XMLHttpRequest (XHR) Interview Questions & Answers

  1. Question 1. Explain Getallresponseheaders ()?

    Answer :

    getAllResponseHeaders ():- Returns a collection of HTTP headers as string. If you want a specific header value, you can use getResponseHeader (“header name”)

  2. Question 2. Explain Onreadystatechange?

    Answer :

    Onreadystatechange: – This is a event handler, which fires at every state change.

  3. Java Script Interview Questions

  4. Question 3. What Is Response?

    Answer :

    Response: – Returns the response as XML. Therefore, this gives us DOM object model, which can then be traversed.

  5. Question 4. What Is Setrequestheader (“label”,” Value”)?

    Answer :

    SetRequestHeader (“label”,” value”):- Sets label value pair for a HTTP header.

  6. Java Script Tutorial

  7. Question 5. What Is Response Text?

    Answer :

    Response Text: – Returns the response in plain string.

  8. AJAX Interview Questions

  9. Question 6. How Do We Do Asynchronous Processing Using Ajax?

    Answer :

    xmlHttpObj.onreadystatechange = function1();

    Above is the code snippet, which will help us to do asynchronous processing. So function1 () will be called when the XMLHTTP request object goes to on ready state change.

  10. Question 7. What Is Send(content)?

    Answer :

    The send(content) method transmits the request, optionally with postable string or the data of DOM object.

  11. AJAX Tutorial
    JSP Interview Questions

  12. Question 8. What Is Open(arg, Arg,arg,arg,arg) Function?

    Answer :

    The open(“method”, “URL”[, asyncFlag[, “userName”[, “password”]]]) is used to assign the destination URL, method, and other optional attributes of a request.

  13. Question 9. What Is Getresponseheader(“headerlabel”)?

    Answer :

    The getResponseHeader(“headerLabel”) method is used to return the string value of a single header label.

  14. Oracle 11g Interview Questions

  15. Question 10. Explain Abort() Function?

    Answer :

    The abort() is used to stop the current request.

  16. JSP Tutorial

  17. Question 11. What Is Statustext?

    Answer :

    The ‘statusText’ property is used for string messages that accompany the status code.

  18. Hibernate Interview Questions

  19. Question 12. What Is Responsexml?

    Answer :

    The ‘responseXML’ property is DOM-compatible document object of data returned from server process.

  20. Java Script Interview Questions

  21. Question 13. How Can We Consume Data Directly In Web Services?

    Answer :

    We can consume data directly using ‘Sys.Data’ controls. We know this is a very short answer for such an important question, but the bandwidth of this book does not allow for the same. We suggest the readers to practice some sample using the ‘Sys.Data’ control.

    Note: – We have left important controls like Data controls, Login controls, Web part controls, mobile controls and profilescriptservice control. These controls will be rarely asked during interviews, but from project aspects they are very important.

  22. Oracle 11g Tutorial

  23. Question 14. What Is The Fundamental Behind Ajax?

    Answer :

    XmlHttpRequest is the fundamental behind Ajax. This allows the browser to communicate to a back end server asynchronously.XmlHttpRequest object allows the browser to communicate with server with out posting the whole page and only sending the necessary data asynchronously.

  24. Question 15. What Is Cors? How Does It Work?

    Answer :

    Cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) is a mechanism that allows many resources (e.g., fonts, JavaScript, etc.) on a web page to be requested from another domain outside the domain from which the resource originated. It’s a mechanism supported in HTML5 that manages XMLHttpRequest access to a domain different.

    CORS adds new HTTP headers that provide access to permitted origin domains. For HTTP methods other than GET (or POST with certain MIME types), the specification mandates that browsers first use an HTTP OPTIONS request header to solicit a list of supported (and available) methods from the server. The actual request can then be submitted. Servers can also notify clients whether “credentials” (including Cookies and HTTP Authentication data) should be sent with requests.

  25. Javascript Advanced Interview Questions

  26. Question 16. Explain What Is Json?

    Answer :

    JSON is a very lightweight data format based on a subset of the JavaScript syntax, namely array and object literals. JSON allows communicating with server in a standard way. JSON is used as communication notation instead of XML.

    Hide Copy Code

    var oBike = 
    {
    “color” : “Green”,
    “Speed”: 200,
    };

    alert(oBike.color); //outputs “Green”

    alert(oBike.Speed); //outputs 200

    The above code creates an javascript object bike with two properties Color and Speed.

  27. Hibernate Tutorial

  28. Question 17. How Do I Get The Xmlhttprequest Object?

    Answer :

    Depending upon the browser.

    if (window.ActiveXObject) { 
    // Internet Explorer 
    http_request = new ActiveXObject(“Microsoft.XMLHTTP”); 

    else if…
    if(window.XMLHttpRequest)
    {
    xmlhttpobj=new XMLHttpRequest();
    return xmlhttpobj;
    }
    else
    {
    try
    {
    xmlhttpobj=new ActiveXObject(“Microsoft.XMLHTTP”);
    }catch(e)
    {
    xmlhttpobj=new ActiveXObject(“Msxml2.XMLHTTP”);
    }
    }
    }

  29. HTTP Interview Questions

  30. Question 18. What Is Ready State?

    Answer :

    Ready State: – Returns the current state of the object.

    0 = uninitialized

    1 = loading

    2 = loaded

    3 = interactive

    4 = complete

  31. AJAX Interview Questions

  32. Question 19. Explain Open (“method”, “url”, “async”, “uname”, “pswd”)?

    Answer :

    Open (“method”, “URL”, “async”, “uname”, “pswd”):- This method takes a URL and other values needed for a request. You can also specify how the request is sent by GET, POST, or PUT. One of the important values is how this request will be sent asynchronously or synchronously. True means that processing is carried after the send () method, without waiting for a response. False means that processing is waits for a response before continuing.

  33. Javascript Advanced Tutorial

  34. Question 20. Can You Explain Scriptmanager Control In Ajax?

    Answer :

    Scriptmanager control is the central heart of Ajax. They manage all the Ajax related objects on the page.

    Some of the core objectives of scriptmanager control are as follows:-

    • Helps load core Ajax related script and library.
    • Provides access to web services.
    • ASP.NET authentication, role and profile services are loaded by scriptmanager control.
    • Provided registration of server controls and behaviors.
    • Enable full or partial rendering of a web page.
    • Provide localization features.

    In short , any Ajax enable page should have this control.

  35. Java XML Interview Questions

  36. Question 21. Explain The Purpose Of Each Of The Http Request Types When Used With A Restful Web Service?

    Answer :

    The purpose of each of the HTTP request types when used with a RESTful web service is as follows:

    • GET: Retrieves data from the server (should only retrieve data and should have no other effect).
    • POST: Sends data to the server for a new entity. It is often used when uploading a file or submitting a completed web form.
    • PUT: Similar to POST, but used to replace an existing entity.
    • PATCH: Similar to PUT, but used to update only certain fields within an existing entity.
    • DELETE: Removes data from the server.
    • TRACE: Provides a means to test what a machine along the network path receives when a request is made. As such, it simply returns what was sent.
    • OPTIONS: Allows a client to request information about the request methods supported by a service. The relevant response header is Allow and it simply lists the supported methods. (It can also be used to request information about the request methods supported for the server where the service resides by using a * wildcard in the URI.)
    • HEAD: Same as the GET method for a resource, but returns only the response headers (i.e., with no entity-body).
    • CONNECT: Primarily used to establish a network connection to a resource (usually via some proxy that can be requested to forward an HTTP request as TCP and maintain the connection). Once established, the response sends a 200 status code and a “Connection Established” message.
  37. Question 22. How Do We Pass Parameters To The Server?

    Answer :

    Below are the two ways of passing data to server. The first one shows by using GET and the second by POST.

    xmlHttpObj.open(“GET”,”http://” + location.host + 

    “/XmlHttpExample1/WebForm1.aspx?value=123”, true);

    xmlHttpObj.open(“POST”,”http://” + location.host + 

    “/XmlHttpExample1/WebForm1.aspx?value=123”, true);

  38. HTTP Tutorial

  39. Question 23. Explain Setrequestheader(“label”, “value”)?

    Answer :

    The setRequestHeader(“label”, “value”) method is used to assign a label/value pair to the header to be sent with a request.

  40. Advanced C# Interview Questions

  41. Question 24. What Is Status?

    Answer :

    The ‘status’ property is for returning numeric codes from the server like error codes, etc.

  42. JSP Interview Questions

  43. Question 25. What Is Getallresponseheaders()?

    Answer :

    The getAllResponseHeaders() method is used to return the full set of headers as a string.

  44. Java XML Tutorial

  45. Question 26. What Is Readystate?

    Answer :

    The ‘readyState’ property is an object status integer. It uses the integers 0 to 4 for uninitialized, loading, loaded, interactive and complete states.

  46. WebLogic Administration Interview Questions

  47. Question 27. What Is Onreadystatechange?

    Answer :

    The ‘onreadystatechange’ property fires at every state change event.

  48. Oracle 11g Interview Questions

  49. Question 28. What Is Responsetext?

    Answer :

    The ‘responseText’ property is a string version of data returned from server process.

  50. ebXML Tutorial

XPath Interview Questions & Answers

  1. Question 1. What Is Xpath?

    Answer :

    XPath is an important and core component of XSLT standard. It is used to traverse the elements and attributes in an XML document.

  2. Question 2. What Are The Main Features Of Xpath?

    Answer :

    • XPath is a major element in the XSLT standard.
    • It is syntax for defining parts of an XML document.
    • XPATH stands for XML Path Language.
    • It is used for navigating in XML documents.
    • It can be used to query data from XML documents.
    • It uses path expressions to navigate in XML documents.
    • XPATH expressions are case sensitive.
  3. XML Interview Questions

  4. Question 3. What Do You Mean By Xpath Expressions?

    Answer :

    XPath defines a pattern or path expression to select nodes or node sets in an XML document. These patterns are used by XSLT to perform transformations. XPath specifies seven types of nodes that can be output of the execution of the XPath expression.

    • Root
    • Element
    • Text
    • Attribute
    • Comment
    • Processing Instruction
    • Namespace
  5. Question 4. What Do You Mean By Xpath Nodes?

    Answer :

    A node is an XML document which is specified in the tree structure.

  6. XML Tutorial

  7. Question 5. How Many Types Of Nodes In Xpath?

    Answer :

    There are seven kinds of nodes in XPath:

    • Element
    • Attribute
    • Text
    • Namespace
    • Processing-instruction
    • Comment
    • Document nodes
  8. C Interview Questions

  9. Question 6. What Is Xpath Syntax?

    Answer :

    The XPath syntax specifies the different nodes, path expressions, path notation, predicates and URLs which are used to define the XML document.

  10. Question 7. What Are The Different Types Of Location Paths In Xpath?

    Answer :

    There are two types of location paths used to specify the location of node in XML documents. These paths are absolute or relative path.

  11. C Tutorial
    Oracle Interview Questions

  12. Question 8. What Is The Meaning Of Absolute Path In Xpath?

    Answer :

    An absolute path starts with root node or with ‘/’.

    For Example:

    /company/employee- It will select employee nodes within class root node.

  13. Question 9. What Do You Mean By Xpath Relative Path?

    Answer :

    A path is known as relative path if it is started with the node that we’ve selected.

  14. SSIS(SQL Server Integration Services) Interview Questions

  15. Question 10. What Do You Mean By Xpath Axes?

    Answer :

    XPath axes are used to identify elements by their relationship like parent, child, sibling, etc. in the same manner like path defines the location of the node.

  16. Java Tutorial

  17. Question 11. What Do You Mean By Xpath Operators?

    Answer :

    XPath defines operators and functions on nodes. An XPath expression returns either a node-set, a string, a Boolean, or a number.

  18. Java Interview Questions

  19. Question 12. What Are The Different Types Of Operators In Xpath?

    Answer :

    XPath operators can be categorized in different category according to their property.

    Following are the different types of XPath operators:

    • Comparison Operators
    • Boolean Operators
    • Number Functions/Operators
    • String Functions
    • Node Functions/Operators
  20. XML Interview Questions

  21. Question 13. What Do You Understand By Xpath Comparison Operator?

    Answer :

    XPath comparison operator is used to compare one value to another.

    There are different type of comparison operators:

    • =
    • !=
    • <
    • >
    • <=
    • >=
  22. XPath Tutorial

  23. Question 14. What Do You Mean By Xpath Boolean Operatos?

    Answer :

    Boolean operators are simple words AND, OR, NOT etc. used to combine or exclude keywords. They connect your search words together to either concise or expand your set of results.

  24. Question 15. What Do You Understand By Xpath Number Operators?

    Answer :

    The XPath number operators are used to do mathematical operations on different keywords.

    There are five number operators in XPath:

    1. +
    2. *
    3. div
    4. mod
  25. XQuery Interview Questions

  26. Question 16. What Do You Understand By Xpath Number Functions?

    Answer :

    In XPath, number functions are used to fetch the different type of values from the expressions. For example, ceiling value, floor value etc.

    There are four types of number functions in XPath:

    • ceiling()
    • floor()
    • round()
    • sum()
  27. XQuery Tutorial

  28. Question 17. What Do You Know By Xpath String Functions?

    Answer :

    The XPath string functions specify some rules which are used to get strings according to your preferences.

  29. XSLT Interview Questions

  30. Question 18. How To Define Relationship Among Nodes?

    Answer :

    There are following types of nodes in XPath. These nodes are related to each other to form a tree like structure.

    These nodes are:

    • Parents
    • Children
    • Siblings
    • Ancestors
    • Descendents

    For example:

     
      Parallel Algorithm  
      Rashmi Sharma  
      2008  
      150.00  

  31. C Interview Questions

  32. Question 19. What Are The Different Standard Functions In Xpath?

    Answer :

    XPath has more than 101 build-in functions. These built-in functions are used in Boolean values, string values, numeric values, date and time comparison, sequence manipulation etc.

  33. Document Type Definition (DTD) Tutorial

  34. Question 20. What Are The Different Xpath Axes?

    Answer :

    XPath axes are used to set relation of current node with another node.

    A list of XPath axes to set relation with other nodes are:

    ancestor: It is used to get all ancestor (parent, grandparent etc) of current node.

    ancestor-or-self: It is used to get all ancestors (parent, grandparent, etc.) of the current node and also the current node.

    attribute: It is used to get all attributes of the current node.

    child : It is used to retrieve all children of the current node.

    descendant: It is used to get all descendants (children, grandchildren, etc.) of the current node.

    namespace: It is used to get all namespace nodes of the current node.

    preceding: It is used to get everything in the document that is comes before the start tag of the current node.

  35. Document Type Definition (DTD) Interview Questions

  36. Question 21. What Is An Atomic Value In Xpath?

    Answer :

    Nodes that has no parent node or child node are called as Atomic values.

    For example:

     
      Parallel Algorithm  
      Rashmi Sharma  
      2008  
      150.00  

  37. Question 22. What Happens About The Presence Of The Top-level Element In Xslt?

    Answer :

    1. The top-level elements don’t have any effect on the behaviour of XSLT elements.
    2. The functions that are defined with it also don’t have any affect in the document.
    3. The top-level elements are not permitted to be used by specifying the xsl:apply templates.
    4. XSLT process is provided to ignore the top-level elements and ignore some of it if an error occurs.
    5. XSLT top-element element doesn’t recognize the namespace URI and can be provided using other sources.
  38. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) Tutorial

XPointer Interview Questions & Answers

    1. Question 1. Which Xpointer Schemes Are Supported In This Release?

      Answer :

      The XPointer integration distributions support shorthand pointers.

      In addition, they bundle support for at last the following XPointer schemes:

      — xmlns()
      — element()
      — xpath()

      – This is not a W3C defined XPointer scheme since W3C has not published an XPointer sheme for XPath. The namespace URI for this scheme is https://interviewquestions.ap6am.com/xml/namespace/xpointer . It provides for addressing XML subresources using a XPath 1.0 expressions.

 

    1. Question 2. How To Implement An Application-specific Xpointer Scheme?

      Answer :

      Implement org.CognitiveWeb.xpointer.ISchemeProcessor.

      The XPointer Framework is extensible. One of the very coolest things about this is that you can develop your own XPointer schemes that expose your application using the data model that makes the most sense for your application clients.

      For example: let’s say that you have a CRM application. The important logical addressing units probably deal with concepts such as customers.

 

HTML Interview Questions

    1. Question 3. Define Server-side Xpointer?

      Answer :

      The XPointer Framework provides an authoritative and extensible interpretation of the semantics of fragment identifiers for XML media types. However, HTTP does NOT transmit the fragment identifier as part of the HTTP request.

 

 

    1. Question 4. How To Configure An Xpointer Processor?

      Answer :

      There is no required configuration for the XPointer Framework. The uberjar command line utility provides some configuration options. Applications configure individual XPointer processors when they obtain an instance from an appropriate XPointerProcessor factory method.

 

HTML Tutorial

    1. Question 5. Which Characters Are Allowed In A Qualified Name?

      Answer :

      The prefix can contain any character that is allowed in the Name production in XML 1.0 except a colon. The same is true of the local name. Thus, there can be at most one colon in a qualified name — the colon used to separate the prefix from the local name.

 

C Interview Questions

    1. Question 6. Define Xpointer Resources?

      Answer :

      You can use the XPointer Framework with non-XML resources. This is especially effective when your resource is backed by some kind of a DBMS, or when you want to query a data model, such as RDF, and not the XML syntax of a representation of that data model.

 

 

    1. Question 7. How You Can Install The Xpointer Processor?

      Answer :

      Download the latest “cweb-xpointer” release from SourceForge. This project uses Apache Maven and Java 1.4+, so you will need to install those as well.

      Normally you will also want to download one of the XPointer Framework integrations, such as the xpointer+dom4j or the xpointer+jdom package. These “integration packages” provide support for a specific XML Document model.

 

C Tutorial
Oracle Apps Interview Questions

    1. Question 8. Define The Specification Of Xpointer?

      Answer :

      The part of the XLL specification that is concerned with identifying sections of documents so that they can be referenced in links or included in other documents.

 

 

    1. Question 9. How You Can Use Xpointer?

      Answer :

      In x pointer we use anchor tags to create hyperlinks. On the same lines we can create hyperlinks in an XML document using X pinter. With X pointer we can define two types of link : simple and extended. Simple links are links similar to HTML links and extended links are used for linking multiple resources together.

 

Java Interview Questions

    1. Question 10. Define The Syntax Of Xpointer?

      Answer :

      We use XPointer to made hyperlink that point one or more parts in an XML document.means using XPointer we can made a hyperlink that point points to web page or bookmarks that are inside the web page by using #.

      Example:

      href=”https://interviewquestions.ap6am.com/cdlist.xml#id(‘kate’).child(4,item)”

      In the above example we use XPointer to point the fourth item in a list with a unique id “kate”:

 

Java Tutorial

    1. Question 11. Define Xml Registry?

      Answer :

      An infrastructure that enables the building, deployment, and discovery of Web services. It is a neutral third party that facilitates dynamic and loosely coupled business-to-business (B2B) interactions.

 

CSS Interview Questions

    1. Question 12. How To Integrate Xpointer Into My Application?

      Answer :

      There are several ways to do this. The easiest is to use the uberjar release, which can be directly executed on any Java enabled platform. This makes it trivial to test and develop XPointer support in your applications, including server-side XPointer. The uberjar release contains a Java class org.CognitiveWeb.xpointer.XPointerDriver that provides a simple but flexible command line utility that exposes an XPointer processor.

 

 

HTML Interview Questions

    1. Question 13. Define Xpointer?

      Answer :

      • XPointer is an compact name of XML Pointer Language.
      • XPointer give facility hyperlink to point one or parts in an XML document.

 

CSS Tutorial

    1. Question 14. Explain About Xml Signature?

      Answer :

      XML signature is recommended by w3c. It acts as a digital signature for XML documents. This technology is used by various technologies such as SAML, SOAP, etc.

 

 

    1. Question 15. What Characters Are Allowed In A Qualified Name?

      Answer :

      The prefix can contain any character that is allowed in the Name production in XML 1.0 except a colon. The same is true of the local name. Thus, there can be at most one colon in a qualified name — the colon used to separate the prefix from the local name.

 

XPath Interview Questions

    1. Question 16. How Do I Install The Xpointer Processor?

      Answer :

      Download the latest “cweb-xpointer” release from SourceForge. This project uses Apache Maven and Java 1.4+, so you will need to install those as well. Normally you will also want to download one of the XPointer Framework integrations, such as the xpointer+dom4j or the xpointer+jdom package. These “integration packages” provide support for a specific XML Document model.

 

 

XPath Tutorial

    1. Question 17. Can I Use A Relative Uri As A Namespace Name?

      Answer :

      Yes. However, such usage is deprecated, so you should never do it.

 

XQuery Interview Questions

    1. Question 18. What Is Xml Registry?

      Answer :

      An infrastructure that enables the building, deployment, and discovery of Web services. It is a neutral third party that facilitates dynamic and loosely coupled business-to-business (B2B) interactions.

 

 

C Interview Questions

    1. Question 19. What Is Xpointer?

      Answer :

      The part of the XLL specification that is concerned with identifying sections of documents so that they can be referenced in links or included in other documents.

 

XQuery Tutorial

XQuery Interview Questions & Answers

  1. Question 1. What Is Xquery?

    Answer :

    XQuery is a XML query language which was designed to query XML data. It is same like SQL for database tables. XQuery is used to retrieve data from the XML file.

  2. Question 2. What Is The Use Of Xquery Language?

    Answer :

    XQuery is a functional language for finding and extracting elements and attributes from XML documents. Its main usages are:

    • To retrieve both hierarchal and tabular data.
    • To query tree and graphical structures.
    • To build web pages.
    • To query web pages.
    • To transform XML documents into XHTML documents.
    • Best for XML-based databases and object-based databases. Object databases are much more flexible and powerful than purely tabular databases.
  3. C Interview Questions

  4. Question 3. In Which Year Xquery Was First Appeared?

    Answer :

    XQuery was first appeared in 2007. It was designed by W3C and became the W3C recommendation on January 23, 2007. XQuery 3.0 is a W3C recommendation from April 8, 2014.

  5. Question 4. Explain The Syntax Rules For Xquery.?

    Answer :

    A list of basic syntax rules for XQuery:

    • XQuery is case sensitive.
    • Attributes and variables that we used should have valid XML names in XQuery elements.
    • XQuery should be written within single and double quotes.
    • XQuery variables should be defined as: $(variable name). For example: $book.
    • XQuery comment can be written between colon (:). like :(: Comment in XQuery:)
  6. C Tutorial

  7. Question 5. What Is The Difference Between Xquery And Xpath?

    Answer :

    Difference between XQuery and Xpath:

    XQuery is a functional programming and query language while XPath is XML path language.

    XQuery is used to extract and manipulate data from either XML documents or relational databases while XPath is used to compute values like strings, numbers and Boolean types from another xml documents.

     

  8. Oracle Interview Questions

  9. Question 6. What Is The Difference Between Xquery And Xslt?

    Answer :

    • XQuery is program driven while XSLT is document-driven.
    • XQuery is declarative while XSLT is functional.
    • XSLT is written in XML while XQuery is not written in XML.
  10. Question 7. How To Define Functions In Xquery?

    Answer :

    XML has many build-in functions. XQuery functions generally made perform with string values, numeric values, date and time comparisons, Boolean values etc.

    XQuery also facilitates you to make your own functions.

  11. Java Tutorial
    Java Interview Questions

  12. Question 8. How To Call Xquery Functions:

    Answer :

    Example 1: When you use function in an element.

    {uppercase($booktitle)}  

    Example 2: When you use function in the predicate of a path expression.

    doc(“bookmart.xml”)/bookstore/book[substring(title,1,5)=’Jungle’]  

    Example 3: When you use function in a let clause

    let $name := (substring($booktitle,1,4))

  13. Question 9. How To Perform Comparison In Xquery?

    Answer :

    In XQuery, comparison is performed with general comparison or value comparison.

    1. General Comparison: It is performed by using the following symbols.

    Ex: =, !=, <, <=, >, >=

    2. Value Comparison: The value comparison is performed by using the following symbols.

    Ex: ne, lt, le, eq, ge, gt.

    See this example:

    $bookstore//book/@q > 100  

    If any q attributes have values greater than 100, the expression will return true otherwise false.

  14. Oracle Service Bus Interview Questions

  15. Question 10. Which Types Of Problems Can Be Solved By Xquery?

    Answer :

    • XQuery can be used to solve the following queries in XML data:
    • XQuery is used to retrieve information in a web service.
    • It is used to generate summary report.
    • It is used to transform data from XML to XHTML.
  16. XPath Tutorial

  17. Question 11. What Do You Mean By Xquery Flwor?

    Answer :

    FLWOR is an acronym which stands for “For, Let, Where, Order by, Return”.

    For – It is used to select a sequence of nodes.

    Let – It is used to bind a sequence to a variable.

    Where – It is used to filter the nodes.

    Order by – It is used to sort the nodes.

    Return – It is used to specify what to return (gets evaluated once for every node).

  18. XPath Interview Questions

  19. Question 12. What Is The Use Of Xquery Html Format?

    Answer :

    XQuery HTML format is a way to transform an XML document into an HTML page.

  20. C Interview Questions

  21. Question 13. What Is Selecting And Filtering Element In Xquery?

    Answer :

    XQuery FLWOR and Path expression are used for selecting and filtering the XML elements. Both are used to select and filter the desired elements.

    For example:

    for $a in doc(“bookmart.xml”)/bookstore/book  
    where $a/price<150  
    order by $a/title  
    return $a/title

  22. XQuery Tutorial

  23. Question 14. How To Perform Conditional Operations In Xquery?

    Answer :

    Conditional operation in XQuery is If-Then-Else operation. Let?s take an example to see how to use it:

    Example:

    for $a in doc(“bookmart.xml”)/bookstore/book  
    return  if ($a/@category=”ADVENTURE”)  
    then {data($a/title)}  
    else {data($a/title)} 

  24. Question 15. What Is The Syntax Of Xquery Language?

    Answer :

    The elements, attributes and variables in XQuery language must be valid XML names and follow case sensitivity.

  25. XSLT Interview Questions

  26. Question 16. What Do You Mean By Xquery Add?

    Answer :

    XQuery Add is used for adding elements, attributes, HTML elements and text in the results from the input documents.

  27. Document Type Definition (DTD) Tutorial

  28. Question 17. How To Use Xquery Flwor With Html?

    Answer :

    If you want to put HTML element with XQuery FLWOR, you should have to add and tags into the FLWOR expression.

    For example:

         
      {    
      for $x in doc(“books.xml”)/bookstore/book/title    
      order by $x    
      return

    • {$x}
    •    
      }    

     

  29. Document Type Definition (DTD) Interview Questions

  30. Question 18. What Are The Different Types Of Xquery Functions?

    Answer :

    A list of different types of XQuery functions:

    • Accessor Functions
    • Error and Trace Functions
    • Numeric Functions
    • String Functions
    • AnyURI Functions
    • Boolean Functions
    • Duration/Date/Time Functions
    • QName Functions
    • Node Functions
    • Sequence Functions
    • Context Functions
  31. Oracle Interview Questions

  32. Question 19. What Is The Use Of Time And Date Function In Xquery?

    Answer :

    In XQuery, time and date function is used to get time and date.

    There are three types of time and date functions in XQuery:

    1. current-date()
    2. current-time()
    3. current-datetime()
  33. XSD Tutorial

  34. Question 20. What Is The Use Of Current-date() Function In Xquery?

    Answer :

    The XQuery current date function is used to retrieve the current date.

  35. XSD Interview Questions

  36. Question 21. What Is The Use Of Current-time() Function In Xquery?

    Answer :

    The XQuery current-time function is used to retrieve the current time.

  37. Question 22. What Is The Use Of Current-datetime() Function In Xquery?

    Answer :

    The XQuery current-date time() function is used to return the current date and time.

  38. WSDL Tutorial

XSD Interview Questions & Answers

  1. Question 1. How You Define Attributes In Xml Schema?

    Answer :

    You have to note this in XML Schema all attributes are only declare as simple types element not as complex types. Because yes, Simple Elements has no attributes and attributes are only happen with Complex Elements. But key point is that in XML Schema always attribute declare as simple type itself.

    Syntax:

  2. Question 2. How You Use Schema Element In Xml Document?

    Answer :

    We can say that element is an root element in XML Schema.

    Now, I have given you syntax of an XML Schema.

    Syntax:

    ….

    ….

    Yes, Schema element can also contain attribute.

    Example:

    target Namespace=”http://www.r4r.co.in”

    xmlns=”http://www.r4r.co.in”

    elementFormDefault=”qualified”>

    ….

    ….

  3. XML Interview Questions

  4. Question 3. How You Define Complex And Simple Type Of Element?

    Answer :

    In an XML Schema element are of two types.

    1. Complex Type Element
    2. Simple Type Element

    Complex Type Element: Complex Type Elements are elements those contain elements.

    Simple Type Element: Simple Type Elements are elements those don’t contain any other elements.

    I explain you complex and simple type of element with an example: 

    Abhi

    Sudhi

    Birthday Wish

    Happy Birthday Dear

    In the above example note element called as complex element because it contains elements(to, from, heading, body).And element to, from, heading and body called as Simple Type Element because it doesn’t contain any other element.

  5. Question 4. Give An Example Shows Xml Document Has A Reference To An Xml Schema?

    Answer :

    This example show you how XML document has a reference to an XML Schema.

    Example:

    xmlns=”http://www.r4r.co.in”

    xmlns:xsi=”http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance”

    xsi:schemaLocation=”http://www.r4r.co.in note.xsd”>

    Abhi

    Sudhi

    Birthday Wish

    Happy Birthday Dear

  6. XML Tutorial

  7. Question 5. Why We Use Xml Schemas?

    Answer :

    I have given you some main reasons those made XML Schemas more powerful than DTD.

    1. Using XML Schemas we can describe permissible document content more easily.
    2. Using XML Schemas we can validate the rightness of data easily.
    3. Using XML Schemas we can work with data that comes from database more easily.
    4. Easy to switch data b/w different datatypes.
    5. Easy to define data formats and to made restrictions on data.
  8. Oracle Interview Questions

  9. Question 6. Explain Why Xml Schemas Are Estensible?

    Answer :

    Have given you some reasons that say XML Schemas are extensible. We can reuse our XML Schemas with in other XML Schemas. Also we can make our own data types which are derived from standard types. We can refer multiple schemas in a same XML document.

  10. Question 7. What Is Xml Schema?

    Answer :

    When we don’t want to use DTD than we can use XML Schema as an alternative of DTD.Using XML Schema we can describe the structure of XML document. We can also call XML Schema language as XML Schema Definition.

    Some main of XML Schema are given below:

    1. We can define the child element among the elements.
    2. XML Schema also defines order and number of child element.
    3. Using XML Schema we can define data types, default and fixed values for attributes and elements.

    XML Schema has W3C Recommendation since 02 May 2001.

  11. XPath Tutorial
    SQL Interview Questions

  12. Question 8. How You Define Elements Of Xml Document In An Xml Schema?

    Answer :

    Simple I give you a example of an XML document. Then I told you define elements of this XML document in an XML Schema.

    Example shows a XML Document.

    Abhi

    Sudhi

    Birthday Wish

    Happy Birthday Dear

    Now, I will show you how to define these elements(to, from, heading, body)of XML document(saved with “note.xml”)in an XML Schema (saved with “note.xsd”).

    target Namespace=”http://www.r4r.co.in”

    xmlns=”http://www.r4r.co.in”

    elementFormDefault=”qualified”>

  13. Question 9. How You Set Default And Fixed Values For Attributes?

    Answer :

    Mean of default and fixed value in terms of attributes. 

    Default values are those values that are directly assigned to attribute when this attribute doesn’t contain any other defined value.

    Example:

    In the above example default value of Lang is “EN”.

    Fixed values are those values that are directly assigned to attribute but it doesn’t contain any other defined value for this attribute.

    Example:

    In the above example fixed value of Lang is “EN”.

  14. Oracle E-Bussiness Suite Interview Questions

  15. Question 10. How We Can Say Xml Schemas Are Successors Of Dtds?

    Answer :

    Because of some reasons we can say that XML Schemas area successors of DTDs.

    Some reasons are given below:

    1. As DTD, XML Schemas also written in XML.
    2. As DTD, XML Schemas also support Data types and namespaces.

    But, XML Schemas is much good as DTDs.Because it is much richer and powerful than DTDs.And it also has some features that are made to solve problems comes in future.

  16. XQuery Tutorial

  17. Question 11. What Do You Mean By Simple Element?

    Answer :

    Have already told you XML Schema has defined elements in two types.

    1. Simple Element
    2. Complex Element

    Simple Element: In XML simple elements are that element that has contain only text doesn’t contain any other elements or attributes.

    Text may be of any type that define in XML Schema

    Like Boolean, string, date etc.

    Syntax:

    Where, ABC is used to define name of element and xyz is used to define data type of element.

  18. Oracle BPEL Interview Questions

XSL Interview Questions & Answers

    1. Question 1. How Is Xsl Used For Xml?Answer :
      • XSL is the stylesheet language that is used only for XML and it provides variety of tools to integrate it easily.
      • XML uses the predefined tags that can be used to clear the meaning of the tags and allow the use of stylesheets.
      • Browser when displaying a piece of information like tag doesn’t know how to display it so XSL comes in and define the tags that are written.
      • XSL also describes the way XML document needs to be defined and executed on the browser and system.
      • XSL allow the integration of it with the XML and with HTML documents so that more advanced options can be used.

 

    1. Question 2. What Are The Different Types Of Parts Used In Xsl?Answer :

      XSL is used to describe the stylesheet language and it also describes the XML document that needs to be displayed.

      XSL consists of three parts and it allows the displaying of it using the web browser:

      XSLT: this is also known as the transformation of extensible style sheet and it provides the language for transformation.

      XPath: is used to provide the navigation path of the XML document to navigate it through the browser.

      XSL-FO: is used as a language for the transformation of XML documents and use it to provide more flexibility.

 

CSS3 Interview Questions

    1. Question 3. What Is The Function Of Xsl?Answer :
      • XSL is a language that is used to express the style sheets in the form of CSS and used with HTML.
      • XSL share and provide the functionality that is compatible with CSS with a different syntax.
      • Styling options are used to design the features of the web and provide various options for modifications.
      • It provides a definition for the set of elements that are used as formatting objects in the web programming language.
      • It also consists of attributes that allow more properties and complex functions to use while making web designs

 

 

    1. Question 4. What Are The Steps Required To Make Xsl Work?Answer :
      • XSL is the extensible standard language that provides various features for the development of the web.
      • It requires the styling features to be used in XML documents that acts as a source of the programming language.
      • It consists of information that is provided in the style sheet and will display it on the web.

      The transformation of XML file is rendered and it is given as:

       

      hello World.

       

      Come off it Mr Dent, you can’t win you know.

       

       

      I’ve gone off the idea of progress.

       

       

 

CSS3 Tutorial

    1. Question 5. What Is The Information Contained Inside The Xml File?Answer :
      • XML file consist of the information that is presentable on the web and in the style sheet.
      • XML file separates the document’s content and its styling such that the information is allowed to be displayed on the web.
      • It separates the file such that the information is allowed to be displayed using different media and same document.
      • The media includes screen, paper and cell phones that allow the users to view the document according to their requirements.
      • XML file stores the data that needs to be changed and modified again and again according to the user’s requirements.

 

CSS Interview Questions

    1. Question 6. What Is The Use Of Stylesheet In Xsl?Answer :
      • The stylesheet provides the look and feel of the template that comes in the format of XML file.
      • The stylesheet consist of information that is in advanced level and shown on pagination and margins.
      • It is represented using the xsl tag and having the template parameter associated with it.

       

       

       

       

       

      It provides the transformation of the instances used in DTD that is designed for the display on the web.

 

 

    1. Question 7. What Are The Rules Defined For The Use Of Fx Element?Answer :

      The FX element used in XSL stylesheet allows the use of different properties to display the styling characteristics.

      The rules that are laid down for the use of FX element include:

      • FX element can be transformed into the blocks using the styling feature of bold font.
      • provides a way to have the recursive call to the template that can provide the content of the current element.
      • FX element is being provided to the speech elements having the speaker attribute and the formats specified.
      • FX elements uses the formats of the blocks that allow the value of the speaker attribute to be added before the use of it in the text.

 

CSS Tutorial
XPath Interview Questions

    1. Question 8. What Is The Use Of Rendering In Xsl?Answer :
      • Rendering is important to allow the objects to be rendered using the styling properties.
      • The formatting objects that has been produced by formatting object gets generated using the XML file.
      • Formatting objects also uses the stylesheet to render the object and the elements used to display the content on the web.
      • XSL-FO tag is used to display the medias in the XSL format by adding the parameters as screen, paper and voice.
      • Rendering is important as it allows the use of many tools and methods to display the content on the web.

 

 

    1. Question 9. What Is The Difference Between Xsl And Css?Answer :
      • XSL uses the XML notation that is helpful in writing the codes and the tools are provided in greater extent, whereas CSS doesn’t use any of the XML notations but has its own.
      • XSL is having the formatting object tree setup differently from the source tree; whereas CSS is having the source tree and the formatting object tree the same.
      • XSL can’t provide the inheritance of the source tree using the formatting properties, whereas CSS provides the inheritance of the formatting object that is related to the source tree.
      • XSL is not supported by many of the web browsers, whereas CSS can be read by modern web browsers.

 

XSLT Interview Questions

    1. Question 10. Why Xsl Won’t Replace Css?Answer :
      • XSL is used for complex formatting on the content that can be displayed on multiple places.
      • XSL is not for the dynamic formatting that uses the content in the online document using the multiple files.
      • XSL provides lots of capabilities but with limits as it provides efficient and easy to allow modifications.
      •  It provides content generation workflows and uses different tools to choose the tasks and XSL files.
      •  XSL is used to serve the web page to customize the XML data into the XML document and use the CSS for styling purpose.

 

XPath Tutorial

    1. Question 11. What Is The Difference Between Xsl And Dsssl?Answer :
      • DSSSL is used as an International Standard and represents a style sheet language, whereas XSL consists of CSS is already a stylesheet language and used as a standard language.
      • DSSSL is used to provide the formatting technique for the documents that can be printed, whereas XSL uses the formatting technique to write the data in XSL format.
      • DSSSL uses –O profile that provides additional capabilities and remove the functionality for providing online documentation, whereas XSL doesn’t provide the functionality.
      • DSSSL continues to provide the web-oriented the style sheet language with the integration of the CSS, whereas XSL provides no such feature. th CSS.
      • DSSSL provide the capabilities of XSL and it continues to provide the services to publishing industry, whereas XSL doesn’t use the capabilities of it.

 

Document Type Definition (DTD) Interview Questions

    1. Question 12. What Are The Steps Required To Render All The Xml Documents To Html On Server?Answer :
      • The semantics for the XML documents need to be found out and the functionalities need to be defined.
      • XSL provide a way to be used as either the server side or client side according to the classes defined.
      • The classes can be defined according to the output like DSSSL style class that provides the flow objects and HTML tags.
      • The index needs to be maintained for the presentation of the HTML by using the search options.
      • The rendering of XML document to the HTML is done using the XML semantics when all the presentational elements are present.
      • The presentational elements include block element, font and the weight of it.

 

 

CSS3 Interview Questions

    1. Question 13. What Is The Main Focus Of Xsl?Answer :
      • XSL is also known as Extensible Stylesheet Language and it was needed for the XML based stylesheet.
      • XSL provides the way to integrate its functions in the HTML using its predefined tags.
      • HTML has the meaning of each tag and with each tag some attributes are associated so that it can be utilized to assign the styles.
      • The tags can be easily opened and used using the XSL that defines the tag and allow the browser to display it.

      For example:

      tag that is used in HTML defines the table and when it executed on browser the browser displays it.

 

Document Type Definition (DTD) Tutorial

    1. Question 14. What Are The Ways To Add Styles To Html?Answer :
      • HTML provides variety of elements that are simple to use and it also defines its meaning.
      • HTML provides a way to add the styles using CSS and display it using the browser.
      • The CSS is used to write the properties of the element using the special font and colour.
      • HTML can also use more advanced styling that is shown in the XSL and provide the user with lots of options.
      • It also provides the frameworks and tools to display it in the HTML and provide a way to manage it accordingly.

 

 

    1. Question 15. How Does Stylesheet Effects The Overall Template?Answer :
      • Stylesheet consists of the rules defined in the template that is used to display on the browser.
      • Stylesheet provides the look and feel of the overall document and make it look more attractive.
      • Stylesheet is a document that consists of lots of attributes and methods like attributes to change the background or colour.
      • Stylesheets are used to function as a design to provide the tools that are needed to design a web site.
      • It also provides different ways of storing of the data and using them by keeping the conditions in mind.

 

XSD Interview Questions

    1. Question 16. What Are The Parts In Which Template Gets Defined?Answer :

      Templates are the combination of applications and the overall architecture made using the stylesheet.

      It basically consists of two parts and they are as follows:

      • The patterns are checked against another pattern for the matching and if it is matched then the result gets displayed.
      • The matches are performed against the nodes using the source tree that is different from other part of trees.
      • The template can be instantiated to form the part of the result tree that is different from the source tree as well.
      • The stylesheets are allowed to provide the documents used by XML and display it using the browser.

 

 

XSD Tutorial

    1. Question 17. Write A Program That Shows The Elements Of The Style Sheets?Answer :
      • Stylesheet is used to design the website overall structure of look and feel and display it on the browser.
      • It is represented using xsl:stylesheet element that resides in an XML document and it allows the stylesheet to be called in the beginning.
      • xsl:transform is used to allow the transformation to take place and it can be used instead of xsl:stylesheet.

      The program used can be as follows:

      <xsl:stylesheet

      id = id

      extension-element-prefixes = tokens

      exclude-result-prefixes = tokens

      version = number>

       

 

NTFS Interview Questions

    1. Question 18. Why Xml Language Uses Axl:version In The Code?Answer :
      • Axl:version is used to indicate that the XML document is an AXL document with the version mentioned on it.
      • XML language is used to define the element and indicate the use of it using the axl:version.
      • AXL processor processes the information that is used using the axl:version attribute and xsl:version.
      • It provides the simplified process of using the stylesheets and use of the XSLT while writing the program.
      • XSL also allows the use of XSLT so that media functions and MIME type can be used with the XML documents.

 

 

CSS Interview Questions

    1. Question 19. What Is The Function Of Qualified Names?Answer :
      • Qualified names are used in XSLT object defined under the XSL style sheet so that it can be used with the template.
      • The names are used with the template to synchronize the mode of the style and the properties that need to be displayed.
      • Qualified names consist of mdoes, attribute set, keys, decimal format and variable or parameter using the QName function.
      • The prefixes if any are used in URI reference using the namespace declarations and provide the effect on the attribute.
      • XSL uses the names for the local part of the system and allow the null URI references to be made for the object name.

 

    1. Question 20. What Is The Function Of Keys In Xsl?Answer :
      • Keys in XSL are a way to provide the documents with the implicit cross reference structure.
      • It provides the documents to be implemented in a structured manner using the functionality and the architecture.
      • It provides ID, IDREF and IDREFS kind of attributes in the XML document that allow it to make the cross references explicit.
      • XSL provide the XPath id function that allows the support of the cross reference variables.
      • It also provides the mechanism to unlock the objects access for a particular use on the website.

 

 

yum Interview Questions & Answers

  1. Question 1. What Is Yum Server ?

    Answer :

    The Yellowdog Updater, Modified (yum) is an open-source command-line package-management utility for Linux operating systems using the RPM Package Manager. Though yum has a command-line interface, several other tools provide graphical user interfaces to yum functionality. Yum allows automatic updates, package and dependency management, on RPM-based distributions. Like the Advanced Packaging Tool (APT) from Debian, yum works with software repositories (collections of packages), which can be accessed locally or over a network connection.

    Advantages of Yum Server:

    • Automatic resolution of software dependencies. If a package installation or upgrade request is made and requires the installation or upgrade of additional packages, YUM can list these dependencies and prompt the user to install or upgrade them.
    • Command-line and graphical versions. The command-line version can be run on a system with a minimal number of software packages. The graphical versions offer ease-of-use and a user-friendly graphical interface to software management.
    • Multiple software locations at one time. YUM can be configured to look for software packages in more than one location at a time.
  2. Question 2. How To Install Packages Using Yum ?

    Answer :

    yum install package_name

  3. Networking Interview Questions

  4. Question 3. How To Update The Package Using Yum ?

    Answer :

    yum update package_ name

  5. Question 4. How To Search The Package In Yum ?

    Answer :

    yum search package_name

  6. Networking Tutorial

  7. Question 5. How To Remove The Package Using Yum ?

    Answer :

    yum remove package_name

  8. Linux Interview Questions

  9. Question 6. How To Check The Updates For Yum Repository ?

    Answer :

    yum check-update

  10. Question 7. How To Update The Yum Repo ?

    Answer :

    yum update

  11. Linux Tutorial
    Domain Name System(DNS) Interview Questions

  12. Question 8. How To Get The Package Information Using Yum ?

    Answer :

    yum info package_name

  13. Question 9. How To List The Installed Packages On Redhat Linux Using Yum Command ?

    Answer :

    yum list installed

  14. CheckPoint Firewall Interview Questions

  15. Question 10. How To Know The Particular Files Belongs To Which Package ?

    Answer :

    yum provides file_path

    Ex:

    [root@mylinz ~]# yum provides /etc/yum.conf

    Loaded plugins: refresh-packagekit, rhnplugin

    This system is not registered with RHN.

    RHN support will be disabled.

    yum-3.2.27-14.el6.noarch : RPM installer/updater

    Repo        : local-installation

    Matched from:

    Filename    : /etc/yum.conf

    yum-3.2.27-14.el6.noarch : RPM installer/updater

    Repo        : installed

    Matched from:

    Other       : Provides-match: /etc/yum.conf

  16. Question 11. How To List The Enabled Repositories ?

    Answer :

    yum repolist

  17. Secure Shell (SSH) Interview Questions

  18. Question 12. Which Option Is Required To Assume The Answer “yes” To Any Questions Asked During Installation Of Package Dependencies For Yum?

    Answer :

    The “-y” option is used to assume the answer “yes”.

    For Example:

    yum -y install squid

  19. Networking Interview Questions

Zbrush Interview Questions & Answers

  1. Question 1. What Is Lightbox?

    Answer :

    The internal ZBrush browser that makes it easy to access assets like 3D brushes, tools, projects, textures and alphas is called the Lightbox.

  2. Question 2. If You Have 4 Subtools And A System That Can Handle X Million Polygons, Your Model Can Be Composed Of How Many Polygons?

    Answer :

    4X polygons.

  3. Adobe Photoshop Interview Questions

  4. Question 3. What Is Matcaps?

    Answer :

    MatCaps is use image maps to simulate the effects of lighting on different types of surface.

  5. Question 4. The Z In Zbrush Stands For?

    Answer :

    Z axis.

  6. Adobe Photoshop Tutorial

  7. Question 5. What Is Zbrush’s Scripting Language?

    Answer :

    Zscript is Zbrush’s scripting language.

  8. 3D Animation Interview Questions

  9. Question 6. What Are Alphas?

    Answer :

    Grayscale images loaded into ZBrush to add effects to sculpting brushes are Alphas.

  10. Question 7. What Is Topology?

    Answer :

    A pattern of polygons that constitutes a mesh is called Topology.

  11. CorelDRAW Interview Questions

  12. Question 8. What Is Pinch?

    Answer :

    Pinch function will bring two edges closer together.

  13. Question 9. What Is Polymesh?

    Answer :

    A model composed of polygons is a Polymesh.

  14. Maya 3D Interview Questions

  15. Question 10. In Order To Sculpt, An Imported Model Must Be Turned Into Which Subtool?

    Answer :

    Polymesh 3D.

  16. Question 11. What Is Dynamesh?

    Answer :

    DynaMesh tool allows ZBrush to retopologize your mesh by pressing ctrl and dragging outside the model in the document.

  17. 3DSMAX Interview Questions

  18. Question 12. How To Use Makepolymesh3d?

    Answer :

    MakePolymesh3D button do you use to allow a mesh to be edited by the sculpting tools.

  19. Adobe Photoshop Interview Questions

  20. Question 13. What Is Decimation?

    Answer :

    The process of reducing polycount is called Decimation.

  21. Question 14. Bpr Stands For?

    Answer :

    Best Preview Render

  22. Question 15. If You Wanted To Adjust The Softness Or Falloff Edge Of A Brush, Which Slider Should You Adjust?

    Answer :

    Focal Shift slider should you adjust when you wanted to adjust the softness or falloff edge of a brush.

  23. Unity 3D Interview Questions

  24. Question 16. What Is Anti-aliasing?

    Answer :

    The technique used to smooth out the edges of shapes is called Anti-aliasing.

  25. Question 17. What Is Shadowbox?

    Answer :

    Shadowbox is Usese to scale models to reference images.

  26. Rhinoceros 3D Interview Questions

  27. Question 18. What Does The Z Intensity Slider Control?

    Answer :

    The depth or height of the brush stroke.

  28. 3D Animation Interview Questions

  29. Question 19. The Information Regarding Which Side Of A Polygon Faces In And Which Side Faces Out Is Known As The Polygon’s?

    Answer :

    The information regarding Normal side of a polygon faces in and which side faces out is known as the polygon’s.

  30. Question 20. What Is Layer?

    Answer :

    Layer palette separates canvases that are merged together.

  31. LightWave 3D Interview Questions

  32. Question 21. How To Use Fileexists?

    Answer :

    FileExists Zscript command to verify that a file is on your computer.

  33. Question 22. What Would Happen If You Held Down The “ctrl” Key While Hovering Over Buttons?

    Answer :

    A box explaining the button will appear.

  34. Question 23. Typing Unicorn* Into The Lightbox Search Field Will?

    Answer :

    Search for all files in the selected folder that begin with “Unicorn”.

  35. Autodesk Revit Interview Questions

  36. Question 24. What Additional Information Does A Pixol Contain, That A Pixel Does Not?

    Answer :

    Depth, orientation and material.

  37. CorelDRAW Interview Questions

  38. Question 25. What Is Strings?

    Answer :

    In Zscript, groups of characters are called Strings.

  39. Question 26. If You Are Using A Brush To Paint Or Sculpt On Only An Objects Cavities What File Menu And Tab Would You Find The Setting To Do This?

    Answer :

    If you are using a brush to paint or sculpt on only an objects cavities Brush-Automasking file menu and tab would you find the setting to do this.

  40. 3d Printing Interview Questions

  41. Question 27. What Will Clicking One Of The Four Stack Icons To The Right Of The Lightbox Frame Do?

    Answer :

    Changes the number of rows in the Lightbox menu.

  42. Maya 3D Interview Questions

  43. Question 28. Which Function Will Store New Data In An Existing Key Frame?

    Answer :

    Shift+Ctrl+click on the key frame dot.

  44. Question 29. Which Colorization Technique Takes A Smooth Gradient And Converts It To Fewer Steps With Abrupt Changes Between Them?

    Answer :

    Posterization colorization technique takes a smooth gradient and converts it to fewer steps with abrupt changes between them.

  45. Question 30. Which Brush Modifier Slider Will Apply Multiple Brushes At Once Along The Stroke To The Surface?

    Answer :

    Trails Brush Modifier slider will apply multiple brushes at once along the stroke to the surface.

XSLT Interview Questions & Answers

  1. Question 1. What Is Xslt Data Model?

    Answer :

    XSLT shares the same data model of XPATH with some additions. XSLT accepts a XSLT stylesheet as an input and output is another XML, text or another document. The model is based on text nodes. These text nodes are embedded within element nodes.

    The model is a hierarchical structure like a tree. The tree has a variety of nodes like- text nodes, attribute nodes, element nodes, comment nodes, and processing instruction nodes. For every node type there is a way of determining a string-value for a node of that type.

  2. Question 2. Explain The Role Of Xpath?

    Answer :

    XPATH is used to scan the XML document for navigation of elements and attributes. It contains a library of standard functions string ad numeric values. For navigation, XPATH makes use of path expressions to select nodes or sets of nodes in a XML document.

  3. XML Interview Questions

  4. Question 3. What Is Xslt Stylesheet?

    Answer :

    XSL stylesheet is just like a XML document used as a program text or a source. It contains sets of rules and instructions used for transformations. XSLT stylesheet along with the XML source documents are the inputs to the XSLT processor.

    The template rule contains two parts: a pattern used to match the nodes in the source document and a template which can be instantiated to form part of the result tree.

    A stylesheet is represented by an xsl:stylesheet element in an XML document.

  5. Question 4. Explain Its Relationships Of Xslt With Xsl?

    Answer :

    XSLT stands for eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations. It is a language used to convert XML documents to XHTML or other XML documents. This conversion is done by transforming each XML element into an (X)HTML element..

    it uses XPath to find information in a XML document. XSLT is nothing but transforming XSL’s. Xpath defines the parts of the source document that must match one or more predefined templates. Once a match is found, XSLT will transform the match into the result document.

  6. XML Tutorial

  7. Question 5. Do You Know What Are The Roles Of Xslt?

    Answer :

    The roles of XSLT are:

    1. XSLT is used to transform an XML document into another XML document such as HTML, etc.
    2. XSLT can be used to add or remove elements and attributes to or from the output file.
    3. XSLT can also be used for rearranging and sorting elements.
    4. It can also be used for performing tests and making decisions about hiding and displaying of elements.
  8. Oracle Interview Questions

  9. Question 6. What Is Xslt?

    Answer :

    XSLT stands for XSL Transformations and is a language used to transform XML documents into XHTML documents or to other XML documents.

  10. Question 7. Do You Know How To Transform An Xml File Into Html Using Xsl Transformation (xslt)?

    Answer :

    That’s all on my list of XSLT and XML transformation interview questions and answers. XSLT is one of the important skill to have in your resume, if you are using XML in your project. Since XML is mostly used as transportation protocol and middle and back office systems, those roles look for candidates which are good in XML, XSL and XSLT transformation. So if you are applying for any middle and back office Java development role in Investment banks, make sure to prepare XSLT well.

  11. XPath Tutorial
    SQL Interview Questions

  12. Question 8. How To Generate Dynamic Html Pages From Relational Database Using Xslt?

    Answer :

    This is one of the XSLT interview questions which checks practical knowledge of candidate in XSL. This is one of the most common application of XSLT I have seen where data stored in relational database is converted into XML and by using XSLT transformed into HTML pages. Database stored procedure can be used for first part and having all the logic of rendering HTML in XSLT you don’t need to change your query now and then if you need to change structure of HTML pages. If candidate successfully answer this XSLT interview question then there is very good chance that he has a good understanding of how things works with database, xml and XSLT.

  13. Question 9. Explain How To Retrieve Value Of An Attribute For An Element Using Xslt?

    Answer :

    which can copy an attribute from an element like below:


    Value of attribute Id is :

  14. Oracle E-Bussiness Suite Interview Questions

  15. Question 10. Do You Know Why We Use Select=”@|node()” In The Element On Identity Template? What Will Happen If We Use Without Select Attribute?

    Answer :

    This is an extension or follow up questions of previous XSLT question about Identity template. we use select=”@|node() to copy all child element and any attribute.if we don’t use that than will default on select=”node()” which will copy child nodes except attributes.

  16. Document Type Definition (DTD) Tutorial

  17. Question 11. Tell Me What Is Identity Template In Xsl, Why Do You Use It?

    Answer :

    Identity template in XSL is used to create deep copy of source XML file. It’s template matches to every node() and attribute and copy everything to create copy of original xml file. many people define Identity template in its own file like Identity.xsl but some people also preferred to keep in main XSL file as top template. Identity template has several uses in XSL transformation, like if you want to remove any attribute or element you will most likely copy everything using Identity template and create another template for not doing anything for those attribute or elements.





    Above template is called Identity template. If you look at definition first template matches any attribute or any node and then copies current node including any attributes and child nodes.

  18. Oracle BPEL Interview Questions

  19. Question 12. Explain How To Rename A Particular Element And Attribute From Xml Using Xsl?

    Answer :

    Renaming attribute is also similar to removing or deleting attribute as discussed in XSLT question 1, but instead of not doing anything when an attribute matches, you need to create an attribute and copy value of current attribute into new attribute.

    Identity template will be same and you need to add another template for renaming attribute using XSL:

    if you are using XSLT 2.0 than instead of separate element you can use select attribute directly with as shown below

  20. XML Interview Questions

  21. Question 13. Explain How To Remove A Particular Attribute From Xml?

    Answer :

    Process of removing an attribute is similar to removing elements from XML document, as discussed in above XSLT interview question. Along with Identity template, define another template to match with that particular attribute as shown below.

  22. XSD Tutorial

  23. Question 14. Explain How To Remove A Particular Element From Xml?

    Answer :

    Removing element from XML document via XSL transformation or XSLT is easy if you are familiar with Identity template. You need to write two templates one is Identity template, which copies every thing and other for matching with particular element and doing nothing just like shown below, which will then result in removal of a that particular element. See an example of removing XML elements using XSLT for details.

  24. Question 15. How To Perform Xml Transformation In Java?

    Answer :

    XSL transformation is the process of transforming one XML file into another XML, HTML or other type of file based upon selective rules and condition. XSL(XML Style Sheet language) is used to define those rules and condition in a .xls file, which is called style sheet document. Any XSLT engine can read those instruction defined in style sheet document and transform source XML file into something expected. Core of XSLT is, transformation engine and style sheet document. XSLT engine can be written in Java or any other language. Java has XSLT support via javax.xml.transform package which specifies classes like Templates, TransformFactory, an implementation of abstract factory design pattern, which can be used to read XSL file and transform XML files.

  25. XPath Interview Questions

  26. Question 16. How To Use Filtering Function In Xslt?

    Answer :

    We can filter the XNL output by using filter operators.Some Legal filter operators are given below:

    1.=(equal to)
    2.!=(not equal to)
    3.<(less than)
    4.>(greater than)

    I have given you a example. In this I have uses ‘=’ equal to filer operation.


    xmlns:xsl=”http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform”>


    Book Collection

  27. Question 17. How We Compare Xslt And Xpath?

    Answer :

    Some comparison b/w XSLT and XPath and given below:

    1.XSLT is depends upon W3C XPath language.Which is use to identify subset of source document tree. XPath is also used to provide the function range.

    2.Both XSLT and XPath published at same time than we can say that XSLT2.0 trusts on XPath2.0 and XSLT1.0 trusts on XPath1.0.

  28. Document Type Definition (DTD) Interview Questions

  29. Question 18. How To Transform An Xml Document Into Another Xml Document?

    Answer :

    Here,I given you a exampl which show you how to transform an XML document into another XML document.

    Example:













    We can tranform above XML document into another document like that,


    jhon
    smith

  30. Oracle Interview Questions

  31. Question 19. How To Transform An Xml Into Xhtml?

    Answer :

    Below, I write an example which show you how transform an XML into XHTML.

    Example:


    version=”1.0″
    xmlns:xsl=”http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform”
    xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml”>




    Test an XML Example

    Persons







  32. ,

  33. To get output on the XHTML we write like that,



    Test an XML Example

    Persons

    • gupta, Abhi
    • jain, sudi


  34. Question 20. How You Define Template In Xslt?

    Answer :

    When XSL style sheet has one or more set of rules are told as templates.

    We used element to create templates.

    We can attach a template with an XML document by using match attribute.The match attribute value is an XPath exprssion.Like: match=”/” use to define whole document.

    Example:


    xmlns:xsl=”http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform”>


    Book Collection

  35. Title Author

    Title Author
    . .




  36. BPEL Interview Questions

  37. Question 21. How To Use element In Xslt?

    Answer :

    We use element to sort the given output.

    Example:


    xmlns:xsl=”http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform”>


    Book Collection



    Title Author




  38. Question 22. How To Use Filtering In Xslt?

    Answer :

    We can filter the XNL output by using filter operators.Some Legal filter operators are given below:

    1.=(equal to)
    2.!=(not equal to)
    3.<(less than)
    4.>(greater than)

    I have given you a example. In this I have uses ‘=’ equal to filer operation.


    xmlns:xsl=”http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform”>


    Book Collection


    Title Author




  39. Question 23. What Is The Xslt?

    Answer :

    XSLT stands for Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations(XSLT).This is developed by World Wide Web Consortium(W3C).This is written in XML.We use XSLT when we want to transform an XML document into the oter XML document.Generally we use XSLT when we want to make transformation from a XML document into another XML document,Convert a XML document into the HTML or XHTML document, creating dynamic web pages, can convert an XML document into PDF document. We saved the XSLT file by using .xsl or .xslt extension.Recent version of XSLT is XSLT2.0 launched at 23rd Jan 2007.It is a part of XSL.Editor od first version of XSLT are James Clark.

  40. XSD Interview Questions

  41. Question 24. Who Developed Xslt?

    Answer :

    It was developed by World Wide Web consortium.

  42. SQL Interview Questions

  43. Question 25. What Does Xslt Processing Models Involve?

    Answer :

    As far as the XSLT processing model is concerned it involves one or more XML documents as well as one ore more XSLT style sheet modules. It also requires XSLT template processing engine (the processor) as well as one or more result documents.

  44. Question 26. Can You Use The Xslt To Convert Html Into Vxml?

    Answer :

    Yes, we can definitely use the XSLT to convert the html into VXML.

  45. Question 27. Which Was The First Processor Related To Xslt?

    Answer :

    James Clark’s XT was the first processor.

  46. Oracle E-Bussiness Suite Interview Questions

XStream Interview Questions & Answers

  1. Question 1. Why Does Xstream Not Respect The Encoding In The Xml Declaration?

    Answer :

    XStream architecture is based on IO Readers and Writers, while the XML declaration is the responsibility of XML parsers. All HierarchicalStreamDriver implementations respect the encoding since version 1.3, but only if you provide an InputStream. If XStream consumes a Reader you have to initialize the reader with the appropriate encoding yourself, since it is now the reader’s task to perform the encoding and no XML parser can change the encoding of a Reader and any encoding definition in the XML header will be ignored.

  2. Question 2. Why Does Xstream Not Write An Xml Declaration?

    Answer :

    XStream is designed to write XML snippets, so you can embed its output into an existing stream or string. You can write the XML declaration yourself into the Writer before using it to call XStream.toXML(writer).

  3. File Maker Interview Questions

  4. Question 3. Why Does Xstream Not Write Xml In Utf-8?

    Answer :

    XStream does no character encoding by itself, it relies on the configuration of the underlying XML writer. By default it uses its own PrettyPrintWriter which writes into the default encoding of the current locale. To write UTF-8 you have to provide a Writer with the appropriate encoding yourself.

  5. Question 4. Why Do Field Names Suddenly Have Double Underscores In The Generated Xml?

    Answer :

    XStream maps Java class names and field names to XML tags or attributes. Unfortunately this mapping cannot be 1:1, since some characters used for identifiers in Java are invalid in XML names. Therefore XStream uses an XmlFriendlyNameCoder to replace these characters with a replacement. By default this NameCoder uses an underscore as escape character and has therefore to escape the underscore itself also. You may provide a different configured instance of the XmlFriendlyNameCoder or a complete different implementation like the NoNameCoder to prevent name coding at all. However it is your responsibility then to ensure, that the resulting names are valid for XML.

  6. File Maker Tutorial

  7. Question 5. Xstream Failed To Unmarshal My Given Xml And I Do Not Know Why?

    Answer :

    By default XStream is written for persistence i.e. it will read the XML it can write. If you have to transform a given XML into an object graph, you should go the other way round. Use XStream to transfer your objects into XML. If the written XML matches your schema, XStream is also able to read it. This way is much easier, since you can spot the differences in the XML much more easy than to interpret the exceptions XStream will throw if it cannot match the XML into your objects.

  8. J2EE Interview Questions

  9. Question 6. Why Is My Element Not Written As Xml Attribute Although I Have Configured It?

    Answer :

    You can only write types as attributes that are represented as a single String value and are handled therefore by SingleValueConverter implementations. If your type is handled by a Converter implementation, the configuration of XStream to write an attribute (using XStream.useAttributeFor() or @XStreamAsAttribute) is simply ignored.

  10. Question 7. Why Are Whitespace Characters Wrong In My Attribute Values After Deserialization?

    Answer :

    This is part of the XML specification and a required functionality for any XML parser called attribute value normalization. It cannot be influenced by XStream. A compliant XML parser will replace by default real tab, carriage return and line feed characters with normal spaces. If you want to keep these characters you will have to encode them with entities.

  11. J2EE Tutorial
    Core Java Interview Questions

  12. Question 8. Why Does Xstream Not Have Any Namespace Support?

    Answer :

    Not every XML parser supports namespaces and not every XML parser that supports namespaces can be configured within XStream to use those. Basically namespaces must be supported individually for the different XML parsers and the only support for namespaces that has currently been implemented in XStream is for the StAX paser. Therefore use and configure the StaxDriver of XStream to use namespaces.

  13. Question 9. My Xml Contains Xpath Expressions In The References, But They Seem Not To Work?

    Answer :

    XStream generates only XPath compliant expressions. These have a very limited syntax and they are the only ones that can be interpreted at deserialization again, since XStream does not use an XPath interpreter. Therefore there is no support for attribute selectors, qualified element access with axis names or functions. For real XPath support you will have to implement your own MarshallingStrategy.

  14. Android Interview Questions

  15. Question 10. Does Xstream Support Entities?

    Answer :

    Entity support is completely dependent on the XML parser. XStream uses by default the Xpp3 parser that does not support entities at all (like the kXML2 parser). Other parsers support entities, but they might have been turned off to avoid XXE vulnerability. To enable the entities again, you have to overload the individual method of the HierarchicalStreamDriver implementation that generated the parser factory.

  16. Core Java Tutorial

  17. Question 11. Why Are There Two Json Driver Implementations?

    Answer :

    As always, first for historical reasons! Main difference is that the JettisonMappedXmlDriver is a thin wrapper around Jettison in combination with the StaxDriver, while the JsonHierarchicalStreamDriver uses an own more flexible implementation, but can only be used to generate JSON, deserialization is not implemented.

  18. JavaServer Faces (JSF) Interview Questions

  19. Question 12. Which Versions Of Jettison Are Supported?

    Answer :

    Users of Java 5 or higher can use Jettison 1.2, users of Java 1.4.2 have to use Jettison 1.0.1. Jettison 1.1 nor Jettison 1.3 or higher is supported.

  20. File Maker Interview Questions

  21. Question 13. Why Is It Not Possible To Deserialize A Json String Starting With An Array?

    Answer :

    XStream’s implementation to deserialize JSON is based on Jettison and StAX. Jettison implements a XMLStreamReader of StaX and transforms the processed JSON virtually into XML first. However, if the JSON string starts with an array it is not possible for Jettison to create a valid root element, since it has no name.

  22. Android Tutorial

  23. Question 14. Xstream Fails To Unmarshal My Json String And I Do Not Know Why?

    Answer :

    Deserialization of JSON is currently done by Jettison, that transforms the JSON string into a StAX stream. XStream itself does nothing know about the JSON format here. If your JSON string reaches some kind of complexity and you do not know how to design your Java objects and configure XStream to match those, you should have a look at the intermediate XML that is processed by XStream in the end. This might help to identify the problematic spots. Also consider then marshalling your Java objects into XML first. You can use following code to generate the XML:

    String json = “{“string”: “foo”}”;
    HierarchicalStreamDriver driver = new JettisonMappedXmlDriver();
    StringReader reader = new StringReader(json);
    HierarchicalStreamReader hsr = driver.createReader(reader);
    StringWriter writer = new StringWriter();
    new HierarchicalStreamCopier().copy(hsr, new PrettyPrintWriter(writer));
    writer.close();
    System.out.println(writer.toString());

  24. Question 15. What Limitations Has Xstream’s Json Support?

    Answer :

    JSON represents a very simple data model for easy data transfer. Especially it has no equivalent for XML attributes. Those are written with a leading “@” character, but this is not always possible without violating the syntax (e.g. for array types). Those may silently dropped (and makes it therefore difficult to implement deserialization). References are another issue in the serialized object graph, since JSON has no possibility to express such a construct. You should therefore always set the NO_REFERENCES mode of XStream. Additionally you cannot use implicit collections, since the properties in a JSON object must have unique names.

  25. Java Swing Interview Questions

  26. Question 16. Why Are My Long Values Incorrect In Javascript?

    Answer :

    JavaScript does not know about integer values. All numbers are represented with double precition floats using 64 bits (IEEE 754). These types cannot represent technically the complete value range of 64-bit integers like Java’s Long. With the JsonWriter you have the possibility since XStream 1.4.5 to set IEEE_754_MODE to force any long value that is not representable as JavaScript number to be written as string value in JSON. With the Jettison-based JettisonMappedXmlDriver you may either set a different TypeConverter or force the default converter to write integer values out of the range of 32-bit always as string setting the system property jettison.mapped.typeconverter.enforce_32bit_integer to true (not available for Jettison 1.0.1 and Java 1.4).

  27. JavaServer Faces (JSF) Tutorial

  28. Question 17. Why Are There Invalid Characters In My Json Representation?

    Answer :

    The JSON spec requires any JSON string to be in UTF-8 encoding. However, XStream ensures this only if you provide an InputStream or an OutputStream. If you provide a Reader or Writer you have to ensure this requirement on your own.

  29. Javascript Objects Interview Questions

  30. Question 18. Why Does Xstream Not Convert An Java.beans.eventhandler?

    Answer :

    Since XStream version 1.4.7 it does no longer handle an EventHandler automatically. Such an instance can be used to initiate calls on arbitrary instances at deserialization time e.g. ProcessBuilder.start() You can register a ReflectionConverter instance explicitly for the EventHandler if you need support for such instances.

  31. J2EE Interview Questions

  32. Question 19. Is Xstream Xxe Vulnerable (cve-2016-3674)?

    Answer :

    XStream does not contain an own XML parser, therefore it depends on the parser selected with the HierarchicalStreamDriver if the current XStream instance is XXE vulnerable at deserialization time. However, XStream tries to deactivate the processing of external entities by default. Status for the different supported XML parsers.

  33. Java Swing Tutorial

  34. Question 20. How Does Xstream Compare To Java.beans.xmlencoder?

    Answer :

    XStream is designed for serializing objects using internal fields, whereas XMLEncoder is designed for serializing JavaBeans using public API methods (typically in the form of getXXX(), setXXX(), addXXX() and removeXXX() methods.

  35. Javascript Advanced Interview Questions

  36. Question 21. How Does Xstream Compare To Jaxb (java Api For Xml Binding)?

    Answer :

    JAXB is a Java binding tool. It generates Java code from a schema and you are able to transform from those classes into XML matching the processed schema and back. Note, that you cannot use your own objects, you have to use what is generated.

  37. Question 22. Is Xstream Thread Safe?

    Answer :

    Yes. Once the XStream instance has been created and configured, it may be shared across multiple threads allowing objects to be serialized/deserialized concurrently (unless you enable the auto-detection to process annotations on-the-fly). Actually the creation and initialization of XStream is quite expensive, therefore it is recommended to keep the XStream instance itself. If you absolutely have to rely on annotation processing on the fly, you will have to use separate XStream instances for each thread – either by using every time a new instance or by a shared pool.

  38. Javascript Objects Tutorial

  39. Question 23. How Much Memory Does Xstream Consume?

    Answer :

    This cannot be answered in general, but following topics have impact on the memory:

    1. XML parser technology in use: You should use a streaming parser like Xpp3 or StAX. DOM-based parsers process the complete XML and create their document model in memory before the first converter of XStream is called.
    2. Your object model: Is it necessary to keep the complete object graph in memory at once? As alternative you might use object streams or write custom converters that can load and save objects of your object model on the fly without adding them to the object graph physically. As example see the implementation of the XmlArrayList in combination with the FileStreamStrategy from XStream’s persistence package to keep parts of the object graph separate.
    3. References: By default XStream supports references to the same object in an object graph. This implies that XStream keeps track of all serialized and deserialized objects internally. These references are kept with WeakReferences, so that the memory can be freed as soon as nobody references these objects anymore.
    4. XML values: Any tag and attribute value that is converted into a Java String in the object graph will use by default the same String instance unless it exceeds 38 characters (length of a UUID string representation).
    5. XStream caches: To increase performance XStream caches quite a lot like classes, converters to use, aliasing, tag names. All those caches make usage of WeakReferences or will exist only while marshalling one object graph resp. unmarshalling one input stream.
  40. JavaMail API Interview Questions

  41. Question 24. Can The Performance Of Xstream Be Increased?

    Answer :

    XStream is a generalizing library, it inspects and handles your types on the fly. Therefore it will normally be slower than a piece of optimized Java code generated out of a schema. However, it is possible to increase the performance anyway:

    • Write custom converters for those of your types that occur very often in your XML.
    • Keep a configured XStream instance for multiple usage. Creation and initialization is quite expensive compared to the overhead of XStream when calling marshall or unmarshal.
    • Use Xpp3 or StAX parsers.

    Note, you should never try to optimize code for performance simply because you believe that you have detected a bottle neck. Always use proper tools like a profiler to verify where your hotspots are and whether your optimization was really successful or not.

  42. Core Java Interview Questions

  43. Question 25. Is Xstream A Data Binding Tool?

    Answer :

    No. It is a serialization tool.

  44. Javascript Advanced Tutorial

  45. Question 26. Can Xstream Generate Classes From Xsd?

    Answer :

    No. For this kind of work data binding tools such as JAXB or XMLBeans are appropriate.

  46. Java collections framework Interview Questions

  47. Question 27. Why Is There No Saxreader?

    Answer :

    XStream works on a stream-based parser model, while SAX is event-based. The stream based model implies, that the caller consumes the individual tokens from the XML parser on demand, while in an event-based model the parser controls the application flow on its own and will use callbacks to support client processing. The different architecture makes it therefore impossible for XStream to use an event-driven XML parser.

  48. Android Interview Questions