LoadRunner Interview Questions & Answers

  1. Question 1. What Is Loadrunner?

    Answer :

    LoadRunner accurately measure and analysis the system performance and its functionality.

  2. Question 2. When Loadrunner Is Used?

    Answer :

    Load runner is used to test applications when load sustaining is critical for our project and the tool/application developed is expected to work under heavy loads. In all cases, load testing manually is not possible.

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  4. Question 3. What Is The Advantage Of Using Loadrunner?

    Answer :

    • loadrunner automatically records the performance of the client/server during test.
    • loadrunner checks where performance delays occur network/client delays.
    • loadrunner monitor the network and server resource to help the improve performance.
  5. Question 4. What Is Loadrunner Controller?

    Answer :

    Controller is manage and maintain the scenario. using controller you control all the vuser in single work station .

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  7. Question 5. What Are The Loadrunner Testing Process?

    Answer :

    There are 5 steps.
    1-planning the test.
    2-creating the vuser script.
    3-creating the scenario.
    4- running the scenario.
    5-analysis the test result.

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  9. Question 6. What Is Loadrunner Agent?

    Answer :

    Agent is interface between host machine and controller.

  10. Question 7. How You Load A Loadrunner Agent?

    Answer :

    Controller instruct the remote command luncher to lunch the Agent .

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  12. Question 8. What Is Loadrunner Api Function?

    Answer :

    Data base vuser do not operate client application. Using LoadRunner API function the database vuser can access the data from the server.

  13. Question 9. What Is The Loadrunner Start-transaction And Its Syntax?

    Answer :

    It will start the transaction on the script. Syntax. Lr-start-transaction(“transaction name”).

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  15. Question 10. What Is The Loadrunner End Transaction And Its Syntax?

    Answer :

    It will end the transaction. Syntax. Lr-end-transaction(“transaction name”, LR-AUTO).

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  17. Question 11. What Protocols Does Loadrunner Support?

    Answer :

    Industry standard protocols for example HTTP and ODBC are explicitly supported by LoadRunner. Furthermore any protocol that communicates over a windows socket can be supported.

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  19. Question 12. What Can I Monitor With Loadrunner?

    Answer :

    Monitor system bottlenecks during a test run and capture and display the performance data from every server or component.

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  21. Question 13. How Many Users Can I Emulate With Loadrunner On A Pc?

    Answer :

    Unlimited, No dead end., Depends on system response. That too inturn depends on various factors like entire system configuration etc. If system bottle necks observes in very begining or minimum no of Vusers no further addition of vusers will be considered unless observed bottleneck is resolved.

  22. Question 14. What Are The Vuser Components In Loadrunner?

    Answer :

    ApplicationComponents used are client, database or additionally business application server.

    Web Server works on and through LAN,WAN,or www connection.

    Application Server components are client, business server and database server without use of www.but through Protocols like FTP.

  23. Question 15. Loadrunner Function – How To Get Current System Time

    Answer :

    This function is developed to usein Mercury LoadRunner peformance tool. This main use of this functions to return the current system time at any given point of time while LoadRunner script is running.This functiona can be used to report transaction times , script start time and end time.
    long get_secs_since_midnight(void)
    {
    char * curr_hr; /* pointer to a parameter with current clock hr */
    char * curr_min; /* pointer to a parameter with current clock min*/
    char * curr_sec; /* pointer to a parameter with current clock sec */
    long current_time, /* current number of seconds since midnight */
    hr_secs, /* current hour converted to secs */
    min_secs, /* current minutes converted to secs */
    secs_secs; /* current number of s curr_hr = lr_eval_string(“{current_hr}>”);
    curr_min = lr_eval_string(“{current_min}”);
    curr_sec = lr_eval_string(“{current_sec}”);
    hr_secs = (atoi(curr_hr)) * 60 * 60;
    min_secs = (atoi(curr_min)) * 60;
    secs_secs = atoi(curr_sec);
    current_time = hr_secs + min_secs + secs_secs;
    return(current_time);
    }

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  25. Question 16. What Are The Reasons Why Parameterization Is Necessary When Load Testing The Web Server And The Database Server?

    Answer :

    Parameterization is generally done to test with multiple set of data or records.

  26. Question 17. What Is Scenario?

    Answer :

    A scenario defines the events that occur during is testing session. Exam (deposit cash, withdraw money…).

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  28. Question 18. What Is The Vuser In The Scenario?

    Answer :

    LoadRunner replace the human user with vuser.

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  30. Question 19. What Is Vuser Script?

    Answer :

    While run a scenarion every vuser execute a script that script known as vuser script .

  31. Question 20. What The Vuser Script Contain?

    Answer :

    The vuser script includes the function that measure and record the performance of the server during the scenario.

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  33. Question 21. What Is Transaction?

    Answer :

    Transaction measure the time, which takes for the server to respond to task submitted by the vuser.

  34. Question 22. What Is Rendezvous Point?

    Answer :

    To emulate peak load on the server.

  35. Question 23. When The Rendezvous Point Is Insert?

    Answer :

    When multiple vuser to perform tasks at exactly the same time then insert the rendezvous point to emulate the peak load on the server.

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  37. Question 24. What Is Host?

    Answer :

    Host is machine which execute the vuser script.

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  39. Question 25. What Is Planning For The Test.

    Answer :

    Define the performance testing requirements for example no. of concurrent users, typical business processes and required response time.

  40. Question 26. What Do You Mean By Creating Vuser Script?

    Answer :

    Creating vuser script for emulate the action that virtual user Perform during the scenario execution.

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  42. Question 27. What Are The Process For Developing A Vuser Script.

    Answer :

    There are 5 steps for developing a vuser script.
    1-recording the vuser script .
    2-edit the vuser script.
    3-runtime setting .
    4-run the vuser script in stand-alone mode.
    5-incorporate the vuser script into a LoadRunner scenario.

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  44. Question 28. How To Create A Scenario?

    Answer :

    We have to install LoadRunner controller to the host . Then we include list of host(where vuser script execute) then list of vuser script (where vuser run) and then list of vuser that run during the scenario.

  45. Question 29. What Do You Mean By Remote Command Launcher(rcl)?

    Answer :

    Rcl enables the controller to start the application on the Host machine .

  46. Question 30. How Many Types Of Vuser Are Available?

    Answer :

    There are several type of vuser(GUI ,Database ,RTE(terminal emulator), SAP, DCOME, People soft, java, Baan)

  47. Question 31. What Is Gui Vuser And On Which Platform It Will Run?

    Answer :

    GUI vuser operate graphical user interface application and it can run in either the MS-Windows / X-Windows environment .

  48. Question 32. What Is Ms-windows?

    Answer :

    WinRunner used for MS-Window application .

  49. Question 33. What Is X-windows?

    Answer :

    X-runner and VX-runner for X-Windows application.

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  51. Question 34. How You Develop The Database Vuser Script?

    Answer :

    Developing the database vuser script either by recording with LoadRunner vuser script generator (VuGen) or by using LoadRunner vuser script template.

  52. Question 35. How Many Section Database Vuser Script Have?

    Answer :

    3 section ,written in code that assemble in C, SQL call to the database, written in TSL(test script language).

  53. Question 36. How You Enhance The Basic Script?

    Answer :

    By adding control-flow, structure, by inserting transaction point and rendezvous point, adding functions.

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  55. Question 37. What Is Run-time-setting?

    Answer :

    Run-time-setting include loop.log and timing information.

  56. Question 38. What Is Stand-alone Mode?

    Answer :

    To verify that the script runs correctly.

  57. Question 39. What Type Of Function Generate And Insert By The Vugen To The Script When You Record A Script?

    Answer :

    1-LR Function.(vuser function)
    2- protocol function.

  58. Question 40. What Is Lr-function?

    Answer :

    obtain the information about vuser running in a scenario .

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  60. Question 41. What Is Protocol Function?

    Answer :

    Obtain the information about the type of vuser.

  61. Question 42. What Are The Section Contain By The Vugen While Creating A Vuser Script?

    Answer :

    Vugen contain the 3 section .
    1-vuser-init
    2-action.
    3-vuser-end.

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  63. Question 43. What Is Vuser-init Section?

    Answer :

    Record a log in to the server(vuser initialize loaded).

  64. Question 44. What Is Action Section?

    Answer :

    Record the client activity .

  65. Question 45. What Is Vuser-end Section?

    Answer :

    Record a log off in to the server (vuser stoped).

  66. Question 46. How Vugen Create A Vuser Script?

    Answer :

    By recording the activity between client and server.

  67. Question 47. How You Edit The Script?

    Answer :

    While editing the script we have to inserting the transaction point and rendezvous point.

  68. Question 48. Where You Insert The Rendezvous Point?

    Answer :

    Rendezvous point insert in to the script to calculate the peak load of the server.

    Syntax: lr-rendezvous (“rendezvous name”).

  69. Question 49. What Are The Element In The Loadrunner Controller?

    Answer :

    Title bar(name of the scenarion presently working). Menu bar(selecting the various command). Tool bar. Status bar.

  70. Question 50. What Are The 5 Icons Appear In The Buttom Of The Controller Windows?

    Answer :

    1-host windows(list of machine).
    2-script windows(list of all the vuser script)
    3-rendezvous windows.
    4-transaction windows(display all the transaction) .
    5-output window( display error and notification message).

  71. Question 51. What Is .lrs?

    Answer :

    LoadRunner save the information in a scenario files.

  72. Question 52. What Is Scenario Wizard?

    Answer :

    Through scenario wizard we can create a new scenario.

  73. Question 53. What Is Filtering And Sorting?

    Answer :

    We can filter the information display only those items that meet the selected criteria(filter box) .exam you can filter vuser only those who are in ready state. Sorting – we can sort all the vuser in the vuser list. In order to their vuser ID(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9).

  74. Question 54. What Are The Information Crating For Each Host?

    Answer :

    1-the status of the host.
    2-the platform type of the host(windows/unix).
    3-details of the scenario.

  75. Question 55. How To Create A Host List For A Scenario?

    Answer :

    1-install remote command luncher on every machine.
    2-add the name of the host to the host lists.
    3-set attributes for each host.
    4-select which hosts will take part in the scenario.

  76. Question 56. What The Host Attributes Determine?

    Answer :

    1-the maximum number of vuser that host can run.
    2-the initialization quota .
    3-the location of the WinRunner configuration file.
    4. the location of the file during run-time.

  77. Question 57. How You Set Maximum Number Of Vuser That A Host Can Run?

    Answer :

    We can modify the maximum number of vuser according to the (available resource , the needs of your scenario, LoadRunner license agreements).

  78. Question 58. What Do You Mean By Initialization Of Quota?

    Answer :

    Capabilities of the host that at a time how many vuser Are initialize .

  79. Question 59. What Is Scenario Default?

    Answer :

    Instruct the vuser to use the WinRunner configuration file.

  80. Question 60. What Is Local Configuration File?

    Answer :

    Instruct the vuser to use hosts WinRunner configuration file.

  81. Question 61. What Do You Mean By Path?

    Answer :

    Use WinRunner configuration file that is in a specific location on the network.

  82. Question 62. During Run Time Where The Hosts Saves The Files?

    Answer :

    In temporally in the local drive of each host.

  83. Question 63. What Is Script List?

    Answer :

    It contain all the vuser script that vuser can run.

  84. Question 64. What Are The Information Contain By Script Windows For Each Script In The List?

    Answer :

    1-name of the vuser script .
    2-the type of the vuser.
    3-the location(path).
    4-command line option.

  85. Question 65. How To Modify The Script?

    Answer :

    Using vuser script information dialog box.

  86. Question 66. What Is The Purpose Of Running The Scenario?

    Answer :

    To check the response time of the client/server system under load.

  87. Question 67. Why We Insert The Rendezvous Point While Running The Scenario?

    Answer :

    If a multiple vuser to perform a tasks at exactly the same time.

  88. Question 68. When A Scenario Run Exactly What Happened?

    Answer :

    1-The controller check the scenario configuration information.
    2-then next it invoke the application that you select to run with the scenario .
    3- then transform each script to its related hosts, when the vuser are ready they start execution.

  89. Question 69. How To Run A Scenario?

    Answer :

    Open an existing scenario .
    Configure the scenario.
    Set the result directory.
    Run the scenario.

  90. Question 70. When You Initialize The Vuser What Happen?

    Answer :

    The vuser status change from DOWN to PENDING to INITILIZAING to READY. If vuser fails to initialize , the vuser status changes to ERROR.

  91. Question 71. What Is Pause Command?

    Answer :

    It changes the status of the vuser from RUNNING TO PAUSE.

  92. Question 72. What Is Running Virtual User Graph?

    Answer :

    It displays the number of the vuser that execute vuser script during each second of the scenario run. Only running and rendez state are include.(loading, ready and pause are not displayed).

  93. Question 73. What Is Report Viewer?

    Answer :

    Each report viewer contain the report header and report viewer tool bar.

  94. Question 74. What Is Report Header And What Are The Information Contains?

    Answer :

    It display general scenario information and it contain the information like (title, scenario, result start time, end time and duration).

  95. Question 75. What Is Rendezvous Graph?

    Answer :

    It indicate when vuser were released from rendezvous point and how many vuser are released from each point.it help the transaction performance time .

  96. Question 76. What Is Transaction Per Second Graph(pass)?

    Answer :

    It display the number of complited , successful transaction perform during each second of scenario run.

  97. Question 77. What In Percentile Graph?

    Answer :

    The percentage of transaction that were performed within a given time range.

  98. Question 78. What Is Transaction Performance Graph?

    Answer :

    Display the average time taken to perform transaction during each second of the scenario run.

  99. Question 79. What Are All The Types Of Correlation?

    Answer :

    Manual & Automatic Co-relation

    Manual correlation – Correlation is used to obtain data which are unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries.

    Automatic correlation is where we set some rules for correlation. It can be application server specific. Here values are replaced by data, which are created by these rules.

  100. Question 80. What Is Load Testing?

    Answer :

    Load testing is to test that if the application works fine with the loads that result from large number of simultaneous users, transactions and to determine weather it can handle peak usage periods.

  101. Question 81. What Is Performance Testing?

    Answer :

    Timing for both read and update transactions should be gathered to determine whether system functions are being performed in an acceptable timeframe. This should be done standalone and then in a multi user environment to determine the effect of multiple transactions on the timing of a single transaction.

  102. Question 82. Did U Use Loadrunner? What Version?

    Answer :

    Yes. Version 7.2.

  103. Question 83. Explain The Load Testing Process?

    Answer :

    Step 1: Planning the test. Here, we develop a clearly defined test plan to ensure the test scenarios we develop will accomplish load-testing objectives.

    Step 2: Creating Vusers. Here, we create Vuser scripts that contain tasks performed by each Vuser, tasks performed by Vusers as a whole, and tasks measured as transactions.

    Step 3: Creating the scenario. A scenario describes the events that occur during a testing session. It includes a list of machines, scripts, and Vusers that run during the scenario. We create scenarios using LoadRunner Controller. We can create manual scenarios as well as goal-oriented scenarios. In manual scenarios, we define the number of Vusers, the load generator machines, and percentage of Vusers to be assigned to each script. For web tests, we may create a goal-oriented scenario where we define the goal that our test has to achieve. LoadRunner automatically builds a scenario for us.

    Step 4: Running the scenario. We emulate load on the server by instructing multiple Vusers to perform tasks simultaneously. Before the testing, we set the scenario configuration and scheduling. We can run the entire scenario, Vuser groups, or individual Vusers.

    Step 5: Monitoring the scenario. We monitor scenario execution using the LoadRunner online runtime, transaction, system resource, Web resource, Web server resource, Web application server resource, database server resource, network delay, streaming media resource, firewall server resource, ERP server resource, and Java performance monitors.

    Step 6: Analyzing test results. During scenario execution, LoadRunner records the performance of the application under different loads. We use LoadRunner’s graphs and reports to analyze the application’s performance.

  104. Question 84. When Do You Do Load And Performance Testing?

    Answer :

    We perform load testing once we are done with interface (GUI) testing. Modern system architectures are large and complex. Whereas single user testing primarily on functionality and user interface of a system component, application testing focuses on performance and reliability of an entire system. For example, a typical application-testing scenario might depict 1000 users logging in simultaneously to a system. This gives rise to issues such as what is the response time of the system, does it crash, will it go with different software applications and platforms, can it hold so many hundreds and thousands of users, etc. This is when we set do load and performance testing.

  105. Question 85. What Are The Components Of Loadrunner?

    Answer :

    The components of LoadRunner are the Virtual User Generator, Controller, and the Agent process, LoadRunner Analysis and Monitoring.

  106. Question 86. What Component Of Loadrunner Would You Use To Record A Script?

    Answer :

    The Virtual User Generator (VuGen) component is used to record a script. It enables you to develop Vuser scripts for a variety of application types and communication protocols.

  107. Question 87. What Component Of Loadrunner Would You Use To Play Back The Script In Multi User Mode?

    Answer :

    The Controller component is used to playback the script in multi-user mode. This is done during a scenario run where a Vuser script is executed by a number of Vusers in a group.

  108. Question 88. What Is A Rendezvous Point?

    Answer :

    You insert rendezvous points into Vuser scripts to emulate heavy user load on the server. Rendezvous points instruct Vusers to wait during test execution for multiple Vusers to arrive at a certain point, in order that they may simultaneously perform a task. For example, to emulate peak load on the bank server, you can insert a rendezvous point instructing 100 Vusers to deposit cash into their accounts at the same time.

  109. Question 89. What Is A Scenario?

    Answer :

    A scenario defines the events that occur during each testing session. For example, a scenario defines and controls the number of users to emulate, the actions to be performed, and the machines on which the virtual users run their emulations.

  110. Question 90. Explain The Recording Mode For Web Vuser Script?

    Answer :

    We use VuGen to develop a Vuser script by recording a user performing typical business processes on a client application. VuGen creates the script by recording the activity between the client and the server. For example, in web based applications, VuGen monitors the client end of the database and traces all the requests sent to, and received from, the database server. We use VuGen to: Monitor the communication between the application and the server; Generate the required function calls; and Insert the generated function calls into a Vuser script.

  111. Question 91. Why Do You Create Parameters?

    Answer :

    Parameters are like script variables. They are used to vary input to the server and to emulate real users. Different sets of data are sent to the server each time the script is run. Better simulate the usage model for more accurate testing from the Controller; one script can emulate many different users on the system.

  112. Question 92. What Is Correlation? Explain The Difference Between Automatic Correlation And Manual Correlation?

    Answer :

    Correlation is used to obtain data which are unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries. Correlation provides the value to avoid errors arising out of duplicate values and also optimizing the code (to avoid nested queries). Automatic correlation is where we set some rules for correlation. It can be application server specific. Here values are replaced by data which are created by these rules. In manual correlation, the value we want to correlate is scanned and create correlation is used to correlate.

  113. Question 93. How Do You Find Out Where Correlation Is Required? Give Few Examples From Your Projects?

    Answer :

    Two ways: First we can scan for correlations, and see the list of values which can be correlated. From this we can pick a value to be correlated. Secondly, we can record two scripts and compare them. We can look up the difference file to see for the values which needed to be correlated. In my project, there was a unique id developed for each customer, it was nothing but Insurance Number, it was generated automatically and it was sequential and this value was unique. I had to correlate this value, in order to avoid errors while running my script. I did using scan for correlation.

  114. Question 94. Where Do You Set Automatic Correlation Options?

    Answer :

    Automatic correlation from web point of view can be set in recording options and correlation tab. Here we can enable correlation for the entire script and choose either issue online messages or offline actions, where we can define rules for that correlation. Automatic correlation for database can be done using show output window and scan for correlation and picking the correlate query tab and choose which query value we want to correlate. If we know the specific value to be correlated, we just do create correlation for the value and specify how the value to be created.

  115. Question 95. What Is A Function To Capture Dynamic Values In The Web Vuser Script?

    Answer :

    Web_reg_save_param function saves dynamic data information to a parameter.

  116. Question 96. When Do You Disable Log In Virtual User Generator, When Do You Choose Standard And Extended Logs?

    Answer :

    Once we debug our script and verify that it is functional, we can enable logging for errors only. When we add a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled. Standard Log Option: When you select Standard log, it creates a standard log of functions and messages sent during script execution to use for debugging. Disable this option for large load testing scenarios. When you copy a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled Extended Log Option: Select extended log to create an extended log, including warnings and other messages. Disable this option for large load testing scenarios. When you copy a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled. We can specify which additional information should be added to the extended log using the extended log options.

  117. Question 97. How Do You Debug A Loadrunner Script?

    Answer :

    VuGen contains two options to help debug Vuser scripts-the Run Step by Step command and breakpoints. The Debug settings in the Options dialog box allow us to determine the extent of the trace to be performed during scenario execution. The debug information is written to the Output window. We can manually set the message class within your script using the lr_set_debug_message function. This is useful if we want to receive debug information about a small section of the script only.

  118. Question 98. How Do You Write User Defined Functions In Lr? Give Me Few Functions You Wrote In Your Previous Project?

    Answer :

    Before we create the User Defined functions we need to create the external library (DLL) with the function. We add this library to VuGen bin directory. Once the library is added then we assign user defined function as a parameter. The function should have the following format: __declspec (dllexport) char* (char*, char*) Examples of user defined functions are as follows: GetVersion, GetCurrentTime, GetPltform are some of the user defined functions used in my earlier project.

  119. Question 99. What Are The Changes You Can Make In Run-time Settings?

    Answer :

    The Run Time Settings that we make are: a) Pacing – It has iteration count. b) Log – Under this we have Disable Logging Standard Log and c) Extended Think Time – In think time we have two options like Ignore think time and Replay think time. d) General – Under general tab we can set the Vusers as process or as multithreading and whether each step as a transaction.

  120. Question 100. Where Do You Set Iteration For Vuser Testing?

    Answer :

    We set Iterations in the Run Time Settings of the VuGen. The navigation for this is Run time settings, Pacing tab, and set number of iterations.

  121. Question 101. How Do You Perform Functional Testing Under Load?

    Answer :

    Functionality under load can be tested by running several Vusers concurrently. By increasing the amount of Vusers, we can determine how much load the server can sustain.

  122. Question 102. What Is Ramp Up? How Do You Set This?

    Answer :

    This option is used to gradually increase the amount of Vusers/load on the server. An initial value is set and a value to wait between intervals can be specified. To set Ramp Up, go to ‘Scenario Scheduling Options’.

  123. Question 103. What Is The Advantage Of Running The Vuser As Thread?

    Answer :

    VuGen provides the facility to use multithreading. This enables more Vusers to be run per generator. If the Vuser is run as a process, the same driver program is loaded into memory for each Vuser, thus taking up a large amount of memory. This limits the number of Vusers that can be run on a single generator. If the Vuser is run as a thread, only one instance of the driver program is loaded into memory for the given number of Vusers (say 100). Each thread shares the memory of the parent driver program, thus enabling more Vusers to be run per generator.

  124. Question 104. If You Want To Stop The Execution Of Your Script On Error, How Do You Do That?

    Answer :

    The lr_abort function aborts the execution of a Vuser script. It instructs the Vuser to stop executing the Actions section, execute the vuser_end section and end the execution. This function is useful when you need to manually abort a script execution as a result of a specific error condition. When you end a script using this function, the Vuser is assigned the status “Stopped”. For this to take effect, we have to first uncheck the “Continue on error” option in Run-Time Settings.

  125. Question 105. What Is The Relation Between Response Time And Throughput?

    Answer :

    The Throughput graph shows the amount of data in bytes that the Vusers received from the server in a second. When we compare this with the transaction response time, we will notice that as throughput decreased, the response time also decreased. Similarly, the peak throughput and highest response time would occur approximately at the same time.

  126. Question 106. Explain The Configuration Of Your Systems?

    Answer :

    The configuration of our systems refers to that of the client machines on which we run the Vusers. The configuration of any client machine includes its hardware settings, memory, operating system, software applications, development tools, etc. This system component configuration should match with the overall system configuration that would include the network infrastructure, the web server, the database server, and any other components that go with this larger system so as to achieve the load testing objectives.

  127. Question 107. How Do You Identify The Performance Bottlenecks?

    Answer :

    Performance Bottlenecks can be detected by using monitors. These monitors might be application server monitors, web server monitors, database server monitors and network monitors. They help in finding out the troubled area in our scenario which causes increased response time. The measurements made are usually performance response time, throughput, hits/sec, network delay graphs, etc.

  128. Question 108. If Web Server, Database And Network Are All Fine Where Could Be The Problem?

    Answer :

    The problem could be in the system itself or in the application server or in the code written for the application.

  129. Question 109. How Did You Find Web Server Related Issues?

    Answer :

    Using Web resource monitors we can find the performance of web servers. Using these monitors we can analyze throughput on the web server, number of hits per second that occurred during scenario, the number of http responses per second, the number of downloaded pages per second.

  130. Question 110. How Did You Find Database Related Issues?

    Answer :

    By running “Database” monitor and help of “Data Resource Graph” we can find database related issues. E.g. you can specify the resource you want to measure on before running the controller and than you can see database related issues.

  131. Question 111. Explain All The Web Recording Options? What Is The Difference Between Overlay Graph And Correlate Graph?

    Answer :

    Overlay Graph: It overlay the content of two graphs that shares a common x-axis. Left Y-axis on the merged graph show’s the current graph’s value & Right Y-axis show the value of Y-axis of the graph that was merged.

    Correlate Graph: Plot the Y-axis of two graphs against each other. The active graph’s Y-axis becomes X-axis of merged graph. Y-axis of the graph that was merged becomes merged graph’s Y-axis.

  132. Question 112. How Did You Plan The Load? What Are The Criteria?

    Answer :

    Load test is planned to decide the number of users, what kind of machines we are going to use and from where they are run. It is based on 2 important documents, Task Distribution Diagram and Transaction profile. Task Distribution Diagram gives us the information on number of users for a particular transaction and the time of the load. The peak usage and off-usage are decided from this Diagram. Transaction profile gives us the information about the transactions name and their priority levels with regard to the scenario we are deciding.

  133. Question 113. What Does Vuser_init Action Contain?

    Answer :

    Vuser_init action contains procedures to login to a server.

  134. Question 114. What Does Vuser_end Action Contain?

    Answer :

    Vuser_end section contains log off procedures.

  135. Question 115. What Is Think Time? How Do You Change The Threshold?

    Answer :

    Think time is the time that a real user waits between actions. Example: When a user receives data from a server, the user may wait several seconds to review the data before responding. This delay is known as the think time. Changing the Threshold: Threshold level is the level below which the recorded think time will be ignored. The default value is five (5) seconds. We can change the think time threshold in the Recording options of the VuGen.

  136. Question 116. What Is The Difference Between Standard Log And Extended Log?

    Answer :

    The standard log:  it sends a subset of functions and messages sent during script execution to a log. The subset depends on the Vuser type.

    Extended log: it sends a detailed script execution messages to the output log. This is mainly used during debugging when we want information about: Parameter substitution. Data returned by the server. Advanced trace.

  137. Question 117. What Is Correlation? Explain The Difference Between Automatic Correlation And Manual Correlation?

    Answer :

    Correlation is used to obtain data which are unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries. Correlation provides the value to avoid errors arising out of duplicate values and also optimizing the code (to avoid nested queries). Automatic correlation is where we set some rules for correlation. It can be application server specific. Here values are replaced by data which are created by these rules. In manual correlation, the value we want to correlate is scanned and create correlation is used to correlate.

  138. Question 118. What Type Of Lr License Are You Using?

    Answer :

    Term Licensing for 1year with 500 Vusers

  139. Question 119. Do You Have License For Protocols?

    Answer :

    Not sure.

  140. Question 120. What Is The Process That You Follow Starting From Pt Requirements?

    Answer :

    Identify the Scenarios → Plan the Load Test → Design The load Test (Scripting the Vuser) → Create the Scenario (Controller) → Design Scenario → Execute Scenario → Monitor the Scenario → Generate the Report → Analyse the Report

  141. Question 121. Is License Required For Vugen?

    Answer :

    No.

  142. Question 122. Is It Possible To Record With Ajax (click & Script) & Web (click & Script) In Multiple Protocol Scenarios?

    Answer :

    No.

  143. Question 123. Which Protocol You Would Recommend For Testing Performance For .net Applications
    Implemented With Ajax And Why?

    Answer :

    Ajax (click & script) OR web (click & script) OR MS.Net protocols.

  144. Question 124. Imagine You Are Running A Load Test And After Some Time Controller Generated The Error. What Will Be Your Reaction And What You Will Observe?

    Answer :

    I will look into the Log message window in controller and identify why the error is thrown & if needed I will make enhancement to my Vuser script in Vugen and then run the script in debug mode to make that the Vuser script does not fail and will refresh the script in controller and the start the scenario back.

  145. Question 125. What Is The Process Followed While Scripting In Vugen?

    Answer :

    Identify the protocol (protocol Advisor) → create a new Vuser script by selecting the supporting protocol → Record the actions with appropriate recording options → Generate Script → Run the script → Identify the dynamic values and correlate all the dynamic values and run the script

  146. Question 126. Explain Correlation Process.

    Answer :

    Correlation is a technique to handle the dynamic values generated by the server like session id’s or serialization id’s by replacing them with the current values generated during the run-time.

  147. Question 127. What Type Of Monitors Have You Setup?

    Answer :

    I worked with various monitors at App server level and monitors of windows resouces of the servers and few monitors at db level.

    App server monitors – JVM size, Connection ppol, GC, Heap size, free memory etc.;

    Windows resources – CPU utilisation, processing time, Process, Virtual memory, page faults etc.:

    Db monitors – Top time consuming sql’s, poor indexes, dead locks, etc…

  148. Question 128. What Type Of Servers Have You Worked On?

    Answer :

    Worked on App servers like Weblogic, Jboss, MS-IIS 6.0 and db servers like DB2 and sql server.

  149. Question 129. For A Typical Pt Project, What Type Of Documents Do You Expect For A Client ?

    Answer :

    Documents related to the High level and low level architecture of the application. Design documents and documents that descibe the usage of thrid party components and external communication components and documents that describe the communication architecture of the application and use cases and test cases of the business critical scenarios and documents related to the system service levels and documents of h/w , s/w re’s etc……

  150. Question 130. What Types Of Bottlenecks Have To Identified In Your Latest Project ?

    Answer :

    Poor GC, constant high usage of VM, connection pools, poor indexing and complex sql queries etc.

  151. Question 131. What Is The Response Time For The Application That You Have Tested In Your Recent Project?

    Answer :

    It varies from business scenario to business scenario, the response time for critical business scenario is 3 sec’s.

  152. Question 132. What Are The Recommendations That You Have Provided For The Client?

    Answer :

    Poor GC, constant high usage of VM, connection pools, poor indexing and complex sql queries etc.

  153. Question 133. What Are The Challenges You Have Faced Till Now In Pt?

    Answer :

    To simulate the load on EJB applications that uses RMI protocols over IIOP.

  154. Question 134. What Is The Difference Between Load Testing And Endurance Testing?

    Answer :

    Load Testing – Test objective is to find the application behaviour is terms of response time under anticipated load.

    Endurance – Test Objective is to simulate load on an application upto a period of time to monitor the application performance for longer periods.

  155. Question 135. How Many Controller And Lg Machines You Have?

    Answer :

    1 controller and 4 load generators.

  156. Question 136. Do You Test At Offshore Or Onsite?

    Answer :

    Offshore

  157. Question 137. What Type Of Settings Have You Done For Web (click & Script) Protocol?

    Answer :

    Change the Event configuration Level, Select appropriate mode(GUI/URL/HTML) etc..

  158. Question 138. Suppose While Recording In Web (http) Protocol, You Could Not Correlate Dynamic Values. What Will Do?

    Answer :

    Will look into the Response Log of the function while recorded.

  159. Question 139. What Differences You Observed Between Lr 8.0 & Lr 9.5

    Answer :

    Protocol Advisor, Parameter Simulator, Business process report, User defined template.

  160. Question 140. What Are The Differences Between Url Mode And Html Mode And In What Context You
    Choose One Over Another While Selecting Protocol For Recording?

    Answer :

    The HTML-based script level generates a separate step for each HTML user action. The steps are also intuitive, but they do not reflect true emulation of the JavaScript code.

    The URL-based script mode option instructs VuGen to record all browser requests and resources from the server that were sent due to the user’s actions. It automatically records every HTTP resource as URL steps (web_url statements). For normal browser recordings, it is not recommended to use the URL-based mode since is more prone to correlation related issues. If, however, you are recording pages such as applets and non-browser applications, this mode is ideal.

  161. Question 141. Suppose You Are Running A Scenario In A Controller And In The Middle You Want To Ramp Up 20 Vusers. Is It Possible?

    Answer :

    Yes we can ramp up the Vusers.

  162. Question 142. How Will You Define The Complexity Of A Performance Scenario?

    Answer :

    Usually by looking at the number of transactions & the no of correlations.

  163. Question 143. What Is Correlation?

    Answer :

    Correlation is a technique to handle the dynamic values generated by the server like session id’s or serialization id’s by replacing them with the current values generated during the run-time.

  164. Question 144. What Is Sprintf() ?

    Answer :

    Writes formatted output to a string

  165. Question 145. What Is The Difference Between Recording Log, Generation Log, Replay Log ?

    Answer :

    Recording Log: A Network Analyzer would analyze the communication happing at network level and logs the events.

    Generation Log: Logs the events happening while generating the Vuser script after recording.

    Replay Log: Records the events of happening when executed a function in the script. Will be logged at each line level of the script.

  166. Question 146. As You Employ The Settings Of Logging(standard, Extended) For A Script In Run-
    Time Settings, How Do You Do This Using Code?

    Answer :

    lr_set_debug_message(LR_MSG_CLASS_EXTENDED_LOG, LR_SWITCH_ON)
    lr_set_debug_message(LR_MSG_CLASS_EXTENDED_LOG,LR_SWITCH_OFF)

  167. Question 147. What Is The Definition Of Ajax ?

    Answer :

    Asynchronous JavaScript and XML.

  168. Question 148. What Are 2 Functions To Stop A Script (one Lr Function And C Function) ?

    Answer :

    lr_abort() ; lr_exit() ;

  169. Question 149. What Is A Rendezvous Point & If You Insert A Rendezvous Point In Your Script,
    What Settings Do You Employ In Your Scenario ?

    Answer :

    Will Define the Rendezvous Policy in Scenario settings.

  170. Question 150. What Is Ip Spoofing? Why Do We Use It ?

    Answer :

    When testing using Web and WinSocket protocols, by default Vusers on each host machine use the host’s (agent’s) IP address. Since a particular server keeps serving a specific IP address, load tests would reflect network router caching and other optimizations rather than the real-life situation where different users arrive to the server with different IP addresses. This is especially needed when the hardware configuration under test balances load across a “farm” of several (web or database) servers. “IP spoofing” enables each host machine to “spoof” the server into thinking it is using many different IP addresses.

  171. Question 151. What Functions Would Be Generated When Selected Ajax Protocol ?

    Answer :

    Web_Submit_Data();

  172. Question 152. How Many Types Of Checkpoints Are Available In Loadrunner?

    Answer :

    LoadRunner provides two types of checkpoints:

    • Text Checkpoints
    • Image Checkpoints
  173. Question 153. What Is The Host?

    Answer :

    Host is machine which executes the Vuser script.

  174. Question 154. What Is The Log?

    Answer :

    Log is level of information which we want to gather during run time.

  175. Question 155. What Is The Corelation?

    Answer :

    Corelation is used to obtain the data which are unique in every time of script run and which are generated by nested queries.

  176. Question 156. What Is The Goal-oriented Scenario?

    Answer :

    Goal-Oriented scenario allows loadrunner controller to create scenario based on goal which you specified.

  177. Question 157. What Is .lrs Files?

    Answer :

    Its extension of LoadRunner Scenario files.

  178. Question 158. What Is The Lr Function?

    Answer :

    LR function is obtained the information about the running Vuser.

  179. Question 159. What Is The Load Generator?

    Answer :

    It generates the load by running the vusers.

  180. Question 160. What Is The Analysis?

    Answer :

    It helps you to view and analyze the performance results.

  181. Question 161. Where We Can Set The Number Of Repetitions?

    Answer :

    We can set the number of repetitions in Run Time Settings.

  182. Question 162. What Is The Loadrunner?

    Answer :

    LoadRunner is Mercury Interactive Load Testing tool.

  183. Question 163. What Is The Pause Command?

    Answer :

    It will change the status of running vuser to pause.

  184. Question 164. What Are Process For Developing A Vuser Script?

    Answer :

    There are five steps for developing a Vuser Script:

    • Record Vuser script
    • Edit Vuser script
    • Change Run Time Setting
    • Run Vuser script in standalone machine
    • Incorporate the Vuser script into loadrunner scenario
  185. Question 165. What Is The Protocol Function?

    Answer :

    Protocol function obtained the information about the type of Vuser.

  186. Question 166. What Is The Controller?

    Answer :

    It organizes, drive, manage, and monitor the load test.

  187. Question 167. What Is The Scenario Wizard?

    Answer :

    We can create new scenario through Scenario Wizard.

  188. Question 168. Which Component You Are Using For Recording The Vuser Script?

    Answer :

    We are using Vugen component for recording the Vuser script.

  189. Question 169. What Is The Manual Scenario?

    Answer :

    Manual Scenario manages the load test by specifying the number of vuser to run.

  190. Question 170. What Is The Syntax For Think Time?

    Answer :

    lr_think_time

  191. Question 171. What Is The Loadrunner Agent?

    Answer :

    Agent is interface between controller and host machine.

  192. Question 172. What Is The Vuser?

    Answer :

    In Scenario, LoadRunner replaces human user with Virtual User or Vuser. Vuser emulates the human action working with your application.

  193. Question 173. What Is The Vuser Script?

    Answer :

    The action that Vuser performances during the scenario are described in the Vuser script.

  194. Question 174. What Is The Run Logic?

    Answer :

    In Run Logic we can set the number of repetitions which are performing by Vuser.

  195. Question 175. What Is The Html Based Script?

    Answer :

    HTML based script generates separated steps for each user actions.

  196. Question 176. How To Load Loadrunner Agent?

    Answer :

    Controller instructs the RCl to lunch the LoadRunner Agent.

  197. Question 177. What Type Of Functions Are Generated And Inserted By Loadrunner?

    Answer :

    LoadRunner generated two types of functions:

    • LR Function
    • Protocol Function
  198. Question 178. What Is The Transaction?

    Answer :

    To measures the performance of the server, we define the Transaction.

  199. Question 179. What Is The Load Testing Process?

    Answer :

    Load Testing process have five steps:

    • Plan Test
    • Create Vuser script
    • Define Scenario
    • Run Scenario
    • Analyze Results
  200. Question 180. What Is The Loadrunner Components?

    Answer :

    LoadRunner have the five components:

    • Vuser Generator
    • Controller
    • Load Generator
    • Luncher
    • Analysis
  201. Question 181. How Many Types Of Scenario In Loadrunner?

    Answer :

    LoadRunner provides two types of scenario:

    • Manual Scenario
    • Goal-Oriented Scenario
  202. Question 182. What Is The Percentile Graph?

    Answer :

    It displays the percentage of transaction which was performed within given time.

  203. Question 183. What Is The Script View?

    Answer :

    Its text based view.

  204. Question 184. What Is The Pacing?

    Answer :

    In Pacing we can set the time to wait between each repetition.

  205. Question 185. What Is The Running Vuser Graph?

    Answer :

    It displays the number of Vusers that execute the Vuser script each seconds of scenario run.

  206. Question 186. What Are Changes We Can Make In Run Time Settings?

    Answer :

    We can set the Run Logic, Pacing, Log, Think Time.

  207. Question 187. What Is The Tree View?

    Answer :

    Tree view is icon based view.

  208. Question 188. What Is The Ramp-up And Where We Can Set This?

    Answer :

    Ramp-Up option used to increases the number of Vuser in server and we can set the option through scenario schedule.

  209. Question 189. How Many Types Of Correlation?

    Answer :

    Correlation is two types:

    • Manual Correlation
    • Automatic Correlation
  210. Question 190. What Is The Think Time?

    Answer :

    • Think Time represent the actual time that we waited between the steps.
    • It is used for making the v-users wait for some time between the requests in order to simulate as if the real users are using the server.
  211. Question 191. What Is The Luncher?

    Answer :

    It provides single point of access for all load runner components.

  212. Question 192. Which Correlation Function You Have Used?

    Answer :

    web_reg_save_param

  213. Question 193. What Is The Action Section?

    Answer :

    In Action section, LoadRunner records end user activities.

  214. Question 194. What Is The Url Based Script?

    Answer :

    It records all requests and resources from server.

  215. Question 195. What Is Extension Of Loadrunner Result File?

    Answer :

    .lrr

  216. Question 196. What Does Result Window Contain?

    Answer :

    Result Window open with two panes:

    • Tree Pane
    • Summary Pane
  217. Question 197. How Do You Edit The Script?

    Answer :

    We can edit the script by inserting the Transaction Points and Rendezvous Points.

  218. Question 198. How Many Types Of Vuser Are Available In Loadrunner?

    Answer :

    There are many types of Vuser like DB Vuser, SAP Vuser, Web Vuser, RTE, GUI Vuser.

  219. Question 199. How Can We View The Script?

    Answer :

    We can view the script through Tree View and Script View.

  220. Question 200. How Many Types Of Running Mode In Loadrunner?

    Answer :

    LoadRunner provides two types of recording level:

    • HTML based script
    • URL based script
  221. Question 201. What Is The Parameterization?

    Answer :

    Parameterization is script variables which are used to pass many values to server. It emulates the actions of human user.

  222. Question 202. What Is The Loadrunner End-transaction And Its Syntax?

    Answer :

    It end the Transaction on the script and its syntax is that lr-end-transaction.

  223. Question 203. What Is The Automatic Correlation?

    Answer :

    Automatic Correlation is set some rules for correlation.

  224. Question 204. What Is The Difference Between Overlay Graph And Correlate Graph?

    Answer :

    Overlay Graph: It overlay the content of two graphs that shares a common x-axis. Left Y-axis on the merged graph shows the current graphs value & Right Y-axis show the value of Y-axis of the graph that was merged.
    Correlate Graph: Plot the Y-axis of two graphs against each other. The active graphs Y-axis becomes X-axis of merged graph. Y-axis of the graph that was merged becomes merged graphs Y-axis.

  225. Question 205. Types Of Goals In Goal-oriented Scenario?

    Answer :

    Load Runner provides you with five different types of goals in a goal oriented scenario:

    • The number of concurrent Vusers
    • The number of hits per second
    • The number of transactions per second
    • The number of pages per minute
    • The transaction response time that you want your scenario