Question 1. What Is Slip In An Induction Motor?
Slip can be defined as the difference between the flux speed (Ns) and the rotor speed (N). Speed of the rotor of an induction motor is always less than its synchronous speed. It is usually expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed (Ns) and represented by the symbol ‘S’.
Question 2. What Are The Various Kind Of Cables Used For Transmission?
Cables, which are used for transmitting power, can be categorized in three forms:
- Low-tension cables, which can transmit voltage upto 1000 volts.
- High-tension cables can transmit voltage upto 23000 volts.
- Super tension cables can transmit voltage 66 kV to 132 kV.
Question 3. How Can You Relate Power Engineering With Electrical Engineering?
Power engineering is a sub division of electrical engineering. It deals with generation, transmission and distribution of energy in electrical form. Design of all power equipments also comes under power engineering. Power engineers may work on the design and maintenance of the power grid i.e. called on grid systems and they might work on off grid systems that are not connected to the system.
Question 4. Why Star Delta Starter Is Preferred With Induction Motor?
Star delta starter is preferred with induction motor due to following reasons:
- Starting current is reduced 3-4 times of the direct current due to which voltage drops and hence it causes less losses.
- Star delta starter circuit comes in circuit first during starting of motor, which reduces voltage 3 times, that is why current also reduces up to 3 times and hence less motor burning is caused.
- In addition, starting torque is increased and it prevents the damage of motor winding.
Question 5. Explain State Thevenin’s Theorem?
According to thevenin’s theorem, the current flowing through a load resistance
Connected across any two terminals of a linear active bilateral network is the ratio open circuit voltage (i.e. the voltage across the two terminals when RL is removed) and sum of load resistance and internal resistance of the network. It is given by Voc / (Ri + RL).
Question 6. Tell Me What Are The Different Methods For The Starting Of A Synchronous Motor?
Starting methods: Synchronous motor can be started by the following two methods:
By means of an auxiliary motor: The rotor of a synchronous motor is rotated by auxiliary motor. Then rotor poles are excited due to which the rotor field is locked with the stator-revolving field and continuous rotation is obtained.
By providing damper winding: Here, bar conductors are embedded in the outer periphery of the rotor poles and are short-circuited with the short-circuiting rings at both sides. The machine is started as a squirrel cage induction motor first. When it picks up speed, excitation is given to the rotor and the rotor starts rotating continuously as the rotor field is locked with stator revolving field.
Question 7. Explain State Norton’s Theorem?
The Norton’s theorem explains the fact that there are two terminals and they are as follows:
- One is terminal active network containing voltage sources
- Another is the resistance that is viewed from the output terminals. The output terminals are equivalent to the constant source of current and it allows giving the parallel resistance.
The Norton’s theorem also explains about the constant current that is equal to the current of the short circuit placed across the terminals. The parallel resistance of the network can be viewed from the open circuit terminals when all the voltage and current sources are removed and replaced by the internal resistance.
Question 8. Tell Me What Is Your Work Experience As Electrician Assistant?
Employers are looking for steady work employment and not short term assignments and big gaps between jobs. You should be prepared to explain any gaps between jobs. Another piece of advice is to focus on work experience relevant to the position you are currently applying for as well as your most recent work history.
Question 9. Explain Advantages Of Storage Batteries?
Few advantages of storage batteries are mentioned below:
- Most efficient form of storing energy portably.
- Stored energy is available immediately because there is no lag of time for delivering the stored energy.
- Reliable source for supply of energy.
- The energy can be drawn at a fairly constant rate.
Question 10. How Does Zener Phenomenon Differ From Avalanche Breakdown?
The phenomenon when the depletion region expands and the potential barrier increases leading to a very high electric field across the junction, due to which suddenly the reverse current increases under a very high reverse voltage is called Zener effect. Zener-breakdown or Avalanche breakdown may occur independently or both of these may occur simultaneously. Diode junctions that breakdown below 5v are caused by Zener Effect. Junctions that experience breakdown above 5v are caused by avalanche-effect. The Zener-breakdown occurs in heavily doped junctions, which produce narrow depletion layers. The avalanche breakdown occurs in lightly doped junctions, which produce wide depletion layers.
Question 11. Name Some Types Of Motors Used In Vacuum Cleaners, Phonographic Appliances, Vending Machines, Refrigerators, Rolling Mills, Lathes, Power Factor Improvement And Cranes?
Following motors are used: –
- Vacuum cleaners- Universal motor.
- Phonographic appliances – Hysteresis motor.
- Vending machines – Shaded pole motor.
- Refrigerators – Capacitor split phase motors.
- Rolling mills – Cumulative motors.
- Lathes – DC shunt motors.
- Power factor improvement – Synchronous motors
Question 12. Explain The Forward Resistance, Static Resistance And Dynamic Resistance Of A Pn Junction Diode?
Forward Resistance: Resistance offered in a diode circuit, when it is forward biased, is called forward-resistance.
DC or Static Resistance: DC resistance can be explained as the ratio of the dc-voltage across the diode to the direct current flowing through it.
AC or Dynamic Resistance: It can be defined as the reciprocal of the slope of the forward characteristic of the diode. It is the resistance offered by a diode to the changing forward current.
Question 13. Why Ac Systems Are Preferred Over Dc Systems?
Due to following reasons, AC systems are preferred over DC systems:
- It is easy to maintain and change the voltage of AC electricity for transmission and distribution.
- Plant cost for AC transmission (circuit breakers, transformers etc) is much lower than the equivalent DC transmission
- From power stations, AC is produced so it is better to use AC then DC instead of converting it.
- When a large fault occurs in a network, it is easier to interrupt in an AC system, as the sine wave current will naturally tend to zero at some point making the current easier to interrupt.
Question 14. Explain Thin Film Resistors And Wire-wound Resistors?
- Thin film resistors- It is constructed as a thin film of resistive material is deposited on an insulating substrate. Desired results are obtained by either trimming the layer thickness or by cutting helical grooves of suitable pitch along its length. During this process, the value of the resistance is monitored closely and cutting of grooves is stopped as soon as the desired value of resistance is obtained.
- Wire wound resistors – length of wire wound around an insulating cylindrical core are known as wire wound resistors. These wires are made of materials such as Constantan and Manganin because of their high resistivity, and low temperature coefficients. The complete wire wound resistor is coated with an insulating material such as baked enamel.
Question 15. Explain And Compare Jfet’s And Mosfet’s?
Comparison of JFET’s and MOSFET’s:
- JFET’s can only be operated in the depletion mode whereas MOSFET’s can be operated in either depletion or in enhancement mode. In a JFET, if the gate is forward-biased, excess-carrier injunction occurs and the gate-current is substantial.
- MOSFET’s have input impedance much higher than that of JFET’s. Thus is due to negligible small leakage current.
- JFET’s have characteristic curves more flat than that of MOSFET is indicating a higher drain resistance.
- When JFET is operated with a reverse-bias on the junction, the gate-current IG is larger than it would be in a comparable MOSFET.
Question 16. Explain Cmrr, And What Is A Differential Amplifier?
Differential Amplifier: The amplifier, which is used to amplify the voltage difference between two input-lines neither of which is grounded, is called differential amplifier. This reduces the amount of noise injected into the amplifier, because any noise appearing simultaneously on both the input-terminals as the amplifying circuitry rejects it being a common mode signal.
CMRR: It can be defined as the ratio of differential voltage-gain to common made voltage gain. If a differential amplifier is perfect, CMRR would be infinite because in that case common mode voltage gain would be zero.
Question 17. Explain The Application Of Storage Batteries?
Storage batteries are used for various purposes, some of the applications are mentioned below:
- For the operation of protective devices and for emergency lighting at generating stations and substations.
- For starting, ignition and lighting of automobiles, aircrafts etc.
- For lighting on steam and diesel railways trains.
- As a supply power source in telephone exchange, laboratories and broad casting stations.
- For emergency lighting at hospitals, banks, rural areas where electricity supplies are not possible.
Question 18. State The Difference Between Generator And Alternator?
Generator and alternator are two devices, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Both have the same principle of electromagnetic induction, the only difference is that their construction. Generator persists stationary magnetic field and rotating conductor which rolls on the armature with slip rings and brushes riding against each other, hence it converts the induced emf into dc current for external load whereas an alternator has a stationary armature and rotating magnetic field for high voltages but for low voltage output rotating armature and stationary magnetic field is used.
Question 19. Why Are You Interested In The Electrician Trade?
If you are new to the electrical trade or are applying for an apprenticeship, you will probably be asked this question. Employers ask this question because they want to hear your motivations and goals so that can be sure that you really have an interest in the field.
Question 20. Explain State Maximum Power Transfer Theorem?
The Maximum power transfer theorem explains about the load that a resistance will extract from the network. This includes the maximum power from the network and in this case the load resistance is being is equal to the resistance of the network and it also allows the resistance to be equal to the resistance of the network. This resistance can be viewed by the output terminals and the energy sources can be removed by leaving the internal resistance behind.
Question 21. Why Back Emf Used For A Dc Motor? Highlight Its Significance?
The induced emf developed when the rotating conductors of the armature between the poles of magnet, in a DC motor, cut the magnetic flux, opposes the current flowing through the conductor, when the armature rotates, is called back emf. Its value depends upon the speed of rotation of the armature conductors. In starting, the value of back emf is zero.
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