Question 1. What Is Available On Demand (aod)?
AOD is the transition of FAA’s printing and distribution operations for all aeronautical paper products from the FAA to small business.
Question 2. Why Is The Faa Moving To Products Available On Demand (aod)?
AOD will minimize the risk of not being able to provide safety critical products to the public in times of challenge. It will allow private sector entrepreneurship. Governmental oversight of printing specifications will be eliminated; specifications will be market driven. AOD will allow employees to be cross-trained into other core work, while allowing industry to find creative and innovative ways to service their customer base.
Question 3. What Products Are Covered By The Aod Process?
AOD covers all printed products sold to the public. The products covered are:
- Terminal Procedures Publications (TPP)
- Chart Supplements (US, AK, PAC) (formerly A/FD as of March 31, 2016 cycle)
- Visual Charts
- Enroute Charts
- Planning Charts
Question 4. Who Does Aod Impact?
AOD impacts all users of paper aeronautical chart products. This includes:
- Government users such as the FAA, NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency), other Federal, State and Local government agencies.
- Chart Agents with agreements to sell FAA aeronautical products. The Agreements will be terminated on or before March 31, 2017. Chart Agents can submit to become Approved Print Provider.
- Current Print Contractors, who can submit a request to become an Approved Print Provider.
- Public users of paper aeronautical chart products.
Question 5. What Is The Faa “cost Recovery Strategy”?
Currently, the FAA develops aeronautical paper products and sells them through a network of about 400 authorized chart agents, as well as through direct sales to the public. With advances in personal computing devices (such as the iPAD) and the growth of the Internet, there has been an increase in the use of digital aeronautical products as a supplement to paper.
We plan to sell our digital products similar to that of our paper products – expressly through a network of digital agents having a signed agreement with Aeronautical Information Services. We are validating a new pricing structure in this digital proposal that will reflect what it takes to recover our costs.
We are aware that some developers are currently replicating, altering and reselling FAA digital products as an “official” FAA product. To prevent the introduction of any unintended safety risks, the FAA desires to protect the integrity of our aeronautical products. All notations and symbology in the original products are to be included in any tailored versions.
Question 6. When Can We Expect To See The Implementation Of The Cost Recovery Strategy?
Barring any unforeseen setbacks especially with regard to employee furloughs, we plan to implement the pricing and digital distribution of digital products the Fall of 2013.
Question 7. What Is The Legislative Authority Responsible For Allowing The Faa To Charge For Their Products?
Since 1926, the federal Aeronautical Charting Program has been a fee-based service. Congress transferred the program from the Department of Commerce’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to the FAA in October 2000. Public Law 106-181, dated April 5, 2000, provided for the FAA to charge user fees to recover the full costs of the compilation, production and distribution of both electronic and paper charts. Title 49, United States Code, section 44721, codified this authority. The FAA does not currently use appropriated funds to cover the compilation, production, or distribution costs of electronic or paper charts.
Question 8. How Do You Plan To Audit Your Future Digital Agents?
Agents will be required to report quarterly on the number of units sold. Language in the agreement (signed by both parties) will provide the FAA access to sales records, as needed, for verification.
Question 9. What Digital (electronic Format) Products Does Aeronautical Information Services Offer For Sale?
- digital – Terminal Procedures Publication
- Digital En Route Supplement
- Coded Instrument Flight Procedures
- digital – Visual Charts
- digital – En Route Charts
- Digital Chart Supplements
Access the Aeronautical Information Services homepage to stay abreast of new aeronautical products and services as they become available.
Question 10. What Types Of Formats Will The Faa Use To Distribute Their Digital Products?
Initially, the FAA plans to distribute digital products in PDF and GeoTiff formats.
Question 11. Can The Faa’s Digital Products Be Used In Private Industry Software Products? What Are The Copyright/licensing Regulations For These Products?
All digital products published by the FAA are in the public domain and are not copyright protected. Therefore, a written release or credit is not required to incorporate them into your own digital products. The FAA cannot endorse or recommend one private industry product over another. Also, since all of our products are date sensitive we recommend that you seek legal advice prior to marketing your own products. To protect the integrity of our aeronautical products, all notations and symbology in the original products are to be included in any tailored versions.
Question 12. If “scraping” Or “data Mining” Remains Legal How Do You Plan To Keep Those From Continuing To Do So?
The terms “scraping” and “data mining” describe the pulling of digital data from charts that are currently available to the public on our website and to be used for planning purposes only. These charts do not contain all the safety related annotations of the charts we will provide to our authorized digital agents. To preserve the integrity of our authorized charts and to ensure the proper use of these planning tools they will contain the watermark: “Not for Navigation.”
Aeronautical Information Services intends to set reasonable “cost recovery” prices for products sold to our authorized agents to prevent the practice of unauthorized versions used for repackaging and resale. We recommend that you seek legal advice prior to marketing your own products. The FAA will continue to communicate our “authorized agents” to the public.
Question 13. How Do You See The Shift In Technology Affecting Paper Sales?
There is still a strong demand for paper products. According to a recent online survey, results show that paper products will continue as a companion and essential back up to digital products.
Question 14. Can I Use The Cifp [coded Instrument Flight Procedures] To Update My Gps Or Fms?
The CIFP (Coded Instrument Flight Procedures) uses the ARINC 424 standard. GPS and FMS do not currently support the use of “raw” ARINC 424 data. Individual avionics manufacturers process the data into their proprietary format for use in GPS or FMS units. The FAA does not process aeronautical information for use in any GPS or FMS.
Question 15. Why Is There A Difference Between The Magnetic Variation For The Airport And The Vor Located At The Same Airport?
When a navaid is first constructed, the antenna is physically oriented to True North. Then a potentiometer adjustment is made to slave the navaid with Magnetic North. This action matches the isogonic line making it agree with a magnetic compass. Initially these two values are the same, but the magnetic variation of the earth changes at differing rates depending upon location and time.
Navigational aids go into service and remain online 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. The FAA performs periodic maintenance; however, readjustments to match the isogonic value require a total shut down of the equipment, plus recertification and flight check verification. This process begins when a navigational aid is out of tolerance by at least +/-6 degrees. GPS databases use a MAGVAR model to calculate the most up-to-date magnetic variation.
Question 16. What Is The Significance Of A Runway 8069 Feet In Length And Why Are Two Different Aerodrome Symbols Used To Depict Hard Surface Runways On Sectional Charts?
For purposes of airport depiction, specialists represent a runway between 7970 and 8069 feet in length as 8000 feet, which equates to a line 0.192 inches in length on the Sectional chart scale. In this case, a circular aerodrome symbol is used.
If a runway is between 8070 and 8169 feet in length, specialists round to 8100 feet, which equates to a line 0.1944 inches in length on the sectional chart scale. This line is too long to fit into the largest circular aerodrome symbol FAA has available. Therefore, specialists place a line-work around the runway pattern forming a polygon (enclosed shape) for anything over 8069 feet in length.
Specialists also place these polygons around the runway pattern of aerodromes with multiple runways that are less than 8069 feet, in cases where the multiple runway pattern does not fit into the largest, circular aerodrome symbol.
Question 17. What Is The Meaning Of Rp And Rp* On Vfr Charts?
RP is the abbreviation for “right pattern” followed by the appropriate runway number(s) and indicates a right traffic pattern.
RP* indicates that there are special conditions or restrictions for right traffic and the pilot should consult the Chart Supplement for those special instructions and/or restrictions. RP* does not indicate that there is right patterned traffic for all aircraft at all times.
Question 18. What Does “objectionable” Stand For On Vfr Charts?
The type “OBJECTIONABLE” associated with an airport symbol indicates that an objectionable airspace determination has been made for the airport per FAA Order JO 7400.2 Section 4, Airport Charting and Publication of Airport Data. Objectionable airspace determinations can be based upon a number of factors including conflicting traffic patterns with another airport, hazardous runway conditions, or natural or man-made obstacles in close proximity to the landing area. FAA Regional Airports Offices are responsible for airspace determinations.
Question 19. How Do I Add A Public Or Private Airport To A Chart? (one With A Faa Location Identifier)
VFR charts depict airport’s hard and soft surface runways. Enroute charts depict airports having hard surface runways of at least 3000-foot in length. If your airport meets those criteria, you may contact the local Federal Aviation Administration, Airports District Office or Aeronautical Information Management, AJV-21, at 1-(866) 295-8236 to have your airport charted.
The FAA Specialist will verify your airport’s information and publish a change in the National Flight Data Digest. This change will generate a charting directive to depict your airport on the chart. The FAA will chart your airport as long as it does not cause chart clutter and does not interfere with any existing data that may have a higher safety priority. The FAA makes every effort to adjust chart data to accommodate your airport name and symbol on the chart for the next publication cycle.
Question 20. What Is An Instrument Flight Procedure?
An instrument flight procedure is a series of predetermined maneuvers for aircraft operating under instrument flight rules, i.e. IFR conditions, when visual flight is not possible due to weather or other visually restrictive conditions. These maneuvers allow for the orderly transition of the aircraft through a particular airspace. The term “instrument flight procedure” refers to instrument approaches, instrument departures, and instrument enroute operations.
IFR approach procedures are developed and approved for a specific airport. These procedures are critical to flight safety and safe operations during periods of marginal weather/visibility and in areas of adverse terrain.
Instrument approach procedures also allow for the transition from enroute operations to the terminal area for landing at the destination airport. The instrument approach procedure uses ground or satellite based systems to provide guidance and obstruction clearance to the runway or to an altitude from which visual operations for landing can begin.
Departure procedures allow for orderly movement along a specified route providing obstruction clearances from the point of departure to a position at which EnRoute operations can begin.
Question 21. How Does Faa Develop An Instrument Flight Procedure?
The specialist uses terrain, and man-made obstruction data in the development of the airport procedure. The specialist also considers any special design needs requested by the applicable country that meet the specified criteria. Each segment of the procedure is designed and documented.
Question 22. What Data Will Be Required For Faa To Produce These Instrument Procedure Charts?
The charting of instrument flight procedure is restricted to those that have been Quality Controlled by the FAA. In order to complete these charts, accurate data is required in English, by the requesting country. These may include airport, obstacle, communication, fix, special use and terrain data.
Question 23. What Shall I Expect After The Instrument Flight Procedure Is Developed?
Once a designed instrument flight procedure passes the quality review process, it is certified through an actual flight inspection, and then it’s charted and published for use.
Question 24. What Is The Aeronautical Chart User’s Guide?
FAA Aeronautical Chart User’s Guide is designed to be used as a teaching aid, reference document, and an introduction to the wealth of information provided on FAA’s aeronautical charts and publications. It includes explanations of aeronautical chart terms and symbols, plus a visual depiction of all of the symbols organized by chart type.
Question 25. What Is The Faa Policy For Carrying Current Charts?
The specific FAA regulation, FAR 91.103 “Preflight Actions,” states that each pilot in command shall, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available information concerning that flight. Although the regulation does not specifically require it, you should always carry a current chart with you in flight. Expired charts may not show frequency changes or newly constructed obstructions, both of which when unknown could crate a hazard.
The only FAA/FAR requirements that pertain to charts are:
- Title 14 CFR section 91.503[a] (Large and Turbojet powered aircraft)
- Title 14 CFR section 135.83 (Air Carriers-Little Airplane)
- Title 14 CFR section 121.549 (Air Carrier-Big Airplanes)
The FAA’s July/August 1997 issue of FAA Aviation News on “current” aeronautical charts provided the following information:
- “You can carry old charts in your aircraft.” “It is not FAA policy to violate anyone for having outdated charts in the aircraft.”
- “Not all pilots are required to carry a chart.” “91.503..requires the pilot in command of large and multiengine airplanes to have charts.” “Other operating sections of the FAR such as Part 121 and Part 135 operations have similar requirements.”
- …”since some pilots thought they could be violated for having outdated or no charts on board during a flight, we need to clarify an important issue. As we have said, it is NOT FAA policy to initiate enforcement action against a pilot for having an old chart on board or no chart on board.” That’s because there is no regulation on the issue.
- …”the issue of current chart data bases in handheld GPS receivers is a non-issue because the units are neither approved by the FAA or required for flight, nor do panel-mounted VFR-only GPS receivers have to have a current data base because, like handheld GPS receivers, the pilot is responsible for pilotage under VFR.
- “If a pilot is involved in an enforcement investigation and there is evidence that the use of an out-of-date chart, no chart, or an out-of-date database contributed to the condition that brought on the enforcement investigation, then that information could be used in any enforcement action that might be taken.”
Question 26. What Is The Database Currency Requirement Needed For Vfr Or Ifr Flight?
AIM 1-1-19b3(b) Database Currency (1) In many receivers, an up-datable database is used for navigation fixes, airports and instrument procedures. These databases must be maintained to the current update for IFR operations, but no such requirement exists for VFR use. (2) However,…
AIM 1-1-19f1(b) Equipment and Database Requirements – For IFR Operations “All approach procedures to be flown must be retrievable from the current airborne navigation database…”
AC 90-100, U.S. TERMINAL AND EN ROUTE AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV) OPERATIONS, paragraph 8a(3): The onboard navigation data must be current and appropriate for the region of intended operation and must include the navigation aids, waypoints, and relevant coded terminal airspace procedures for the departure, arrival, and alternate airfields.
Navigation databases are expected to be current for the duration of the flight. If the AIRAC cycle will change during flight, operators and pilots should establish procedures to ensure the accuracy of navigation data, including suitability of navigation facilities used to define the routes and procedures for flight. Traditionally, this has been accomplished by verifying electronic data against paper products. One acceptable means is to compare aeronautical charts (new and old) to verify navigation fixes prior to dispatch. If an amended chart is published for the procedure, the database must not be used to conduct the operation.”
Published instrument procedures and routes are incorporated by reference into 14 CFR Part 95 and 14 CFR Part 97, are “law.” They are “effective” only during the AIRAC cycle dates specified on the enroute chart/TPP covers or on the side of the chart when printed from the digital-TPP. If you are using a published procedure before or after the dates specified on the chart under IFR, you are technically in violation of the law.
Question 27. Why Is The Faa Issuing A Separate Policy Statement On Hangar Use?
The FAA had received a number of questions from airport sponsors and airport tenants about the possible uses of hangars, and about how rigidly the aeronautical use requirement should be applied. In developing the policy statement, the FAA focused on giving discretion to the local airport sponsor and allowing reasonable accommodation of activities that do not impact other aeronautical uses and do not create unjustly discriminatory conditions at the airport.
Question 28. What Aeronautical Uses Of A Hangar Does The Faa Permit?
Permitted uses include:
- storing active aircraft;
- sheltering aircraft for maintenance, repair, or refurbishment, but not indefinitely storing non-operational aircraft;
- constructing amateur-built or kit-built aircraft provided that activities are conducted safely;
- storing aircraft handling equipment, e.g., tow bar, glider tow equipment, workbenches, and tools and materials used to service, maintain, repair or outfit aircraft; items related to ancillary or incidental uses that do not affect the hangars’ primary use;
- storing materials related to an aeronautical activity, e.g., balloon and skydiving equipment, office equipment, teaching tools, and materials related to ancillary or incidental uses that do not affect the hangars’ primary use;
- storing non-aeronautical items that do not interfere with the primary aeronautical purpose of the hangar, e.g., televisions andfurniture; or
- parking a vehicle at the hangar while the aircraft usually stored in that hangar is flying, subject to local airport rules and regulations.
Question 29. Why Do We Have To This?
The Airport Construction Advisory Council (ACAC) does not intend to add workload but instead to provide a checklist and coordination resources to ensure details are not missed on construction projects
Question 30. Definition Of Construction? (one Day, One Week, One Month)
- Construction changes on the airport operating area (AOA) that impact taxiways/runways configurations and make changes to the operation
- Routine runway closures and runway maintenance are a normal part of airport operations and are not typically considered runway construction
- Runway construction, that ACAC would apply resources to, are projects that have advance planning; this type of planned construction has SRM requirements and the ACAC requirements fall within the same consideration
- For unplanned events, the checklist tool should be reviewed, and used as determined locally, for due diligence in a safety culture; the checklist and best practices review is not required for unplanned short term events but it is still encouraged
Question 31. Do We Have To Report All Construction Projects?
Yes, construction changes on the airport operating area (AOA) that impact taxiways/runways configurations and make changes to the operation must be reported
Question 32. When Wouldn’t I Be Required To Report Construction To The Acac?
Routine runway closures and runway maintenance are a normal part of airport operations and are not typically considered runway construction.
Question 33. Can You Explain The Connection Between Declared Distances Found In The Airport/facility Directory And Shortened Runways?
- If the runway is shortened, then expect to see at least one change in the declared distances: accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA), landing distance available (LDA), takeoff distance available (TODA), and takeoff runway available (TORA)
- If a shortened runway closes part of the displaced threshold, the LDA may not change while every other declared distance might change
- Barricades across part of the runway ensures the runway safety area (RSA) is further along the runway – the RSA boundary is where the measurements start
Question 34. Should I Meet With The Airport Authority Regarding A Change To The Letter-of-agreement (loa) Every Time We Have Construction?
LOA changes that include redefinition of the movement area(s) may simplify FAA controlled operations during construction
Question 35. How Does The Use Of A Hangar Affect The Rent Charged?
If a hangar is being used for an aeronautical use, the airport sponsor will generally charge the tenant the airport’s standard rate for aeronautical leases, which should recover the airport’s costs but which may be less than fair market rent. If the hangar is used for an interim non-aeronautical purpose, the sponsor must charge a fair market rent for the hangar. Please consult the Airport Compliance Handbook for the application of below-market rent for aviation museums and other aviation related non-profit organizations.
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