refrigerant For Small Refrigerating Equipment ?

The refrigerant should be such that vapour volume is low so that pumping work will be low. Water vapour volume is around 4000 times compared to R- for a given mass.

508. Question 487. Which Parameter Remains Constant In A Throttling Process ?

Enthalpy.

509. Question 488. What Is The Difference Between Isotropic And Anisotropic Materials ?

If a material exhibits same mechanical properties regardless of loading direction, it is isotropic, e.g., homogeneous cast materials. Materials lacking this property are anisotropic.

510. Question 489. What Are Orthotropic Materials ?

It is a special class of anisotropic materials which can be described by giving their properties in three perpendicular directions e.g. wood; composites.

511. Question 490. What Is View Factor ?

View factor is dependent upon geometry of the two surfaces exchanging radiation.

512. Question 491. Explain The Effects Of Alloying Chromium And Nickel In Stainless Steel?

Addition of nickel and chromium increases the tensile strength and increase in resistance to corrosion takes place.

513. Question 492. Mention Two Types Of Dislocation?

Dislocation refers to a break in the continuity of the lattice. In edge dislocation, one plane of atoms gets squeezed out. In screw dislocation the lattice atoms move from their regular ideal positions.

514. Question 493. What Are The Principal Constituents Of Brass?

Principal constituents of brass are copper and zinc.

515. Question 494. What Is Curie Point ?

Curie point is the temperature at which ferromagnetic materials can no longer be magnetised by outside forces.

516. Question 495. Specific Strength Of Materials Is Very High When They Are In Fibre Size But Lower When They Are In Bar Form Why ?

Crystal structure has ordered, repeating arrangement of atoms. Fibres are liable to maintain this and thus have high specific strength. As size increases, the condition of ordered and repeating arrangements can’t be guaranteed because of several types of defects and dislocations and thus the specific strength gets lower.

517. Question 496. What Is The Percentage Of Carbon In Cast Iron ?

2.5%.

518. Question 497. Which Element Is Added In Steel To Increase Resistance To Corrosion ?

Chromium.

519. Question 498. Whether Individual Components In Composite Materials Retain Their Characteristics Or Not?

yes.

520. Question 499. An Elastomer Is A Polymer When Its Percentage Elongation Rate Is?

Greater than 100%.

521. Question 500. If Percentage Elongation Of A Material Is More Than 200%, It Is Classed As ?

Rubber.

522. Question 501. Why Is It That The Maximum Value Which The Residual Stress Can Reach Is The Elastic Limit Of The Material ?

A stress in excess of elastic limit, with no external force to oppose it, will relieve itself by plastic deformation until it reaches the value of the yield stress.

523. Question 502. Why Fatigue Strength Decreases As Size Of A Part Increases Beyond Around 10 Mm?

Perfection of material conditions is possible at lower sizes and as size increases, it is not possible to attain uniform structure of the material.

524. Question 503. Distinguish Between Creep And Fatigue?

Creep is low and progressive deformation of a material with time under a constant stress at high temperature applications. Fatigue is the reduced tendency of material to offer resistance to applied stress under repeated or fluctuating loading condition.

525. Question 504. While Normal Carburising And Nitriding Surface Treatments Increase Fatigue Strength, Excessive Treatment May Decrease The Fatigue Strength. Why ?

Normal carburising/nitriding treatments increase volume due to phase transformation at Surface and introduce residual compressive surface stress and thus increase the fatigue strength. By excessive treatment the high compressive stresses are introduced but these are balanced by high in¬ternal tensile stresses of equal value and the subsurface fatigue cracks may develop in the regions of high tensile stress and lead to early fatigue failure.

526. Question 505. List At Least Two Factors That Promote Transition From Ductile To Brittle Fracture.

Manner of loading, and the rate of loading promote transition from ductile to brittle fracture. A machine member may have ductile failure under static loading but may fail in brittle fashion when the load is fluctuating. Similarly a material may evidence ductile failure under tensile loading at ordinary testing speed but if load is applied at a high velocity then failure may be brittle.

527. Question 506. Which Theories Of Failure Are Used For

1. ductile Materials, And
2. brittle Materials ?

For ductile materials, theories of failure used are maximum shear stress theory, and maximum energy of distortion theory; while for brittle materials, theory of maximum principal stress, and maximum strain are used.

528. Question 507. What Does Thermal Diffusivity Of Metals Signify?

Thermal diffusivity is associated with the speed of propagation of heat into solids during changes in temperature with time.

529. Question 508. For Conduction Of Heat, The Instantaneous Rate Of Heat Flow Is Product Of Three Factors. What Are These ?

1. Area of the section of the heat flow path, perpendicular to the direction of heat flow.
2. temperature gradient, i.e. change of temperature w.r.t. length of path.
3. Thermal conductivity of material.
530. Question 509. How Convective Heat Transfer Is Effected And On What Factors It Depends ?

Convective heat transfer is effected between a solid and fluid by a combination of molecular conduction within the fluid in combination with energy transport resulting from the motion of fluid particles. It depends on boundary layer configuration, fluid properties and temperature difference.

531. Question 510. Which Is The Common Element Between Brass And Bronze ?

Copper.

532. Question 511. What Does Following Alloy Designation Indicate Fg 250 ?

Grey cast iron with tensile strength of 250 MPa.

533. Question 512. How Is Ceramic Defined ?

It is a solid formed by combination of metallic and non-metallic elements.

534. Question 513. What Is The Name Of Solid Solution Of Carbon In Alpha Iron And Delta Iron ?

Ferrite and austenite respectively.

535. Question 514. Explain The Difference Between Pearlite And Cementite ?

Pearlite is eutectoid mixture of ferrite and cementite. Cementite is chemical compound of iron and carbon.

536. Question 515. Give One Example Each Of The Following Proportion Of Materials Dimensional, Physical, Technological And Mechanical?

Roughness, enthalpy, toughness, and hardness respectively.

537. Question 516. For Which Parts The Wahl Factor And Lewis Form Factor Used ?

For springs and gears respectively.

538. Question 517. How Oxygen Can Be Removed From Steel During Melting? What Are Fully Killed Steels ?

Oxygen can be removed by adding elements such as manganese, silicon or aluminium which, because of their high affinity for oxygen, react with it to form non-metallic oxides which rise into the slag. Steels which have had most of their dissolved oxygen removed are called “fully killed steels”.

539. Question 518. Hydrogen Cannot Be Removed Easily From Molten Steel. What Harm Hydrogen Has On Property Of Steel ?

Excessive hydrogen results in the formation of small fissures often described as hairline cracks or flakes in the steel. Large forgings in alloy steel are particularly sensitive to this phenomenon.

540. Question 519. What Is Allotrope ? In What Forms Of Cubic Pattern, Iron Exists ?

Some elements exist in more than one crystalline form. Each form is known as “allotrope”. Iron exists in two forms of cubic pattern, namely body centered cubic (bcc) and face-centered cubic (fee).

541. Question 520. What Is The Difference Between Alpha Iron, Delta Iron And Gamma Iron ?

The bcc form of iron exists between room temperature and 910°C, and between 1400°C and the melting point at 1539°C. The lower temperature form is known as “alpha”-iron and the higher temperature form as “delta”-iron. The face-centered cubic form existing between 910°C and 1400°C is referred to as “gamma-iron”.

542. Question 521. What Is The Difference Between Isotropic Material And Homogeneous Material ?

In homogeneous material the composition is same throughout and in isotropic material the elastic constants are same in all directions.

543. Question 522. Explain The Difference Between The Points Of Inflexion And Contraflexure?

At points of inflexion in a loaded beam the bending moment is zero and at points of contraflexure in loaded beam the bending moment changes sign from increasing to decreasing.

544. Question 523. What Is The Difference Between Proof Resilience And Modulus Of Resilience ?

Proof resilience is the maximum strain energy that can be stored in a material without permanent deformation. Modulus of resilience is the maximum strain energy stored in a material per unit volume.

545. Question 524. What Is The Difference Between Column And Strut ?

Both column and strut carry compressive load. Column is always vertical but strut as member of structure could carry axial compressive load in any direction.

546. Question 525. Explain The Difference Between Ferrite, Austenite And Graphite ?

Ferrite is the solid solution of carbon and other constituents in alpha-iron. It is soft, ductile and relatively weak.

Austenite is the solid solution of carbon and other constituents in gamma-iron. It exists in ordinary steels at elevated temperatures, but it is also found at ordinary temperatures in some stainless steels. Graphite has a hexagonal layer lattice.

547. Question 526. What Do You Understand By Critical Points In Iron, Iron-carbide Diagram ?

The temperatures at which the phase changes occur are called critical points (or temperatures).

548. Question 527. Why Pert Is Preferred Over Cpm For Evaluation Of Project ?

PERT is based on the approach of multiple time estimates for each activity.

549. Question 528. What Is The Percentage Of Chromium In 18 : 4 : 1 Iiss ?

4%.

550. Question 529. What Is Stellite ?

It is a non-ferrous cast alloy containing cobalt, chromium and tungsten.

551. Question 530. Which Rays Are Produced By Cobalt-60 In Industrial Radiography ?

Gamma rays.

552. Question 531. What Are Killed Steels And What For These Are Used ?

Killed steels are deoxidised in the ladle with silicon and aluminium. On solidification no gas evolution occurs in these steels because they are free from oxygen.

553. Question 532. What Is Critical Temperature In Metals ?

It is the temperature at which the phase change occurs in metals.

554. Question 533. Car Tyres Are Usually Made Of ?

555. Question 534. What Is The Structure Of Pure Iron And Whether It Is Soft Or Hard ?

Ferrite and it is soft.

556. Question 535. Which Elements Increase The Corrosion Resistance Of Steel ?

Chromium and nickel.

557. Question 536. What Causes Hardness In Steel ? How Heat Treatment Alters Properties Of Steel ?

The shape and distribution of the carbides in the iron determines the hardness of the steel. Carbides can be dissolved in austenite is the basis of the heat treatment of steel. If steel is heated above the A critical temperature to dissolve all the carbides, and then cooled, suitable cooling through the cooling range will produce the desired size and distribution of carbides in the ferrite, imparting different properties.

558. Question 537. How With Alloying Of Steel It Is Possible To A Achieve Properties Which Can Not Be Achieved With Heat Treatment ?

A prerequisite to the hardening of steels is that martensite should be formed on cooling, but this can only be achieved if the rate of cooling is great enough to suppress the formation of pearlite or bainite and in plain carbon steels this can be achieved by quenching relatively small specimens

559. Question 538. What Are The Major Effects Of Alloying Elements?

1. To alter the transformation temperatures and times
2. To modify the room temperature and elevated temperature strengths of given structures by
1. stiffening the crystals and
2. introducing complex precipitates which tend to harden the steel.
3. To modify the type of oxide film formed on the surface of the steel and thereby affect its corrosion resistance.
560. Question 539. What Is The Difference Between Austenite Stabilisers And Ferrite Stabilisers ?

Austenite stabilisers have the effect of extending the temperature range over which austenite is formed. Such elements are carbon, manganese, nickel, copper and cobalt.

Ferrite stabilisers have the effect of extending the temperature range over which alpha and delta ferrite are formed, which consequently reduces temperature range over which austenite is formed. Such elements are silicon, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, titanium and niobium.

561. Question 540. What Is The Role Of Silicon As Alloying Element In Steels ?

Silicon contributes greatly to the production of sound steel because of its deoxidizing and degasifying properties. When added in amounts up to 2.5%, the ultimate strength of the steel is increased without loss in ductility. Silicon in excess of 2.5% causes brittleness, and amounts higher than 5% make the steel non-malleable.

Resistance to oxidation and surface stability of steel are increased by the addition of silicon. These desirable effects partially compensate for the tendency of silicon to lower the creep properties of steel. Silicon increases the electrical resistivity of steel and decreases hysteresis losses.

562. Question 541. Discuss The Role Of Manganese In Alloying Steels?

Manganese is an excellent deoxidizer and sulfur neutralizer, and improves the mechanical properties of steel, notably the ratio of yield strength to tensile strength at normal temperatures. As an alloying element, manganese serves as an inexpensive means of preventing “hot shortness”. It improves rolling properties, hardenability, and resistance to wear. However manganese increases the crack sensitivity of weldments, particularly with steels of higher carbon content.

563. Question 542. Define Buckling Factor?

It is the ratio of the equivalent length of column to the minimum radius of gyration.

564. Question 543. What Do You Understand By Catenary Cable ?

A cable attached to the supports and carrying its own weight.

565. Question 544. What Is Coaxing ?

It is the process of improving fatigue properties by first under-stressing and then increasing the stress in small increments.

566. Question 545. What Is Difference Between Conjugate Beam And Continuous Beam ?

A conjugate beam is an imaginary beam of same size as original beam and carrying a distributed load in accordance with the bending moment diagram.

A continuous beam is one which is resting on more than two supports.

567. Question 546. What Is Isotropic Material ?

It is a material having same elastic constants in all directions.

568. Question 547. Explain Difference Between Modulus Of Resilience And Modulus Of Rigidity ?

Modulus of resilience is the maximum strain energy stored in a material per unit volume and modulus of rigidity is the ratio of shearing stress to the shearing strain within the elastic limit.

569. Question 548. What Is The Difference Between Basic Hole And Basic Shaft ?

A basic hole is one whose lower deviation is zero and in case of basic shaft the upper deviation is zero.

570. Question 549. What For Pyranometer Is Used ?

It is used to measure the total hemispherical solar radiation.

571. Question 550. Describe Transfer Machines In Brief?

It is an automatic machine in which workpiece alongwith fixture is transferred from one station to other automatically and several operation on workpiece are performed at each station.

572. Question 551. What Is Burnt-out Point ?

It corresponds to maximum heat flux at which transition occurs from nucleate boiling to film boiling.

573. Question 552. What Do You Understand By Eutectic ?

It is mechanical mixture of two or more phases which solidify simultaneously from the liquid alloy.

574. Question 553. Explain The Difference Between Grey Iron And White Iron. What Is Mottled Iron ?

The carbon in cast iron could exist at room temperature as either iron carbide, or as graphite which is the more stable form. Irons containing carbon as graphite are soft, easily machinable and are called “grey irons”. Irons with carbon present as iron carbide are extremely hard, difficult to machine and are called “white” irons. Irons with fairly equal proportions of graphite and iron carbide have intermediate hardness and are called “mottled” irons.

575. Question 554. Under What Condition A Convergent Divergent Nozzle Required ?

When pressure ratio is greater than critical pressure ratio.

576. Question 555. What Is Endurance Limit And What Is Its Value For Steel ?

Endurance limit is the maximum level of fluctuating stress which can be tolerated indefinitely. In most steels this stress is approximately 50% of the ultimate tensile strength and it is defined as the stress which can be endured for ten million reversals of stress.

577. Question 556. How The Net Work To Drive A Compressor And Its Volumetric Efficiency Behave With Increase In Clearance Volume ?

Work remains unaltered and volumetric efficiency decreases.

578. Question 557. What Do You Understand By Sulphur Print ?

Sulphides, when attached with dilute acid, evolve hydrogen sulphide gas which stains bromide paper and therefore can be readily detected in ordinary steels and cast irons. While sulphur is not always as harmful as is sometimes supposed, a sulphur print is a ready guide to the distribution of segregated impurities in general.

579. Question 558. What Is The Different Between Brass And Bronze ?

Brass is an alloy of copper with zinc; and bronze is alloy of copper with tin.

580. Question 559. What Is The Effect Of Addition Of Zinc In Copper? What Is The Use Of 70/30 Brass ?

By addition of zinc in copper, both tensile strength and elongation increases. The 70/30 brass has excellent deep drawing property and is used for making radiator fins.

581. Question 560. What For Admiralty Brass Used ?

Admiralty brass with 29% zinc and 1% tin has good corrosion resistance and is used for condenser and feed heater tubes. Aluminium is also added to brass to improve corrosion resistance.

582. Question 561. What Is The Maximum Use Of Magnesium ?

Magnesium is used to alloy with aluminium and as an additive for making SG (Spheroidal Graphite) iron.

583. Question 562. What For Zinc Finds Applications ?

Galvanizing consumes the largest proportion of zinc. Zinc is resistant to corrosion but is attacked by acids and alkalies. Zinc alloy.s are suited for making die casting since the melting point is reasonably low.

584. Question 563. What Is The Name Given To Ratio Of Actual Cycle Efficiency And Ideal Cycle Efficiency?

Efficiency ratio.

585. Question 564. List Two Effects Of Manganese In Plain Carbon Steels?

Manganese increases tensile strength and hardness. It decreases weldability.

586. Question 565. Name The Strongest And Weakest Type Of Atomic Bonds?

Metallic bond is strongest and molecular bond also known as Vander Waals bond is weakest.

587. Question 566. In Which Process Internal Energy Remains Constant ?

Isothermal process.

588. Question 567. What Is Temper Embrittlement In Alloy Steels And What Are Its Effects ?

Embrittlement attack is usually intergranular in metals, i.e. cracks progress between the grains of the polycrystalline material. It imparts a tendency to fail under a static load after a given period of time in those alloy steels which are susceptible to embrittlement.

589. Question 568. What Are Whiskers ?

Whiskers are very small crystals which are virtually free from imperfections and dislocations.

590. Question 569. What Is Bauschinger Effect ?

According to Bauschinger, the limit of proportionality of material does not remain constant but varies according to the direction of stress under cyclic stresses.

591. Question 570. What Is The Difference Between Heat Capacity And Specific Heat Of A Material ?

The heat capacity of a material is the amount of heat transformed to raise unit mass of a material 1 degree in temperature.

The specific heat of a material is the ratio of the amount of heat transferred to raise unit mass of a material 1 degree in temperature to that required to raise unit mass of water 1 degree of temperature at some specified temperature.

For most engineering purposes, heat capacities may be assumed numerically equal to;specific heats.

592. Question 571. Explain The Rule To Find Specific Heat Of Aqueous Solutions?

For aqueous solutions of salts, the specific heat can be estimated by assuming the specific heat of the solution equal to that of the water alone. Thus, for a 15% by weight solution of sodium chloride in water, the specific heat would be approximately 0.85.

593. Question 572. What Do You Understand By Latent Heat ? Give Four Examples Of Latent Heats?

For pure substances, the heat effects accompanying changes in state at constant pressure (no temperature change being evident) are known as latent heats. Examples of latent heats are : heat of fusion, vaporisation, sublimation, and change in crystal form.

594. Question 573. Which Parameter Remains Constant In Isochoric Process ?

Volume.

595. Question 574. What Is Polytropic Process ? Under What Conditions It Approaches Isobaric, Isothermal, And Isometric Process ? In Which Reversible Process No Work Is Done ?

A polytropic process is one that follows the equation pun = constant (index n may have values from – oc to + oo. This process approaches isobaric when n = 0, isothermal when n = 1, and isometric when n = . No work is done in isometric process.

596. Question 575. Whether Superheated Steam Can Be Treated Like Ideal Gas ?

Yes.

597. Question 576. Out Of Constant Pressure And Constant Volume Lines On Ts Diagram Which Line Has Higher Slope ? And Whether Slope Is Constant Or Variable ?

Constant volume line. Slope is variable.

598. Question 577. Whether Entropy Is Intensive Property Or Extensive Property ?

Entropy is extensive property.

599. Question 578. In Which Process Fluid Expands But Does Not Work ?

Throttling process.

600. Question 579. What Are The Factors That Can Affect The Factor Of Safety Selection?

The factor of safety is used in designing a machine component. Prior to selecting the correct factor of safety certain points must be taken into consideration such as:

• The properties of the material used for the machine and the changes in its intrinsic properties over the time period of service.
• The accuracy and authenticity of test results to the actual machine parts.
• The limit of stresses (localized).
• The loss of property and life in case of failures.
• The limit of initial stresses at the time period of manufacture.
• The extent to which the assumptions can be simplified.

The factor of safety also depends on numerous other considerations such as the material, the method of manufacturing , the various types of stress, the part shapes etc.

601. Question 580. What Is Heat Treatment And Why Is It Done?

Heat treatment can be defined as a combination of processes or operations in which the heating and cooling of a metal or alloy is done in order to obtain desirable characteristics without changing the compositions. Some of the motives or purpose of heat treatment are as follows:

• In order to improve the hardness of metals.
• For the softening of the metal.
• In order to improve the machinability of the metal.
• To change the grain size.
• To provide better resistance to heat, corrosion, wear etc.

Heat treatment is generally performed in the following ways:

• Normalizing
• Annealing
• Spheroidising
• Hardening
• Tempering
• Surface or case hardening
602. Question 581. What Are The Rules That Must Be Kept In Mind While Designing Castings?

Some of the points that must be kept in mind during the process of cast designing are as follows:

• To avoid the concentration of stresses sharp corners and frequent use of fillets should be avoided.
• Section thicknesses should be uniform as much as possible. For variations it must be done gradually.
• Abrupt changes in the thickness should be avoided at all costs.
• Simplicity is the key, the casting should be designed as simple as possible.
• It is difficult to create true large spaces and henceforth large flat surfaces must be avoided. > Webs and ribs used for stiffening in castings should as minimal as possible.
• Curved shapes can be used in order to improve the stress handling of the cast.
603. Question 582. What Are The Points That Should Be Kept In Mind During Forging Design?

Some of the points that should be followed while forging design are:

• A radial flow of grains or fibers must be achieved in the forged components.
• The forged items such as drop and press forgings should have a parting line that should divide the forging into two equal halves.
• The ribs in a forging should not be high or thin.
• In order to avoid increased die wear the pockets and recesses in forgings should be minimum.
• In forgings the parting line of it should lie as far as possible in a single plane.
• For ease of forging and easy removal of forgings the surfaces of the metal should contain sufficient drafts.
604. Question 583. Describe Briefly The Different Cold Drawing Processes?

Some of the important cold drawing processes are as follows:

• Bar and Rod Drawing: In the case of bar drawing the hot drawn bars are at first pickled, washed and coated to prevent oxidation. Once this is done a draw bench is used for the process of cold drawing. In order to make an end possible to enter a drawing die the diameter of the rod is reduced by the swaging operation. This end is fastened by chains to the draw bench and the end is gripped by the jaws of the carriage. In this method a high surface finish and accuracy dimensionally is obtained. The products of this process can be used directly without any further machining.
• Wire Drawing: Similar to the above process the bars are first pickled, washed and coated to prevent any oxidation. After this the rods are passed through several dies of decreasing diameter to provide a desired reduction in the size ( diameter ). The dies used for the reduction process is generally made up of carbide materials.
• Tube Drawing: This type of drawing is very similar to the bar drawing process and in majority of cases it is accomplished by the use of a draw bench.
605. Question 584. What Are The Different Theories Of Failure Under Static Load, Explain Briefly?

The main theories of failure of a member subjected to bi-axial stress are as follows:

• Maximum principal stress theory ( Rankine’s theory): This theory states that failure occurs at a point in member where the maximum principal or normal stress in a bi-axial system reaches the maximum strength in a simple tension test.
• Maximum shear stress theory ( Guest’s or Tresca’s theory): This theory states that failure occurs when the biaxial stress reaches a value equal to the shear stress at yield point in a simple tension test.
• Maximum principal strain theory ( Saint Venant theory): This theory states that failure occurs when bi-axial stress reaches the limiting value of strain.
• Maximum strain energy theory ( Haigh’s theory): This theory states that failure occurs when strain energy per unit volume of the stress system reaches the limiting strain energy point.
• Maximum distortion energy theory ( Hencky and Von Mises theory): This theory states that failure occurs when strain energy per unit volume reaches the limiting distortion energy.
606. Question 585. What Are The Assumptions Made In Simple Theory Of Bending?

The assumptions made in the theory of simple bending are:

• The material of the beam is homogeneous this implies that it is uniform in density, strength and have isotropic properties meaning possessing same elastic property in all directions.
• Even after bending the cross section of the beam remains constant.
• During the initial stages the beam is straight and unstressed. > All the stresses in the beam are within the elastic limit of its material.
• The layers of the beam are free to contract and expand longitudinally and laterally
• On any cross section the perpendicular resultant force of the beam is zero.
• Compared to the cross-sectional dimension of the beam the radius of curvature is very large.
607. Question 586. Why Is Stress Considered Important In A Shaft?

The following types of stresses are prevalent in shafts:

• At the outermost surface of the shaft the max shear stress occurs on the cross-section of the shaft.
• At the surface of the shaft on the longitudinal planes through the axis of the shaft the maximum longitudinal shear stress occurs.
• At 45 degrees to the maximum shearing stress planes at the surface of the shafts the major principal stress occurs. It equals the max shear stress on the cross section of the shaft.
• For certain materials where the tensile and compressive strengths are lower in measure as compared to the shear strength, then the shaft designing should be carried out for the lowest strengths.
• All these stresses are of significance as they play a role in governing the failure of the shaft. All theses stresses get generated simultaneously and hence should be considered for designing purposes

608. Question 587. What Do You Understand By The Hooke’s Coupling What Are Its Purposes?

The Hooke`s coupling is used to connect two shafts whose axes intersect at a small angle. The two shafts are inclined at an angle and is constant. During motion it varies as the movement is transferred from one shaft to another. One of the major areas of application of this coupling is in gear boxes where the coupling is used to drive the rear wheels of trucks and other vehicles. In such usage scenarios two couplings are used each at the two ends of the coupling shaft. they are also used to transfer power for multiple drilling machines. The Hooke`s coupling is also known as the Universal coupling. The torque transmitted by the shafts is given by :

T= (pie/16) x t x (d) cube
Where T = torque,
t = shear stress for the shaft material and d the diameter of the shaft.

609. Question 588. What Kind Of Materials Should Be Used For Shafts Manufacturing?

Some of the qualities that should be present in materials for shafts are as follows:

• The material should have a high index of strength.
• Also it should have a high level of machinability.
• The material should possess a low notch sensitivity factor.
• The material must also have wear resistant properties.
• Good heat treatment properties should also be present

The common material used to creates shafts of high strengths an alloy of steel like nickel is used. The shafts are manufactured by hot rolling processes and then the shaft is finished using drawing or grinding processes.

610. Question 589. Why Should A Chain Drive Be Used Over A Belt Or Rope Driven Drive? State Pro`s And Con`s?

The advantages of using a chain drives are:

• In a chain drive no slip occurrence takes place.
• The chains take less space as compared to rope or belts as they are made of metal and offer much strength.
• The chain drives can be used at both short and long ranges and they offer a high level of transmission efficiency.
• Chain drives can transmit more load and power as compared to belts.
• A very high speed ratio can be maintained in one step of chain drives. Some of the cons of using a chain drive are:
• The cost of producing chain drives is higher as compared to that of belts.
• The chain drives must be serviced and maintained at regular intervals and henceforth their cost of ownership is high comparatively.
611. Question 590. What Are The Different Types Of Springs And Explain Them Briefly?

Springs can be broadly classified into the following types:

• Helical Springs: These springs as their name suggests are in coil form and are in the shape of helix. The primary purpose of such springs are to handle compressive and tensile loads. They can be further classified into two types: compression helical spring and tension helical spring each having their own unique areas of application./
• Conical and volute springs: Both these spring types have specialized areas of usage where springs with adaptable rate according to the load is required. In case of conical springs they are wound so as to have a uniform pitch while on the other hand volute springs are wound in a slight manner of a paraboloid.
• Torsion Springs: The characteristics of such springs is that they tend to wind up by the load. They can be either helical or spiral in shape. These types of springs are used in circuit breaker mechanisms.
• Leaf springs: These types of springs are comprised of metal plates of different lengths held together with the help of bolts and clamps. Commonly seen being used as suspensions for vehicles.
• Disc Springs: As the name suggests such types of springs are comprised of conical discs held together by a bolt or tube.
• Special Purpose Springs: These springs are all together made of different materials such as air and water.
612. Question 591. During The Design Of A Friction Clutch What Are The Considerations That Should Be Made?

In order to design a friction clutch the following points must be kept in mind:

• The material for the contact surfaces must be carefully selected.
• For high speed devices to minimize the inertia load of the clutch, low weight moving parts must be selected.
• The contact of the friction surfaces must be maintained at all the times without the application of any external forces.
• Provisions for the facilitation of repairs must be there.
• In order to increase safety the projecting parts of a clutch must be covered.
• A provision to take up the wearing of the contact surfaces must be present.
• Heat dissipaters to take away the heat from the point of contacting surfaces must be there.
613. Question 592. What Are The Different Types Of Brakes And Explain Them Briefly?

Brakes can be classified on the basis of their medium used to brake, they are as follows:

• Hydraulic Brakes: These brakes as their name suggest use a fluid medium to push or repel the brake pads for braking.
• Electric Brakes: These brakes use electrical energy to delete or create a braking force. Both the above types of breaks are used primarily for applications where a large amount of energy is to be transformed.
• Mechanical Brakes: They can be further classified on the basis of the direction of their acting force: Radial Brakes: As their names suggests the force that acts on the brakes is of radial direction. They can further be classified into internal and external blades. Axial Brakes: In these types of brakes the braking force is acting in an axial direction as compared to radial brakes.

614. Question 593. On What Basis Can Sliding Contact Bearings Be Classified? Explain?

Sliding contact bearings can be classified on the basis of the thickness of the lubricating agent layer between the bearing and the journal. They can be classified as follows:

• Thick film bearings: These type of bearings have their working surface separated by a layer of the lubricant. They are also known as hydrodynamic lubricated bearings.
• Thin film bearings: In this type of bearings the surfaces are partially in direct contact with each other even after the presence of a lubricant. The other name for such type of bearings is boundary lubricated bearings.
• Zero Film Bearings: These type of bearings as their name suggests have no lubricant present between the contact layers.
• Externally or hydrostatically pressurized lubricated bearings: These bearings are able to without any relative motion support steady loads.
615. Question 594. What Are The Basis On Which The Best Material For Sliding Contact Bearings Manufacturing?

Some of the important properties to lookout for in the material for sliding contact bearings are as follows:

• Compressive Strength: In order to prevent the permanent deformation and intrusion of the bearing the material selected should be possess a high compressive strength to bear the max bearing pressure.
• Fatigue Strength: the material selected for the bearing should be able to withstand loads without any surface fatigue cracks getting created. This is only possible if the material has a high level of fatigue strength.
• Comfortability: The material should be able to adjust or accommodate bearing inaccuracies and deflections without much wear and heating.
• Embeddability: The material should allow the embedding of small particles without effecting the material of the journal.
• Bondability: The bearings may be created by bringing together ( bonding ) multiple layers of the material. Due to the above reason the bondability of the material should be sufficiently high.
• Thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance: Thermal conductivity is an essential property for bearing materials as it can help in quickly dissipating the generated heat. Also the material should have a level of corrosion resistance against the lubricant.

616. Question 595. Briefly Explain The Advantages Of Cycloidal And Involute Gears?

The advantages of the Cycloidal gears are as follows:

• Having a wider flank as compared to Involute gears they are considered to have more strength and hence can withstand further load and stress.
• The contact in case of cycloidal gears is between the concave surface and the convex flank. This results in less wear and tear.
• No interference occurs in these types of gears.

The advantages of Involute gears are as follows:

• The primary advantage of involute gears is that it allows the changing of the centre distance of a pair without changing the velocity ratio.
• The pressure angle remains constant from start to end teeth, this results in less wear and smooth running of the gears.
• The involute gears are easier to manufacture as they can be generated in a single curve ( the face and flank ).
617. Question 596. How Can The Reaction Of Support Of A Frame Be Evaluated?

Generally roller or hinged support are used to support the frames. The conditions of equilibrium are used to determine the reaction support of a frame. The condition of equilibrium takes place when the sum of the horizontal and vertical forces sum equal to zero. The system must form a state of equilibrium even after considering the external loads and the reactions at the supports. For equilibrium to be prevalent in the system the following conditions are required to be in occurrence:

• Summation of V = 0. This implies that the summation of all the forces in the vertical direction results to zero.
• Summation of H = 0 . This implies that the total of all the forces acting in horizontal direction is also zero.
• Summation of M = 0. The sum of all the moment of forces around a point must be zero.
618. Question 597. Explain In An Orderly Manner How The Force In The Member Of A Truss Be Detected Using The Method Of Joint.

The steps required to calculate the force are as follows:

• The reaction at the support has to be first calculated.
• Once the reaction is calculated the direction of force of the member is made to make it tensile. On getting the result to be negative the direction assumed is wrong and this implies the force being compressive in nature.
• A joint needs to be selected whose 2 members are not known. The lami`s theorem is used on the joint on which less than three forces are acting.
• After the above process is complete the free body diagrams of the joint needs to be made. Since the system is in equilibrium the condition of Summation of V and H must result in zero.
• After the above step the resolution of forces method needs to be used on the joint on which more than 4 forces are acting.
619. Question 598. In Order To Derive The Torsional Formulas What Are The Assumptions Taken?

The torsion equation is derived on the basis of following assumptions:

• The shaft material is uniform, throughout the shaft. > Even after loading the shaft circular remains circular.
• After the application of torques the plain section of a shaft remains plain.
• Any twist that occurs in the shaft remains uniform and constant.
• After the application of torque the distance between any two cross-sectional references remains constant.
• The elastic limit value of a shaft is never exceeded even after the shear stress induced because of torque application.
620. Question 599. What Are Bevel Gears And What Are Its Types?

Bevel gears are the type of gears in which the two shafts happen to intersect. The gear faces which are tooth bearing are conical in shape. They are generally mounted on shafts which are 90 degrees apart but they can be made to work at other angles as well. The bevel gears are classified into the following types on the basis of pitch surfaces and shaft angles:

• Mitre Gears: These types of gears are similar to each other ie. they have the same pitch angles and contain the same number of teeth. The shaft axes intersect at 90 degrees angle.
• Angular bevel gears: When two bevel gears connect at any angle apart from 90 degrees.
• Crown bevel gears: When the two shaft axes intersect at an angle greater than 90 and one of the bevel gears have a pitch angle of 90 degrees they are known as crown bevel gears.
• Internal bevel gears: In these type of gears the teeth on the gears is cut on the inside area of the pitch cone.
621. Question 600. What Are The Different Values That Need To Be Determined In Order To Design A Cylinder For An Ice?

The following values are needed to be determined:

• Thickness of the cylinder wall: The cylinder walls in an engine is made witness to gas pressure and the side thrust of a piston. This results in two types of stresses: longitudinal and circumferential stress. Both the types of stresses are perpendicular to each other and hence it is aimed to reduce the resulting stress as much as possible.
• Length and bore of the cylinder: The length of the cylinder and the length of the stroke is calculated on the basis of the formula: length of cylinder L = 1.15 times the length of the stroke (l). L = 1.15(l)
• Cylinder flange and studs: The cylinders are always cast integral as a part of the upper crankcase or in some cases attached to it by means of nuts and bolts. The flange is integral to a cylinder and henceforth its thickness should be greater than that of the cylinder wall. The thickness of flange should generally be between 1.2t-1.4t where t is the cylinder thickness. The stud diameter is calculated by equating gas load ( due to max pressure ) to the grand total of all the resisting forces of the studs.
622. Question 601. What Are Considerations Taken Into Account While Creating A Piston Head?